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Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

Description: In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Malamud, Ernest & Sessler, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Colleagues of mine have asked me few times why we have today so much interest in Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators when these were invented a long time ago, and have always been ignored since then. I try here to give a reply with a short history of FFAG accelerators, at least as I know it. I take also the opportunity to clarify few definitions.
Date: December 4, 2006
Creator: RUGGIERO, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

Description: What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.
Date: May 12, 2010
Creator: Bailey, David H. & Borwein, Jonathan M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panofsky Agonisters: 1950 Loyalty Oath at Berkeley; Pief navigates the crisis

Description: In 1949-1951 the University of California was traumatized and seriously damaged by a Loyalty Oath controversy. Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, a young and promising physics professor and researcher at Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory, was caught up in the turmoil.
Date: August 14, 2008
Creator: Jackson, John David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evidence for Subshell at Z = 96

Description: The evidence is decisive that major nuclear shells are completed at 82 protons and 126 neutrons (both represented by the nuclide Pb{sup 208}) and these, along with major shells at 82 neutrons and certain lower nucleon numbers (N or Z = 20, 28, 50), are well explained by the strong spin orbit coupling model of Mayer and Haxel, Jensen, and Suess. This model suggests the filling of quantum states at certain intermediate points, and there is an accumulating amount of evidence that such 'sub shells' are also discernible, for example, at Z = 58 and Z = 64. The evidence from alpha radioactivity, both (1) the effect of the nuclear radius shrinkage on the relationship between energy and half-life and (2) the discontinuities in the plots of energy vs. mass number at constant Z, gives a striking indication of the closing of major shells at Z = 82 and N = 126. Application of these sensitive criteria as tests for the much smaller 'subshell' effects in the regions Z > 82 and N > 126 leads to some evidence for such a subshell at Z = 96 (curium).
Date: September 3, 1953
Creator: Seaborg, Glenn T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

Description: Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.
Date: August 11, 2008
Creator: Holden,N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monthly report of activities: JUNE 1, 1969

Description: Some of the things discussed in this report are: (1) Computation--NAL is now obtaining satisfactory service on NYU's 6600 computer via the telephone data link. Until about two weeks ago we were plagued by numerous breakdowns of the computer itself (one lasting about three weeks), and bugs in the NYU programs that control the transmission. Early this month a two month complete rebuilding of the NYU computer was begun. During this period Control Data Corporation is making a new computer at their Manhattan data center available to NYU and to the remote-terminal users. This computer is reasonably reliable, and the most serious bugs have apparently been removed from the transmission system. NAL now has immediate access to the computer for most of the day and turn-around time for jobs with moderate amounts of output is often less than one hour. We have always received excellent service and help from Argonne's Applied Mathematics Division, which has made its two computers, a CDC 3600 and an IBM 360-75, available to us. At present we have a courier service to Argonne making three trips a day, soon to be extended to five. In addition IBM is furnishing very competent personnel to help convert 6600 programs to the 360. (2) Main-Ring Lattice--A small adjustment has been made in the quadrupoles of the long straight sections. Since the beam cross section is greatest there, these quadrupoles have been increased in aperture. To preserve focal length and pole-tip field, their length was also increased at the expense of about a meter of straight section length. The lattice is quite stable against changes of v. If all the quadrupole gradients are increased or decreased proportionately to cover a range of v between 18.5 and 22, the maximum increase in B is less than 20%, except for the ...
Date: June 1, 1968
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department