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Description: The Idaho National Laboratory’s PEBBED code and simple probability considerations are used to estimate the likelihood and consequences of the accumulation of highly reactive pebbles in the region of peak power in a pebble-bed reactor. The PEBBED code is briefly described, and the logic of the probability calculations is presented in detail. The results of the calculations appear to show that hot-spot formation produces only moderate increases in peak accident temperatures, and no increases at all in normal operating temperatures.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Gougar, Hans D.; Terry, William K.; Reitsma, Frederik & Joubert, Wessel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dewar Testing of Coaxial Resonators at MSU

Description: Michigan State University is currently testing prototype and production cavities for two accelerator projects. 80.5 MHz {beta} = 0.085 quarter wave resonators (QWR) are being produced as part of a cryomodule for ReA3. 322 MHz {beta} = 0.53 half wave resonators (HWR) are being prototyped for a driver linac for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. This paper will discuss test results and how different cavity preparations effect cavity performs. Also various diagnostics methods have been developed, such as second sound quench location determination, and temperature mapping to determine hot spots from defects and multipacting location.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Popielarski, J; Facco, A; Hodek, M; Marti, F; Norton, D; Velianoff, G J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loss maps of RHIC

Description: State-of-the-art tracking tools were recently developed at CERN to study the cleaning efficiency of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system [1]. These tools are fully transportable, meaning that any accelerator lattice that includes a collimation system can be simulated. Each of the two Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [2] beam lines features a multi-stage collimation system, therefore dedicated datasets from RHIC operations with proton beams can be used to benchmark the tracking codes and assess the accuracy of the predicted hot spots along the LHC.
Date: October 1, 2007
Creator: Robert-Demolaize,G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench Protection for the MICE Cooling Channel Coupling Magnet

Description: This paper describes the passive quench protection system selected for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) cooling channel coupling magnet. The MICE coupling magnet will employ two methods of quench protection simultaneously. The most important method of quench protection in the coupling magnet is the subdivision of the coil. Cold diodes and resistors are put across the subdivisions to reduce both the voltage to ground and the hot-spot temperature. The second method of quench protection is quench-back from the mandrel, which speeds up the spread of the normal region within the coils. Combining quench back with coil subdivision will reduce the hot spot temperature further. This paper explores the effect on the quench process of the number of coil sub-divisions, the quench propagation velocity within the magnet, and the shunt resistance.
Date: August 2, 2008
Creator: Guo, Xing Long; Xu, Feng Yu; Wang, Li; Green, Michael A.; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AC Losses in the MICE Channel Magnets -- Is This a Curse or aBlessing?

Description: This report discusses the AC losses in the MICE channelmagnets during magnet charging and discharging. This report talks aboutthe three types of AC losses in the MICE magnets; the hysteretic AC lossin the superconductor, the coupling AC loss in the superconductor and theeddy current AC loss in the magnet mandrel and support structure. AClosses increase the heat load at 4 K. The added heat load increases thetemperature of the second stage of the cooler. In addition, AC losscontributes to the temperature rise between the second stage cold headand the high field point of the magnet, which is usually close to themagnet hot spot. These are the curses of AC loss in the MICE magnet thatcan limit the rate at which the magnet can be charge or discharged. Ifone is willing to allow some of the helium that is around the magnet toboil away during a magnet charge or discharge, AC losses can become ablessing. The boil off helium from the AC losses can be used to cool theupper end of the HTS leads and the surrounding shield. The AC losses arepresented for all three types of MICE magnets. The AC loss temperaturedrops within the coupling magnet are presented as an example of how boththe curse and blessing of the AC losses can be combined.
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Green, M.A.; Wu, H.; Wang, L.; Kai, L.L.; Jia, L.X. & Yang, S.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Response of Energetic Materials - Developing a Predictive Capability for Initiation and Reaction under Multiple Stimuli

Description: We present our approach to develop a predictive capability for hazards--thermal and nonshock impact--response of energetic material systems based on: (A) identification of relevant processes; (B) characterization of the relevant properties; (C) application of property data to predictive models; and (D) application of the models into predictive simulation. This paper focuses on the last two elements above, while a companion paper by Maienschein et al focuses on the first two elements. We outline models to describe the both the microscopic evolution of hot spots for detonation response and thermal kinetic models used to model slow heat environments. We show examples of application to both types of environments.
Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Nichols III, A L; Wallin, B K; Maienschein, J L; Reaugh, J E; Yoh, J J & McClelland, M E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

Description: Various gain models have shown the potentially great advantages of Fast Ignition (FI) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) over its conventional hot spot ignition counterpart [e.g., S. Atzeni, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3316 (1999); M. Tabak et al., Fusion Sci. & Technology 49, 254 (2006)]. These gain models, however, all assume nearly uniform-density fuel assemblies. In contrast, conventional ICF implosions yield hollowed fuel assemblies with a high-density shell of fuel surrounding a low-density, high-pressure hot spot. Hence, to realize fully the advantages of FI, an alternative implosion design must be found which yields nearly isochoric fuel assemblies without substantial hot spots. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type originally studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942)] may be employed to yield precisely such quasi-isochoric imploded states. The difficulty remains, however, of accessing these self-similarly imploding configurations from initial conditions representing an actual ICF target, namely a uniform, solid-density shell at rest. Furthermore, these specialized implosions must be realized for practicable drive parameters and at the scales and energies of interest in ICF. A direct-drive implosion scheme is presented which meets all of these requirements and reaches a nearly isochoric assembled density of 300 g=cm{sup 3} and areal density of 2.4 g=cm{sup 2} using 485 kJ of laser energy.
Date: April 4, 2007
Creator: Clark, D S & Tabak, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of the Growth of Pore and Shear Band Driven Detonations

Description: The authors examine the effect of ignition site topology on the rate of reaction of a detonating material. The hot plane, hot line, and hot finite patch topologies are added to previous work on hot spot ignition. The hot plane and hot patch ignition forms would arise from ignition due to shear banding, and the hot line ignition form is shown to complete the topological set. The limiting behavior of instantaneous ignition is considered and used to construct simple reaction rate vs. extent of reaction forms. they fit simple form factor reaction rates, as might be available in most hydro codes with reactive flow modes, to the simple topologies. The difference between the rate vs. extent forms are examined with the objective that one should be able to use this information to distinguish between the different topological ignition forms.
Date: March 5, 2010
Creator: Nichols, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Ma, Dr. Y.H.; Moser, Dr. W.R.; Dixon, Dr. A.G.; Ramachandra, Dr. A.M.; Lu, Dr. Y. & Binkerd, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement

Description: A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).
Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T. & Arnold, Philip A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Strong Hot Spot Theorem

Description: A real number alpha is said to be b-normal if every m-long string of digits appears in the base-b expansion of alpha with limiting frequency b-m. We prove that alpha is b-normal if and only if it possesses no base-b ''hot spot''. In other words, alpha is b-normal if and only if there is no real number y such that smaller and smaller neighborhoods of y are visited by the successive shifts of the base-b expansion of alpha with larger and larger frequencies, relative to the lengths of these neighborhoods
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Bailey, David H. & Misiurewicz, Michal
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

Description: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be ...
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N. & Campbell, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot-Spot Avoidance With Multi-Pathing Over Infiniband: An MPI Perspective

Description: Large scale InfiniBand clusters are becoming increasingly popular, as reflected by the TOP 500 Supercomputer rankings. At the same time, fat tree has become a popular interconnection topology for these clusters, since it allows multiple paths to be available in between a pair of nodes. However, even with fat tree, hot-spots may occur in the network depending upon the route configuration between end nodes and communication pattern(s) in the application. To make matters worse, the deterministic routing nature of InfiniBand limits the application from effective use of multiple paths transparently and avoid the hot-spots in the network. Simulation based studies for switches and adapters to implement congestion control have been proposed in the literature. However, these studies have focused on providing congestion control for the communication path, and not on utilizing multiple paths in the network for hot-spot avoidance. In this paper, we design an MPI functionality, which provides hot-spot avoidance for different communications, without a priori knowledge of the pattern. We leverage LMC (LID Mask Count) mechanism of InfiniBand to create multiple paths in the network and present the design issues (scheduling policies, selecting number of paths, scalability aspects) of our design. We implement our design and evaluate it with Pallas collective communication and MPI applications. On an InfiniBand cluster with 48 processes, collective operations like MPI All-to-all Personalized and MPI Reduce Scatter show an improvement of 27% and 19% respectively. Our evaluation with MPI applications like NAS Parallel Benchmarks and PSTSWM on 64 processes shows significant improvement in execution time with this functionality.
Date: March 6, 2007
Creator: Vishnu, A; Koop, M; Moody, A; Mamidala, A R; Narravula, S & Panda, D K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

Description: The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a non-local equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.
Date: July 14, 2005
Creator: Nichols, III, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

Description: We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense ({approx}300 g/cm{sup 3}) fuel mass with an areal density of {approx}3.0 g/cm{sup 2}. To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing {approx}20kJ into a {approx}35 {micro}m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time ({approx}20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new ...
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Town, R J; Clark, D S; Kemp, A J; Lasinski, B F & Tabak, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complete equation of state for [beta]-HMX and implications for initiation

Description: A thermodynamically consistent equation of state for {beta}-HMX, the stable ambient polymorph of HMX, is developed that fits isothermal compression data and the temperature dependence of the specific heat computed from molecular dynamics. The equation of state is used to assess hot-spot conditions that would result from hydrodynamic pore collapse in a shock-to-detonation transition. The hot-spot temperature is determined as a function of shock strength by solving two Riemann problems in sequence: first for the velocity and density of the jet formed when the shock overtakes the pore, and second for the stagnation state when the jet impacts the far side of the pore. For a shock pressure below 5 GPa, the stagnation temperature from the jet is below the melt temperature at ambient pressure and hence insufficient for rapid reaction. Consequently for weak shocks a dissipation mechanism in addition to shock heating is needed to generate hot spots. When the stagnation temperature is sufficiently high for rapid reaction, the shock emanating from the hot spot is computed, assuming aconstant volume burn. For initial shocks below 20 GPa, the temperature behind the second shock is below 1000K and would not propagate a detonation wave. This analysis, based solely on the equation of state of the explosive, can serve as a check on mesoscale simulations of initiation in a plastic-bonded explosive.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Sewell, T. D. (Thomas D.) & Menikoff, Ralph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].
Date: February 8, 2007
Creator: Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E & Jesse Roach, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

Description: Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.
Date: April 8, 2010
Creator: Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H & Niemann, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

Description: The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.
Date: December 16, 2011
Creator: Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate Alpha Induced Reactions for NIF Radiochemistry

Description: Radiochemical analysis of NIF capsule residues has been identified as a potential diagnostic of NIF capsule performance. In particular, alpha-induced nuclear reactions that occur on tracer elements added to the NIF capsule have been shown through simulation to be a very sensitive diagnostic for mix. The short range of the alpha particles makes them representative of the hot spot where they are created through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Reactions on elements doped into the innermost part of the capsule ablator would therefore be sensitive to material that had mixed into the hot spot. Radiochemical determinations of activated detector elements may perhaps be the only true measure of mix that occurs in a NIF capsule, particularly in cases when the capsule fails.
Date: February 26, 2010
Creator: Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J & Bernstein, L A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

Description: An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.
Date: November 16, 2010
Creator: Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pore collapse and hot spots in HMX

Description: The computing power now available has led researchers to reconsider mesoscale simulations as a means to develop a detailed understanding of detonation waves in a heterogeneous explosive. Since chemical reaction rates are sensitive to temperature, hot spots are of critical importance for initiation. In a plastic-bonded explosive, shock desensitization experiments imply that hot spots generated by pore collapse dominate shock initiation. Here, for the collapse of a single pore driven by a shock, the dependence of the temperature distribution on numerical resolution and dissipative mechanism i s investigated. An inert material (with the constibtive properties of HMX) is used to better focus on the mechanics of pore collapse. ' h o important findings resulted from this study. Eust, too low a resolution can significantly enhance the hot-spot mass. Second, at even moderate piston velocities (< 1W s),s hock dissipation alone does not generate sufficient hot-spot mass. ' b oo ther dissipative mechanism investigated are plastic work and viscous heating. In the cases studied, the integrated lempera!xre distribution has a power-law tail with exponent related to a parameter with dimensions of viscosity. For a particular case, the parameter of either dissipative mechanism can be fit to obtain quantitatively the hot-spot mass needed for initiation. But the dissipative mechanisms scale differently with shock strength and pore size. Consequently, to predict initiation behavior over a range of stimuli and as the micro-stmcture properties of a PBX am varied, sufficient numerical resolution and the correct physical dissipative mechanism are essential.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Menikoff, Ralph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast ignition relevant study of the flux of high intensity laser-generated electrons via a hollow cone into a laser-imploded plasma

Description: An integrated experiment relevant to fast ignition. A Cu-doped deuterated polymer spherical shell target with an inserted hollow Au cone is imploded by a six-beam 900-J, 1-ns laser. A 10-ps, 70-J laser pulse is focused into the cone at the time of peak compression. The flux of high-energy electrons through the imploded material is determined from the yield of Cu K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence by comparison with a Monte Carlo model. The electrons are estimated to carry about 15% of the laser energy. Collisional and Ohmic heating are modeled, and Ohmic effects are shown to be relatively unimportant. An electron spectrometer shows significantly greater reduction of the transmitted electron flux than is calculated in the model. Enhanced scattering by instability-induced magnetic fields is suggested. An extension of this fluor-based technique to measurement of coupling efficiency to the ignition hot spot in future larger-scale fast ignition experiments is outlined.
Date: November 20, 2007
Creator: Key, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department