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Compton rejection for HPGe detectors via real-time pulse shape analysis

Description: A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-developed pulse shape analysis (PSA) technique which performs real-time Compton suppression in High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors without the use of anti-coincidence detectors is described. Some preliminary measurements of a variety of sources with a standard HPGe detector system and our prototype PSA algorithm have been made and indicate that a reduction in Compton continuum can be achieved via PSA. These measurements represent an initial assessment of the effectiveness of the prototype PSA system for the improvement of spectral quality and future improvements are expected. Additional work is progressing to optimize the effectiveness of the algorithm for Compton rejection in standard HPGe detectors. Work is also progressing to extend the methodology to segmented HPGe detectors which could potentially yield significantly better Compton rejection and gamma-ray ima
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Beckedahl, D; Blair, J J; Friensehner, A; Kammeraad, J E; Kreek, S A; Payne, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma-ray array physics.

Description: In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear.
Date: May 25, 1999
Creator: Lister, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCNP Comparison With Point Source Measurements From a Portable HPGe System

Description: The Ortec trans-SPEC is a portable gamma ray spectrometer which is approximately 10.4 kg in total weight and 37 cm × 16 cm × 32 cm in overall size It utilizes a P-type 50 mm diameter and 30 mm height coaxial HPGe detector and has more than 3 hours of battery life when fully charged. This paper details the experimental agreement found for one of these detector units and that of MCNP5 [1] calculations. The purpose of carrying out this work is to evaluate the potential utility of the spectrometer for emergency response (consequence management) applications.
Date: January 1, 2006
Creator: Hayes, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spatial resolution attainable in germanium detectors by pulse shape analysis

Description: There are several applications for which it is desirable to calculate the locations and energies of individual gamma-ray interactions within a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. These include gamma-ray imaging and Compton suppression. With a segmented detector this can be accomplished by analyzing the pulse shapes of the signals from the various segments. We examine the fundamental limits to the spatial resolution attainable with this approach. The primary source of error is the series noise of the field effect transistors (FETs) at the inputs of the charge amplifiers. We show how to calculate the noise spectral density at the output of the charge amplifiers due to an optimally selected FET. This calculation is based only on the detector capacitance and a noise constant for the FET technology. We show how to use this spectral density to calculate the uncertainties in parameters, such as interaction locations and energies, that are derived from pulse shape analysis using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) applied to filtered and digitized recordings of the charge signals. Example calculations are given to illustrate our approach. Experimental results are given that demonstrate that one can construct complete systems, from detector through data analysis, that come near the theoretical limits.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Blair, J., Bechtel, NV; Beckedahl, D.; Kammeraad, J. & Schmid, G., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental measurements at the Savannah River Site with Underwater gamma detectors

Description: Underwater NAI(Tl) and HPGe detectors are used in the environmental measurements programs at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A 22.9 cm {times} 10.2 cm NAI(Tl) detector on the Savannah River continuously monitors effluent releases from both SRS (DOE) and Plant Vogtle (Georgia Power). Correlations with known releases indicate a sensitivity of 4 mBq/l for {sup 58}Co with 1500 min spectra; such levels are well below those of hazardous or legal concern. A 30%-efficient HPGE detector has appraised radionuclides in SRS cooling pond sediments; the dominant gamma-emitting radionuclide detected was {sup 137}Cs, at levels ranging up to 2.0 MBq/m{sup 2}. The pond activities were adequately quantified by 1 min counts with the HPGE detector; resulting contour maps of sediment {sup 137}Cs provided guidance for partially draining the ponds for dam repairs.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Winn, W.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Majorana DUSEL R&D Final Report

Description: This report summarizes the work performed at PNNL under the project Majorana Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay DUSEL R&D over the period of FY07-FY09.
Date: September 21, 2010
Creator: Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Mintzer, Esther E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Gerlach, David C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Excitations Near 2 MeV in 235U and 239Pu

Description: A search for nuclear resonance fluorescence excitations in {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu within the energy range of 1.0- to 2.5-MeV was performed using a 4-MeV continuous bremsstrahlung source at the High Voltage Research Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Measurements utilizing high purity Ge detectors at backward angles identified 9 photopeaks in {sup 235}U and 12 photopeaks in {sup 239}Pu in this energy range. These resonances provide unique signatures that allow the materials to be non-intrusively detected in a variety of environments including fuel cells, waste drums, vehicles and containers. The presence and properties of these states may prove useful in understanding the mechanisms for mixing low-lying collective dipole excitations with other states at low excitations in heavy nuclei.
Date: December 27, 2006
Creator: Bertozzi, W; Caggiano, J A; Hensley, W K; Johnson, M S; Korbly, S E; Ledoux, R J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

Description: The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.
Date: June 7, 2012
Creator: Warren, Glen A. & Rodriguez, Douglas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution neutron-induced [gamma]-ray production cross sections for oxygen and beryllium for neutron energies from 4 to 200 MeV.

Description: Measurements of discrete gamma-ray spectra from neutron-induced reactions on a Be0 sample have been performed using the broad-spectrum neutron spallation source of the WNR facility at LANSCE. Incident neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. Two high-purity Ge detectors were used to detect gamma rays in the energy range from 0.150 to 9.0 MeV. Spectra were measured at seven angles. Absolute gamma-ray production cross sections were delermined from the measured neutron fluence and detector efficiencies. A new evaluation of the reaction cross sections has been performed based on this data. GNASH model calculations were performed for 20 < E, < 150 MeV, and are compared with the data. KEY WOlWS: neutron-induced reactions, gamma-ray cross section, measurement, evaluation, oxygen, beryllium, germanium detector
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Nelson, R. O. (Ronald O.); Michaudon, A. F. (André F.); Chadwick, M. B. (Mark B.) & Young, P. G. (Phillip Gaffney),
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A transportable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and analysis system applicable to mobile, autonomous or unattended applications

Description: The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing systems based on a compact electro-mechanically cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This detector system broadens the practicality of performing high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in the field. Utilizing portable computers, multi-channel analyzers and software these systems greatly improve the ease of performing mobile high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Using industrial computers, we can construct systems that will run autonomously for extended periods of time without operator input or maintenance. These systems can start or make decisions based on sensor inputs rather than operator interactions. Such systems can provide greater capability for wider domain of safeguards, treaty verification application, and other unattended, autonomous or in-situ applications.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Buckley, W.M. & Neufeld, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

Description: Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations.
Date: September 27, 1995
Creator: Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B. & Neufeld, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification to the Klein-Nishina cross section for Ge electrons at high statistics limit

Description: Modification factors for the Klein-Nishina cross-sections for gamma-ray with energies between 50 keV and 250 keV incident on Ge electrons have been obtained at the high statistics limit. In this limit, the Ge electrons can then be treated as they are obtained from the self-consistent augmented plane wave calculations, without considering the orientation of crystal lattice with respect to incident photons. The kinematics corrections (i.e. outgoing momenta), on the other hand, have to be taken into account on an event by event basis. Even so, the computing time has been reduced dramatically since the relativistic calculation of the modifications to the Klein-Nishina cross sections is the most tedious one. The modification factors are almost linear with respect to incident photon energy in the interesting energy range with respect to a given photon outgoing angle.
Date: November 3, 1995
Creator: Wang, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of an upper limit of fission energy release in HOLOG using a germanium gamma ray detector

Description: An upper limit of less than 4 mg TNT equivalent fission energy release from the HOLOG experiment was determined using a germanium {gamma}-ray detector to measure the ratio of selected fission-product and plutonium {gamma} rays. Only three hours of {gamma}-ray data collected immediately after the zero-time were analyzed to calculate the above limit. We found no peaks corresponding to the {sup 97} Zr - {sup 97} Nb fission product pair at the gamma-ray energies of E{sub {gamma}} = 743 keV and E{sub {gamma}} = 658 keV, respectively. No information on the plutonium isotopic ratios is revealed because {gamma}-ray peaks in the energy region below 100 keV are not observed due to the high absorption in the containment barrier. The measurement is relatively easy to perform and is not subject to false-positive results because specific fission product and plutonium {gamma} ray energies need to be detected.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Wang, T.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A U-235 confirmation method with a discriminating view

Description: Reprocessed spent nuclear fuel that has gone through various stages of chemical processing is currently stored at the INEEL. The material consists of three categories: clean U-235 with radiation readings in the mR/h range, U-235 and fission products up to 900 mR/h, and U-235 with U-232 from 100--200 mR/h. The material is contained in plastic bottles and stored in steel structures consisting of seven vertically arranged individual compartments. A total of forty stacks reside in individual concrete wells. This material is considered hard to measure due to excessive radiation exposure to personnel involved with handling the material during mass and NaI U-235 confirmation measurements for Safeguards inventory purposes. A U-235 confirmation method was developed to assay the individual items in place with the ability to discriminate one item from the other items in the stack. Equipment used with this method includes a portable high-resolution gamma-ray detection system, an appropriate tungsten shield and collimator, and a laser-positioning device. A discrimination control test was incorporated to compare the gamma-ray signal of an item in place to the background signal when the item is removed. Total discrimination of the 186-keV gamma ray signal was achieved.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: McLaughlin, G.D.; Hartwell, J.K. & Reed, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Delivery and installation of PC/FRAM at the PNC Tokai Works

Description: The authors report on the assembly, testing, delivery, installation, and initial testing of three PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis systems at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation`s Tokai Works. These systems are intended to measure the isotopic composition and {sup 235}U/plutonium of mixed oxide (MOX) waste in 200-L waste drums. These systems provide capability for performing measurements on lead-lined drums.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Sampson, T.E.; Kelley, T.A.; Kroncke, K.E.; Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Asano, Takashi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bipolar pulsed reset for AC coupled charge-sensitive preamplifiers

Description: A new type of charge restoration is described for use particularly in germanium gamma-ray spectrometers for accelerator and space physics applications. A bipolar pulsed reset technique is applied to these applications for the first time. This technique overcomes the problems introduced by the need to AC couple detectors and the fact that very large energy depositions occur due to charged particles present in substantial fluxes, particularly in space. The circuit is described and experimental results are presented and discussed.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Landis, D. A.; Madden, N. M. & Goulding, F. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Storage Pigs for 321-M Facility

Description: The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG and G Dart system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel g-ray spectra to assay for 235U content in 268 uranium shipping and storage pigs. This report includes a description of three efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.
Date: September 18, 2001
Creator: Dewberry, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

Description: Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.
Date: March 31, 1999
Creator: Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G. & Negro, Vincent C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of obliquely scattered gamma-ray response functions in the gross-count tomographic gamma scanner (GC-TGS) Method

Description: The gross-count tomographic gamma scanner (GC-TGS) method for assaying transuranic waste in 208-1 drums is being developed to allow NaI and other low-resolution gamma-ray detectors to be used in place of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in TGS systems. It was recently shown that a logarithmic response-function technique based on the material basis set (MBS) formalism used in the TGS method allows gross spectra from NaI detectors to be used in both measuring MBS transmission corrections using external transmission sources and in applying the corrections to emission spectra to arrive at radionuclide mass estimates. In this work the authors have attempted to show that addition of the oblique scatter component can increase the accuracy of the GC-TGS measurements with both NaI and high-purity germanium detectors. This paper describes the formalism behind the GC-TGS method and the improvement achieved in the analysis by including the scatter component.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Estep, R.J. & Miko, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field demonstration of a portable, X-ray, K-edge heavy-metal detector

Description: Under the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program, the authors have designed and built a K-edge heavy metal detector that measures the level of heavy metal contamination inside closed containers in a nondestructive, non-invasive way. The device employs a volumetric technique that takes advantage of the X-ray absorption characteristics of heavy elements, and is most suitable for characterization of contamination inside pipes, processing equipment, closed containers, and soil samples. The K-edge detector is a fast, efficient, and cost-effective in situ characterization tool. More importantly, this device will enhance personnel safety while characterizing radioactive and toxic waste. The prototype K-edge system was operated at the Materials and Chemistry Laboratory User Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site during February 1997. Uranium contaminated pipes and valves from a UF{sub 6} feed facility were inspected using the K-edge technique as well as a baseline nondestructive assay method. Operation of the K-edge detector was demonstrated for uranium contamination ranging from 10 to 6,000 mg/cm{sup 2} and results from the K-edge measurements were found to agree very well with nondestructive assay measurements.
Date: March 31, 1997
Creator: Jensen, T.; Aljundi, T.; Whitmore, C.; Zhong, H. & Gray, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable electro-mechanically cooled high-resolution germanium detector

Description: We have integrated a small, highly-reliable, electro-mechanical cryo-cooler with a high-resolution germanium detector for portable/field applications. The system weighs 6.8 kg and requires 40 watts of power to operate once the detector is cooled to its operating temperature. the detector is a 500 mm{sup 2} by 20-mm thick low-energy configuration that gives a full-width at half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of 523 eV at 122 keV, when cooled with liquid nitrogen. The energy resolution of the detector, when cooled with the electro-mechanical cooler, is 570 eV at 122 keV. We have field tested this system in measurements of plutonium and uranium for isotopic and enrichment information using the MGA and MGAU analysis programs without any noticeable effects on the results.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Neufeld, K.W. & Ruhter, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA

Description: The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.
Date: July 28, 1999
Creator: Winn, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department