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Federal technology alert: Ultrasonic humidifiers

Description: Humidifiers are used in buildings to maintain humidity levels to ensure quality and handling capabilities in manufacturing processes, to lower the transmission rate of disease-causing bacteria in hospitals, to reduce static electricity in manufacturing clean rooms and in computer rooms, and to provide higher levels of employee comfort in offices. Ultrasonic humidifiers generate a water mist without raising its temperature. An electronic oscillation is converted to a mechanical oscillation using a piezo disk immersed in a reservoir of mineral-free water. The mechanical oscillation is directed at the surface of the water, where at very high frequencies it creates a very fine mist of water droplets. This adiabatic process, which does not heat the supply water, reduces humidifier energy use by 90 to 93% compared with systems that do boil the water. Ultrasonic humidifiers have been demonstrated to be more efficient and to require less maintenance than competing humidifier technologies such as electrode canisters, quartz lamps, and indirect steam-to-steam. They do not require anticorrosive additives that affect the indoor air quality of buildings using direct steam humidifiers. There are two potential disadvantages of ultrasonic humidifiers. They must use mineral-free, deionized water or water treated with reverse osmosis. Treated water reduces maintenance costs because it eliminates calcium deposits, but increases other operating costs. Also, the cool mist from ultrasonic humidifiers absorbs energy from the supply air as it evaporates and provides a secondary cooling effect.
Date: November 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

Description: This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The Kintek system output concentration is less than the ...
Date: July 7, 2003
Creator: Korsah, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

Description: Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 ...
Date: January 19, 2010
Creator: Lee, Stephen Seong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High pressure humidification columns: Design equations, algorithm, and computer code

Description: This report describes the detailed development of a computer model to simulate the humidification of an air stream in contact with a water stream in a countercurrent, packed tower, humidification column. The computer model has been developed as a user model for the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. This was done to utilize the powerful ASPEN flash algorithms as well as to provide ease of use when using ASPEN to model systems containing humidification columns. The model can easily be modified for stand-alone use by incorporating any standard algorithm for performing flash calculations. The model was primarily developed to analyze Humid Air Turbine (HAT) power cycles; however, it can be used for any application that involves a humidifier or saturator. The solution is based on a multiple stage model of a packed column which incorporates mass and energy, balances, mass transfer and heat transfer rate expressions, the Lewis relation and a thermodynamic equilibrium model for the air-water system. The inlet air properties, inlet water properties and a measure of the mass transfer and heat transfer which occur in the column are the only required input parameters to the model. Several example problems are provided to illustrate the algorithm`s ability to generate the temperature of the water, flow rate of the water, temperature of the air, flow rate of the air and humidity of the air as a function of height in the column. The algorithm can be used to model any high-pressure air humidification column operating at pressures up to 50 atm. This discussion includes descriptions of various humidification processes, detailed derivations of the relevant expressions, and methods of incorporating these equations into a computer model for a humidification column.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Enick, R. M.; Klara, S. M. & Marano, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

Description: The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, ...
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Baxter, Van D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Quarterly report No. 2, April 1--June 30, 1991

Description: A per the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-91PC90550 dated March 11, 1991, Public Service Company of Colorado has prepared the following quarterly report for Phase I, IIA, and IIB of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Project. This project includes Low NO{sub x} Burners with post firing air injection, humidification, and dry sorbent injection. This quarterly report covers the quarterly period April, May, and June, 1991. This report covers project activities for the second three months period of the project.
Date: October 18, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treating water-reactive wastes

Description: Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Lussiez, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

Description: Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.
Date: February 1, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

Description: Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

Description: The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOE’s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode development. ...
Date: September 3, 2008
Creator: Vogel, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

Description: The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.
Date: September 28, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Topical report for Task 4, Novel techniques

Description: Novel techniques designed for the enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization in dry-sorbent injection (DSI) and duct-spray drying (DSD) were investigated in the Long Time Differential Reactor (LTDR), Short Time Differential Reactor (STDR), and 50-cfm pilot plant. At 2000-ppm SO{sub 2} and 60 percent relative humidity, the presence of up to 30-percent initial free moisture significantly increased sorbent reactivity with SO{sub 2}, compared to sorbent with equilibrium amount of moisture. The conversion decreased when the initial free moisture increased beyond 30--50 percent. The initial free moisture content and corresponding level of maximum sorbent conversion with SO{sub 2} varied with the surface area of the sorbent. Sorbent moisture capacity tests indicated that agglomeration of damp calcium silicate sorbent was a function of sorbent pore volume. Critical moisture content was increasing with specific surface area. Very little improvement in SO{sub 2} removal was obtained by DSI recycle operation downstream of humidification. Significant enhancement was achieved by DSI recycle upstream of humidification. Grinding of DSI solids with and without fly ash resulted in significant increase of surface area and pore volume and resulting reactivity with SO{sub 2}. Organic buffer additives were tested as potential enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization during the DSD process. Bench-scale results suggested that organic acids should be effective additives to enhance SO{sub 2} in slurry if SO{sub 2} absorption was controlled significantly by liquid film resistance. Pilot-plant tests did not demonstrate significant enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2} conversion during spray drying as a result of buffer additives. Grinding of simulated DSD solids resulted in significant enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2} reactivity with SO{sub 2}.
Date: September 17, 1991
Creator: Jozewicz, Wojciech & Rochelle, G. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

Description: Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)
Date: October 21, 1991
Creator: Brown, C. A.; Durham, M. D.; Sowa, W. A.; Himes, R. M. & Mahaffey, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Quarterly report No. 1, January 1--March 31, 1991

Description: This project`s goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.
Date: September 10, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Quarterly report No. 3, July 1--September 30, 1991

Description: This project`s goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with conventional ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners, NO{sub x} ports and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium or calcium based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.
Date: October 15, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Quarterly report No. 4, October 1--December 31, 1991

Description: The DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-91PC90550 dated March 11, 1991, Public Service Company of Colorado has prepared the following quarterly report for Phases I, IIA, and IIB of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Project. This project includes low NO{sub x} burners with NO{sub x} ports (post firing air injection), humidification and dry sorbent injection.
Date: February 15, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology. Topical report No. 1, Literature review

Description: Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE`s Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Gooch, J. P.; Dismukes, E. B.; Dahlin, R. S.; Faulkner, M. G.; Klett, M. G.; Buchanan, T. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991

Description: In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.
Date: March 6, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991

Description: LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMB demonstration project extension. Quarterly report No. 18, August--October 1991

Description: The main objectives of this project are: (1) To demonstrate the general applicability of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater Plant. (2) To demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptance operability is maintained. During the past quarter, activities for phase I, design and permitting, and phase II, construction, shakedown and start-up were completed for phase III, operation, data collection, reporting and disposition, activities continued with consol completing the revisions to the Coolside Topical report, the completion of LIMB Extension testing, and the start of demobilization and restoration.
Date: December 16, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 5, October--December 1991

Description: LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1991 through the end of December 1991. Due to the power plant`s planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology. Topical report No. 2, Task 3.1: Evaluation of system performance, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

Description: This Topical Report No. 2 is an interim report on the Duct Injection Test Facility being operated for the Department of Energy at Beverly, Ohio. Either dry calcium hydroxide or an aqueous slurry of calcium hydroxide (prepared by slaking quicklime) is injected into a slipstream of flue gas to achieve partial removal of SO{sub 2} from a coal-burning power station. Water injected with the slurry or injected separately from the dry sorbents cools the flue gas and increases the water vapor content of the gas. The addition of water, either in the slurry or in a separate spray, makes the extent of reaction between the sorbent and the SO{sub 2} more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state, when it is able to wet the sorbent particles physically, and not especially effective in the vapor state. An electrostatic precipitator collects the combination of suspended solids (fly ash from the boiler and sorbent from the duct injection process). All of the operations are being carried out on the scale of approximately 50,000 acfm of flue gas.
Date: April 20, 1992
Creator: Felix, L. G.; Dismukes, E. B.; Gooch, J. P.; Klett, M. G. & Demian, A. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO2/NOx control. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991

Description: The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Helfritch, D. J.; Bortz, S. J. & Beittel, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIMB Demonstration Project Extension. Quarterly report no. 8, February, March, and April, 1989

Description: The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.
Date: June 15, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department