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Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

Description: The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250’ of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the “center” of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or ...
Date: September 26, 2012
Creator: Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flood Elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

Description: Abstract: Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from s tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.
Date: 1983
Creator: Nelson, Leonard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

Description: The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.
Date: May 31, 2013
Creator: Karl, Bernie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Telluric and D.C. Resistivity Techniques Applied to the Geophysical Investigation of Basin and Range Geothermal Systems, Part III: The Analysis of Data From Grass Valley, Nevada

Description: This paper contains a detailed interpretation of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Beyer, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gold and Other Minor Elements Associated with the Hot Springs and Geysers of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Supplemented with Data from Steamboat Springs, Nevada

Description: Report providing information from 125 samples of rock studies, analyzed by using a emission-spectographic method. The studies take place in Yellowstone National Park and Steamboat Springs, Nevada.
Date: 1992
Creator: White, Donald E.; Heropoulos, Chris & Fournier, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and thermal regime, geothermal test USA No. 11-36, Grass Valley, Nevada

Description: This report summarizes the results of drilling of an 8,565 foot geothermal test near Leach Hot Springs, Pershing County, Nevada, by Sunoco Energy Development Company. USA No.11-36 is located 500 feet south and 500 feet east of the northwest corner of Section 36, T. 32 N., R. 38 E (Mount Diablo Meridian), elevation 4,573 feet. It was drilled between May 15 and July 2, 1980. USA No.11-36 was deemed unsuccessful, having encountered no temperature higher than 270 F and no significant permeability, and was plugged and abandoned without testing prior to releasing the rig.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Wilde, Walter R. & Koenig, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gravity and ground magnetic surveys of the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA region, Beaver County, Utah

Description: During the period June to September 1976, gravity and ground magnetic surveys were made in the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA region which is located southwest of the town of Milford, Beaver County, Utah. The regional surveys comprised 273 new gravity and magnetic stations and incorporated 104 previous gravity stations over an area of approximately 620 km{sup 2}. The detailed surveys consisted of 9 east-west profiles in the immediate vicinity of the Thermo Hot Springs KGRA. The gravity data were reduced and are presented as terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity anomaly maps. Terrain corrections were made to a distance of 18.8 km. The regional gravity map shows the following features: (1) a large north-south trend with total relief of 5 mgal extending through the central portion of the study area; (2) an east-west trend with relief of about 7-8 mgal south of the Star Range and Shauntie Hills; (3) a north-south trend with 5 mgal relief east of Blue Mountain; and (4) a broad low of approximately 5 mgal closure southwest of the Shauntie Hills. The trends are probably caused by major faults and the gravity low is probably caused by the southern end of the Wah Wah Valley graben. The detailed gravity map indicates two possible east-west trending faults intersecting a major north-south trending fault in the immediate vicinity of the Thermo Hot Springs. The location of the hot springs appears to be fault controlled. To facilitate interpretation of the gravity data, the following processing and modeling techniques were used: (1) high-pass frequency filtering; (2) polynomial fitting; (3) second derivative; (4) strike filtering; (5) two-dimensional modeling; and (6) three-dimensional modeling. These techniques proved helpful as they more clearly delineated features of interest. The residual maps outlined an elongate north-south graben that extends through the survey area. The strike-filtered maps emphasize the major ...
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Sawyer, Robert F. & Cook, Kenneth L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refraction shooting near Roosevelt Hot Springs: Data. Final report, Volume 77-4

Description: Under a contract dated April 6, 1977, with the University of Utah, MicroGeophysics Corporation has completed a large-scale refraction program over the geothermal anomaly at Roosevelt Hot Springs in north-central Utah. This report contains the data as required by that contract and is submitted to fulfill the obligations of that contract.
Date: December 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term seismic monitoring of the Roosevelt - Cove Fort KGRA's

Description: Earthquake monitoring of the Roosevelt-Cove Fort Hot Springs KGRA's was implemented by installation of three RF telemetered, vertical component, seismograph stations: CFU, MNU and RHU. These station sites were selected on the basis of proximity to the KGRA's, with respect to known earthquake activity determined in the microearthquake surveys. The three permanent stations form the basic long-term monitoring capability of the Roosevelt-Cove Fort KGRA's. The signals are FM transmitted to a collecting site near Milford then they are telephone-transmitted to the University of Utah campus for recording. The limitations of only three-stations precludes accurate hypocenter determinations but allows detection to a minimum threshold of about M-0.5 for close-in events. Locations can be determined for earthquakes of about M-0.7 or greater. Regional coverage of the south-central Utah KGRA's is supplemented by the use of other existing University of Utah stations to the east: MSU, PUU, and RFU. Together the six stations allow long-term detection of this geothermally active region.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Smith, Robert B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska

Description: From Introduction: "The Hot Springs Quadrangle covers an area of approximately 18,500 km2 and is in southwestern South Dakota and northwestern Nebraska between latitudes 43º to 44ºN. and longitudes 102º to 104ºW. (Fig. 1). The quadrangle was evaluated at the surface and in the subsurface to a depth of 1500 m to identify geologic environments and delineate areas that exhibit characteristics favorable for uranium deposits."
Date: May 1982
Creator: Truesdell, Dale B.; Daddazio, Paul L. & Martin, Thomas S.
Location Info:
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Volume 77-5

Description: This report covers the following Tasks: Task 76.1.21--Color photos: Stereo color aerial photographs were made available to industry for copying at industry's expense on November 28, 1977 at 11:00 a.m. This final report on this task merely records that fact. Task 77.1.14--Proposal Review (MOD A002)--All activities under this task have been completed. No tangible deliverables were required. Task 76.1.14--Simultaneous modeling of multiple data sets: A technique for simultaneous inversion of MT and Schlumberger data was developed and tested on some available deep crustal data from South Africa. The publication resulting and included herewith is: 'Ridge Regression Inversion Applied to Crustal Resistivity Sounding Data from South Africa', Geophysics, Volume 42, No.5, pages 995-1005. Joint inversion of Schlumberger and electromagnetic sounding data was developed and applied to geothermal data from Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The publication resulting and included herewith is: 'Electromagnetic and Schlumberger Resistivity Sounding in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA', Geophysics, in press. To utilize multiple inversion schemes at a convective hydrothermal system in the Eastern Great Basin will require applications of three-dimensional forward algorithms now available for gravity, magnetics, and AMT/MT. Unfortunately the pertinent data sets available for Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (or Monroe Hot Springs KGRA, for that matter) are not compatible since the physical property distributions giving rise to the gravity field is not coincident with that giving rise to the magnetic field, and so on. Thus, they have turned to interpreting each data set independently and then drawing a schematic model of the subsurface which accepts all data sets. An example of this procedure is contained in 'Geophysics of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah', submitted to Geology and included in Final Report Volume 77-2. Task 76.1.11--Drill and Log 10 Heat Flow Holes: All thermal gradients and heat flows appear in Technical Report 77-3. The ...
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Ward, S.H. & Whelan, J.A. (and others)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

Description: Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were ...
Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Lange, Arthur L. & Avramenko, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rules of thumb for geothermal direct applications

Description: The availability of geothermal fluids in an area may be indicated by the presence of hot springs, geysers, fumaroles, or existing hot wells. Wherever a reliable source of such geothermal fluid is available, geothermal energy may provide an ecologically and economically sound alternative to conventional energy sources for industrial, business, and residential applications. To show how geothermal energy can fit your application, here are a few 'rules of thumb' that apply to delivery and use of geothermal energy. The included equations, graphs, and tables illustrate factors to consider in planning geothermal installations. Examples illustrate typical applications.
Date: September 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

Description: Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Ballantyne, J.M. & Parry, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-Electric Application of Geothermal Resources at Desert Hot Springs, California: A Discussion of the Final Conclusion of Agricultural and Space Heating Applications

Description: This final discussion summarizes the investigation performed throughout the project on geothermal applications to agricultural operations, and the study work done on the suggested follow-on project. The purpose of the studies was to determine whether an economically feasible project could be developed utilizing the geothermal aquifer for heating and cooling of a greenhouse complex, or the heating of a number of municipal buildings.
Date: April 28, 1978
Creator: Bickerstaffe, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Financial Summary Report Concerning Financing Surface Facilities for a 50 Megawatt Geothermal Electric Power Plant Facility in Utah

Description: This report summarizes the economic and financial conditions pertaining to geothermal electric power plant utilization of geothermal fluids produced from the Roosevelt Hot springs area of Utah. The first year of electric power generation is scheduled to be 1982. The non-resource facilities will be called ''surface facilities'' and include the gathering system, the power plant, the substation, and the injection system.
Date: June 23, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients

Description: Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain validity of the Planck approximation for these conditions. All amplitudes are controlled by electrochemical mechanisms. Polarities are controlled by the ...
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Knapp, R. B. & Kasameyer, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Simulations of the Hydrothermal System at Lassen Volcanic National Park

Description: The hydrothermal system in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park contains a central region of fluid upflow in which steam and liquid phases separate, with steam rising through a parasitic vapor-dominated zone and liquid flowing laterally toward areas of hot spring discharge south of the Park. A simplified numerical model was used to simulate the 10,000-20,000 year evolution of this system and to show that under certain circumstances fluid withdrawal from hot-water reservoirs south of the Park could significantly alter the discharge of steam from thermal areas within the Park.
Date: December 15, 1983
Creator: Sorey, Michael L. & Ingebritsen, Steven E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site-Specific Analysis of Geothermal Development-Data Files of Prospective Sites

Description: This document presents site-specific data and sample development schedules for the first plant on line at 30 hydrothermal and 7 geopressured prospective sites (prospects) that are believed to be suited for supporting the geothermal generation of electricity. This report includes many prospects from an earlier METREK report on geothermal development scenarios. The list has been augmented with other sites chosen as development prospects by the division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The DGE additions include a general area called ''Cascade Range''. METREK has chosen the following specific Cascade Range Sites in place of that general area: Baker Hot Springs, Mount Hood, Lassen and Glass Mountain/ Diablo. All the prospects have been selected on the basis of current knowledge of hydrothermal and geopressured resources. The selection is intended for program planning purposes. Neither METREK nor the Federal government warrants that any of these sites will necessarily be developed, nor does their selection necessarily imply any commitment on the part of the Federal government to their development. [DJE-2005]
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Williams, F.; Cohen, A.; Pfundstein, R. & Pond, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic Interpretation of the Geothermal Potential of the North Bonneville Area

Description: Possible geothermal development for the township of North Bonneville, Washington is being investigated because of the proximity of the town to hot springs in a geologic province of good geothermal potential. Surface expression of geothermal resources is provided by conduits through an impermeable reservoir cap and is therefore generally structurally controlled. Near North Bonneville the geologic formations that underlie potential drilling sites are the Eagle Creek formation and the Ohanpecosh Formation. The Lower Miocene Eagle Creek Formation is composed of poorly consolidated volcanic conglomerates, sandstones, tuffs, and includes a few minor interbedded lava flows. The Eocene-Oligiocene Ohanapecosh (Weigle) Formation in its nearest exposures to North Bonneville is composed of volcaniclastics and lava flows. The Ohanapecosh has been altered to zeolites and clays and is therefore well consolidated and impermeable. The lack of permeability provides the necessary reservoir cap for any geothermal system that may be present at depth. This formation, to the northeast, in the Wind River drainage is greater than 19,000 ft. thick. Circulation of geothermal heated water from this thick sequence of impermeable strata must be associated with penetrating fracture zones.
Date: February 15, 1980
Creator: Nielson, D. L. & Moran, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Colorado School of Mines Nevada Geothermal Study Progress Report No. 4, February 1--October 31, 1975

Description: This is the fourth in a series of reports that describe the progress of geological, geophysical, and geochemical exploration research for geothermal energy sources in a Basin and Range setting. The region of our investigation lies in the Gerlach-Hualapai Flat area in the southwestern part of the Black Rock Desert of northwestern Nevada (Plate I). Included herein are preliminary presentations of results of field investigations carried out mainly during the summer of 1975 by graduate students and faculty of the Geophysics and Geology departments of the Colorado School of Mines. These studies consist of: (1) Geological mapping in the Gerlach-Hualapai Flat area. (2) Alteration studies at select hot springs. (3) Seismic, ground temperature, gravity, and time domain electromagnetic surveys. (4) Analysis of thermal infrared imagery. (5) Geochemical investigation of thermal and non-thermal waters. Continuing studies include processing and interpretation of geophysical and geochemical data and water sample and petrologic and mineralogic analyses. More geologic field study is anticipated to augment geophysical and geochemical findings.
Date: December 1, 1975
Creator: Grose, L.T. & Keller, G.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department