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Aquarious Mountain Area, Arizona: APossible HDR Prospect

Description: Exploration for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) requires the ability to delineate areas of thermal enhancement. It is likely that some of these areas will exhibit various sorts of anomalous conditions such as seismic transmission delays, low seismic velocities, high attenuation of seismic waves, high electrical conductivity in the crust, and a relatively shallow depth to Curie point of Magnetization. The Aquarius Mountain area of northwest Arizona exhibits all of these anomalies. The area is also a regional Bouguer gravity low, which may indicate the presence of high silica type rocks that often have high rates of radioactive heat generation. The one deficiency of the area as a HDR prospect is the lack of a thermal insulating blanket.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: West, F.G. & Laughlin, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Fenton Hill HDR test results

Description: Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained during the cumulative 11 months of reservoir flow testing between 1992 and 1995, show that there was no significant production temperature drawdown during this time and that the reservoir flow became more dispersed as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill and elsewhere, it is concluded that a three-well geometry, with one centrally located injection well and two production wells-one at each end of the pressure-stimulated reservoir region-would provide a much more productive system for future HDR development than the two-well system tested at Fenton Hill.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management-By-Objectives Plan FY 1991

Description: This administrative report is of historical interest. It covers research on Hydrothermal, Geopressured Geothermal, Hot Dry Rock systems, and the Long Valley Experimental (occasioned originally by the Magma Energy Program). (DJE 2005)
Date: June 5, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open hole packer and running procedure for hot dry rock reservoir testing

Description: An acute need for open hole packers for high pressure, high temperature operations at the Fenton Hill, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Site has existed since 1981. Cemented-in-liners were used instead of packers while packer technology was brought up to HDR requirements. A reservoir development and evaluation program has just been completed with 5 successful open hole packer runs. These 5 successful runs were the result of: (1) R and D leading to improved packer materials and design, (2) an improved understanding of the interactions between the packer assembly and its hostile down hole environment, and (3) a carefully planned logging, sampling and coring program to locate packer setting depths (packer seats). 5 refs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Dreesen, D.S. & Miller, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drilling and Completion of the Urach III HDR Test Well

Description: The hot dry rock (HDR) test well, urach III, was drilled and completed in 1979. The borehole is located in Southwest Germany in the geothermal anomaly of Urach. The purpose of project Urach was to study drilling and completion problems of HDR wells and to provide a test site for a HDR research program. The Urach III borehole was drilled to a total depth of 3,334 meters (10,939 feet), penetrating 1,700 meters (5,578 feet) into the granitic basement. Extensive coring was required to provide samples for geophysical and geochemical studies. Positive displacement downhole motors were used for coring and normal drilling operations. It was found that these motors in combination with the proper bits gave better results than conventional rotary drilling. Loss of circulation was encountered not only in sedimentary rocks but also in the granite. After drilling and completion of the borehole, a number of hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed in the open hole as well as in the cased section of Urach III. A circulation loop was established by using the single-borehole concept. It is not yet clear whether new fractures have actually been generated or preexisting joints and fissures have been reactivated. Evaluation of the results of this first step is almost completed and the planning of Phase II of the Urach project is under way.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Meier, U. & Ernst, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GPK-2 re-entry and deepening -- a technical report

Description: Between mid February to end of May 1999 (in 104 days) the well GPK2 at the Soultz HDR site was successfully re-entered and deepened from 3876 m to a final depth of 5084 m and fully completed. Re-entry included the pulling of the existing 321 1 m long internal 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string, fishing of a submersible pump and some 150 m of 2 3/8-inch tubing, sealing of a major loss zone and opening of a 6 1/4-inch well section in granite (3211-3876 m) to 8 1/2-inch hole size. The well was extended to 5048 m in 8 1/2'' hole size and again completed with a floating 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string. The casing shoe is at 4431 m. A bottom hole core was taken in the depth range 5048-5051 m. The core recovery was app. 40%. A pilot hole in 6 1/4-inch was drilled from 5051-5084 m for in situ stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing technique. The re-entry and deepening of the well GPK2 was accompanied by several technical developments. New casing packer elements based on inflatable metal shells were developed in a close cooperation between SOCOMINE and MeSy GmbH (patent pending). These packer elements were successfully integrated into the completion of the well. The full weight of the casing string is supported by these elements which are filled with and imbedded in cement. High temperature cementing strategies (up to 170-190 C) for the complex saline fluids encountered in Soultz (High Magnesium Resistant Cements) were developed in a cooperation between Schlumberger Dowell (Vechta), SOCOMINE, SII of Houston, Ruhr-University Bochum, BGR Hannover and IFP Paris. The development of several high temperature logging tools (200 C range, 6-arm caliper, PTF probe) was initiated with CSMA (Cornwall) during the preparation of the deepening of GPK2. Initial scientific investigations ...
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Baumgartner, J.; Gerard, A.; Barla, R. & Socomine, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inert and Reacting Tracers for Reservoir Sizing in Fractured, Hot Dry Rock Systems

Description: Flow characterization and volumetric sizing techniques using tracers in fractured hot dry rock reservoirs are discussed. Statistical methods for analyzing the residence time distribution (RTD) are presented. Tracer modal volumes and RTD shape are correlated with reservoir performance parameters such as active heat transfer area and dispersion levels. Chemically reactive tracers are proposed for mapping advance rates of cooled regions in HDR reservoirs, providing early warning of thermal drawdown. Important reaction rate parameters are identified for screening potential tracers. Current laboratory research and field work is reviewed.
Date: January 21, 1986
Creator: Tester, J.W.; Robinson, B.A. & Ferguson, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Susanville (CA) area

Description: A portion of northeastern California that lies within the Basin and Range Province represents a large, untapped geothermal energy resource in the form of hot, but essential impermeable, rock. If a means of developing sufficient permeability in the deep, granitic basement can be demonstrated, the electric power generation potential would be considerable. The objective of this study is to look at the specific geographical region extending from northeast to southeast of the village of Litchfield to the Nevada border as a target area for the first commercial application of Hot Dry Rock reservoir stimulation techniques. The ultimate goal is to provide background information that could lead to the creation of a commercial-scale, engineered geothermal reservoir in granitic basement rock of low permeability.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The history of HDR research and development

Description: An energy source rivaling the sun exists in the form of the heat emanating from the interior of the earth. Although limited quantities of this geothermal energy are produced today by bringing natural hot fluids to the surface, most of the earth`s heat is trapped in hot dry rock (HDR). The application of hydraulic fracturing technology to tap this vast HDR resource was pioneered by Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in 1970. Since that time, engineered geothermal reservoirs have been constructed and operated at numerous locations around the world. Major work at the US HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, and at the British HDR site in Cornwall, UK, has been completed, but advanced HDR field work continues at two sites on the island of Honshu in Japan and at Soultz in northeastern France. In addition, plans are currently being completed for the construction of an HDR system on the continent of Australia. Over the past three decades the worldwide research and development effort has taken HDR from its early conceptual stage to its present state as a demonstrated technology that is on the verge of becoming commercially feasible. Extended flow tests in the United States, Japan, and Europe have proven that sustained operation of HDR reservoirs is possible. In support of these field tests, an international body of scientists and engineers have pursued a variety of innovative approaches for assessing HDR resources, constructing and characterizing engineered geothermal reservoirs, and operating HDR systems. Taken together, these developments form a strong base upon which to build the practical HDR systems that will provide clean energy for the world in the 21st century.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Duchane, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for the existence of a stable, highly fluidized-pressurized region of deep, jointed crystalline rock from Fenton Hill hot dry rock test data

Description: It has been demonstrated several times at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Fenton Hill hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal test site, that large volumes of naturally jointed Precambrian crystalline rock can be stably maintained at pressures considerably above the least principal earth stress in the surrounding rock mass. In particular, for the deeper, larger, and tighter of the two HDR reservoirs tested at this site in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, testing was carried out for a cumulative period of 11 months without evidence of fracture extension at the boundaries of the pressure-stimulated region, even though a very high reservoir inlet circulating pressure of 27.3 MPa (3960 psi) above hydrostatic was maintained throughout the testing, considerably in excess of the least principal stress in the surrounding rock mass of about 10 MPa above hydrostatic at a depth of 3500 m. The author reviews and summarizes information concerning the earth stresses at depth and the test data relative to the containment of pressurized fluid, particularly the data showing the declining rate of water loss and the absence of microseismicity--the two principal indicators of a stable, pressurized reservoir region. The author then provides a coherent and concise evaluation of this and other evidence supporting his assertion that one can indeed maintain large volumes of jointed rock at pressures considerably in excess of the least principal earth stress. In addition, a discussion is presented concerning the initial state of stress at depth beneath Fenton Hill and then possible changes to the stress state resulting from the very large volumes of injected high-pressure water and the accompanying shear displacements--and shear dilation--associated with these pressurizations.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Brown, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling, design, and life performance prediction for energy production from geothermal reservoirs. August 1997 progress report

Description: The objective of this project is to both transfer existing Hot Dry Rock two-dimensional fractured reservoir analysis capability to the geothermal industry and to extend the analysis concepts to three dimensions. In this quarter, the primary focus has been on interaction with industry, development of the Geocrack3D model, and maintenance of Geocrack2D. It is important to emphasize that the modeling is complementary to current industry modeling, in that they focus on flow in fractured rock and on the coupled effect of thermal cooling, while a primary focus of current modeling technology is multi-phase flow.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Swenson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling, design, and life performance prediction for energy production from geothermal reservoirs. Quarterly progress report, October--December, 1997

Description: The objective of this project is to maintain and transfer existing Hot Dry Rock two-dimensional fractured reservoir analysis capability to the geothermal industry and to extend the analysis concepts to three dimensions. In this quarter, the primary focus has been on interaction with industry, development of the Geocrack3D model, and maintenance of Geocrack2D. It is important to emphasize that the modeling is complementary to current industry modeling, in that the authors focus on flow in fractured rock and on the coupled effect of thermal cooling.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Swenson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three principal results from recent Fenton Hill flow testing

Description: Results of recent flow testing at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, have been examined in light of their applicability to the development of commercial-scale hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs at other sites. These test results, obtained during the cumulative 11 months of reservoir flow testing between 1992 and 1995, show that there was no significant production temperature drawdown during this time and that the reservoir flow became more dispersed as flow testing proceeded. Based on these test results together with previous HDR research at Fenton Hill and elsewhere, it is concluded that a three-well geometry, with one centrally located injection well and two production wells -- one at each end of the pressure-stimulated reservoir region -- would provide a much more productive system for future HDR development than the two-well system tested at Fenton Hill.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, D. & DuTeaux, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area, California

Description: The Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area of northern California are hot, large and areally uniform. The geological situation is special, probably overlying a slabless window caused by interaction between tectonic plates. Consequent magmatic processes have created a high-grade resource, in which the 300{degree}C isotherm is continuous, subhorizontal, and available at the shallow depth of 2.4 to 4.7 km over an area of 800 km{sup 2}. The region is very favorable for HDR development.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M. & Peake, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

Description: The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Stimac, J.; Goff, F. & Wohletz, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scientific progress on the Fenton Hill HDR project since 1983

Description: The modern HDR concept originated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and was first demonstrated at Fenton Hill, NM. Experience gained during the development of the deeper HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill clearly showed that HDR reservoirs are formed by opening pre-existing, but sealed, multiply connected joint sets. Subsequent flow testing indicated that sustained operation of HDR systems under steady state conditions is feasible. The most significant remaining HDR issues are related to economics and locational flexibility. Additional field test sites are needed to advance the understanding of HDR technology so that the vast potential of this resource can be economically realized around the world.
Date: February 1998
Creator: Brown, D. W. & Duchane, D. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reservoir enhancement on the impermeable margins of productive geothermal fields

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos national Laboratory (LANL). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate the performance of Los Alamos technology in selected geothermal fields, to adapt the technology to the existing industry infrastructure where necessary, and to facilitate its application through demonstration and communication. The primary specific objective was to identify, collaborate, and partner with geothermal energy- producing companies in an evaluation of the application of Los Alamos microseismic mapping technology for locating fracture permeability in producing geothermal fields.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Goff, S.; Gardner, J.; Dreesen, D. & Whitney, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial dissolution of silicate materials. Final report

Description: The objective of this research was to better understand the role of selected thermophilic bacteria in the colonization and dissolution of silicate minerals, with potential applications to the HDR Project. The demonstration of enhanced dissolution from microbial effects is critically dependent on providing a mineral bait within a media deficient in the critical nutrient found in the mineral (e.g., Fe). Reproducible experimental conditions in batch experiments require agitation to expose mineral powders, as well as nearly similar initial conditions for both inoculated cultures and controls. It is difficult, but not impossible to ensure reproducible conditions with microbes favoring filamentous growth habits.
Date: March 26, 1996
Creator: Schwartzman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UWC geothermal resource exploration

Description: A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in making hot dry rock geothermal energy a viable renewable energy resource for America in the 21. century

Description: An enormous geothermal energy resource exists in the form of rock at depth that is hot but essentially dry. For more than two decades, work has been underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate the technology to transport the energy in hot dry rock (HDR) to the surface for practical use. During the 1980`s, the world`s largest, deepest and hottest HDR reservoir was created at the Fenton Hill HDR test facility in northern New Mexico. The reservoir is centered in rock at a temperature of about 460 F at a depth of about 11,400 ft. After mating the reservoir to a fully automated surface plant, heat was mined at Fenton Hill for a total period of almost a year in a series of flow tests conducted between 1992 and 1995. These tests addressed the major questions regarding the viability of long-term energy extraction from HDR. The steady-state flow tests at Fenton Hill showed that energy can be produced from an HDR reservoir on a routine basis and that there are no major technical obstacles to implementation of this heat mining technology. Additional brief special flow tests also demonstrated that the energy output from HDR systems can be rapidly increased in a controlled manner to meet sudden changes in power demand.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Duchane, D.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department