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Report on the Workshop on Atomic and Plasma Physics Requirements for Heavy Ion Fusion : Argonne National Laboratory, December 13-14, 1979

Description: Atomic, molecular, and plasma physics areas that are relevant to inertial confinement fusion by energetic heavy ions are identified. Discussions are confined to problems related to the design of heavy ion accelerators, accumulation of ions in storage rings, and the beam transport in a reactor vessel.
Date: 1980?
Creator: Kim, Yong-Ki & Magelssen, Glenn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Order-to-chaos transition in rotational nuclei

Description: The authors have studied the narrow (valley-ridge) structure in the {gamma}-ray spectrum following a heavy-ion fusion reaction that produces several ytterbium nuclei. The intensity of this structure can be quantitatively related to the average chaotic behavior in these nuclei and they have traced this behavior from nearly fully ordered to nearly fully chaotic.
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Stephens, F.S.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Fallon, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle structure function and subbarrier fusion in hot nuclei

Description: The study of particle evaporation spectra can provide information about shape polarization phenomena induced by the nascent particle on the residual nucleus, and about optical modulations felt by the particle as it is preformed inside the nucleus. These aspects can be studied as a function temperature. Preliminary experimental evidence about these features has been obtained.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Moretto, L.G.; Jing, K.X.; Phair, L. & Wozniak, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective temperatures in complete fusion for the system {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni at 500 MeV bombarding energy

Description: Triple coincidences between complex fragments with Z > 3, light charged particles and {gamma} transitions have been measured for the system {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni at 500 MeV incident energy. To this end the HILI detector and a 19 pack BaF{sub 2} cluster made of 19 crystals of TAPS geometry have been used. Effective temperatures have been obtained from the ratios of the bound excited level cross sections to the ground states ones for C. N and 0 evaporated after complete fusion of {sup 58}Ni +{sup 58}Ni at 500 MeV incident energy. The dependence of the effective temperature on the charged light particle multiplicity has been investigated.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: D`Onofrio, A.; Campajola, L.; Inglima, G. & Roca, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy ion fusion (HIF) impulse injector design, construction, and checkout

Description: The following report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a high-voltage (HV) impulser built for the heavy ion fusion (HIF) project. The purpose of this impulser is to provide an adjustable diode voltage source of sufficient quality and level to allow the optimization of beam transport and accelerator sections of HIF. An elegant, low-impedance, high-energy storage capacitor circuit has been selected for this application. A retrofit to the diode region has been included to provide additional beam stability and a controlled rise time. The critical part of this circuit that is common to all candidates is the impedance matching component. The following report provides a description of the implemented circuit, the basic circuit variables for wave shaping, component screening techniques, resulting operating parameters, diode modifications, operating considerations, and fault protection.
Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Wilson, M. J., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods used in WARP3d, a three-dimensional PIC/accelerator code

Description: WARP-3d(1,2), a three-dimensional PIC/accelerator code, has been developed over several years and has played a major role in the design and analysis of space-charge dominated beam experiments being carried out by the heavy-ion fusion programs at LLNL and LBNL. Major features of the code will be reviewed, including: residence corrections which allow large timesteps to be taken, electrostatic field solution with subgrid scale resolution of internal conductor boundaries, and a beat beam algorithm. Emphasis will be placed on new features and capabilities of the code, which include: a port to parallel processing environments, space-charge limited injection, and the linking of runs covering different sections of an accelerator. Representative applications in which the new features and capabilities are used will be presented along with the important results.
Date: February 28, 1997
Creator: Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A. & Haber, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intense ion beam propagation in a reactor sized chamber

Description: The authors consider the physics of the ballistic transport of intense ion beams in a heavy ion fusion reactor chamber filled with low pressure FLIBE gas. The authors consider first a single beam envelope model and show via a simple case that emittance growth is an issue in the chamber as well as in the accelerator. They develop a model for the neutralization of beam space-charge by the electrons produced by gas ionization by the beam and derive an expression for the evolution of the neutralization factor as the beam propagates into the chamber. They then extend the envelope model from a one species beam to a beam of ions of several charge states by considering the entire beam as a set of subbeams (one for each charge state) each described with coupled envelope equation. The fully electromagnetic PIC code BPIC was used to investigate the behavior in greater detail. A parametric study of the sensitivity of the final spot radius at the target versus the ion beam stripping and gas ionization cross-sections (which are characterized by large uncertainties) shows that, in the studied regime (Hylife-II parameters), the accessible window of cross-sections for ballistic transport in the chamber through neutral FLIBE gas is eventually small. The temperature evolution for each species and the emittance growth for the entire ion beam was studied for a typical scenario and indicates that a fair amount of the initial electric potential energy carried by the beam as it enters the chamber is converted into temperature and transverse emittance. The high temperature of the ionization-produced electrons prevents a full charge neutralization of the ion beam as it approaches the target. It is shown that focusing a beam array or pre-ionizing a fraction of the background gas may help in reducing the focal spot.
Date: March 17, 2000
Creator: Vay, J.L. & Deutsch, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arc-Discharge Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion

Description: A miniature multiple beamlet approach to an injector system was recently proposed in order to reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of the injector. The beamlets of very high current density are needed to meet the brightness requirement. Besides vacuum arc ion sources, cold-cathode gas ion sources are candidates for this application. Vacuum-arc metal ion sources and vacuum-arc-like gas ion sources are discussed. Experiments are presented that focus on the short-pulse plasma composition and ion charge state distribution. Mg and Sr have been identified as the most promising metals leading to mono-species beams when 20 {mu}s arc pulses are used. It is shown that the efficient production of gas ions requires the presence of a magnetic field.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Anders, A. & Kwan, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

Description: Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.
Date: January 26, 1996
Creator: Friedman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emittance growth from merging arrays of round beamlets

Description: The cost of an induction linac for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) may be reduced if the number of channels in the main accelerator is reduced. There have been proposals to do this by merging beamlets (perhaps in groups of four) after a suitable degree of preacceleration. In the process of merging, space charge forces cause transverse acceleration, filling in the gaps and rapidly increasing the emittance. The maximum change in mean-square emittance is proportional to the excess electrostatic energy (free energy) in the array when the merging begins. In some designs, it may be desirable to reduce the emittance growth below that produced by a basic 2x2 array. For this, a general understanding is helpful. Therefore, we investigate three factors affecting the normalized free energy U{sub n} of an array of charged interacting beamlets: (1) the number of beamlets N in the array; (2) the ratio {eta} of beamlet diameter to beamlet spacing; and (3) the shape of the array. For circular arrays, we obtain an analytic expression showing that U{sub n}{approximately}NE{sup -1} in the large-N limit, i.e., the emittance growth can be made arbitrarily small. We show that this is not true for square or rectangular arrays, which have larger free energy with a lower limit determined by the non-circular format. Free energy in square arrays can be reduced by omitting comer beamlets; in the case of a 5 x 5 array, the reduction factor is as large as 3.3.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Anderson, O.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grid-controlled metal ion sources for heavy ion fusion accelerators

Description: A variety of metal ions can be generated using vacuum arcs, but due to the nature of these arcs, the flux generated fluctuates in time. We have successfully employed electrostatically biased grids to control the plasma and to provide a well-behaved, space charge limited ion source. The grid prevents the plasma from entering the extraction gap before the main voltage pulse is applied. The extracted ion current is space charge limited, resulting in a constant output current even though the ion flux from the vacuum arc source varies considerably. There are several advantages over other conventional sources, for instance, thermionic sources are faced with heating problems especially for large area configurations, while gas-injection sources cause prefill problems because they take too long to reach equilibrium. We have performed extraction experiments with aluminium and indium arc sources. We have extracted 300 mA of pure Al/sup +/ at 30 kV for 10 ..mu..s. The normalized beam emittance has been measured to be 8 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ ..pi..-m-rad. 3 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Len, L.K.; Humphries, S. Jr. & Burkart, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-ion fusion driver research at Berkeley and Livermore

Description: The Department of Energy is restructuring the U.S. fusion program to place a greater emphasis on science. As a result, we will not build the ILSE or Elise heavy ion fusion (HIF) facilities described in 1992 and 1994 conferences. Instead we are performing smaller experiments to address important scientific questions. Accelerator technology for HIF is similar to that for other applications such as high energy physics and nuclear physics. The beam physics, however, differs from the physics encountered in most accelerators, where the pressure arising from the beam temperature (emittance) is the dominant factor determining beam size and focusing system design. In HIF, space charge is the dominant feature, leading us into a parameter regime where.the beam plasma frequency becomes comparable to the betatron frequency. Our experiments address the physics of non-neutral plasmas in this novel regime. Because the beam plasma frequency is low, Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provide a good description of most of our experiments. Accelerators for HIF consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss experiments in injection, combining, and bending.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Seidl, P.; Bangerter, R. & Celata, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of longitudinal space charge in beams for heavy-ion fusion

Description: A new analytic model is presented that accurately estimates the radially averaged axial component of the space-charge field of an axisymmetric heavy-ion beam in a cylindrical beam pipe. The model recovers details of the field near the beam ends that are overlooked by simpler models, and the results compare well to exact solutions of Poisson`s equation. Field values are shown for several simple beam profiles and are compared with values obtained from simpler models. The model has been implemented in the fluid/envelope code CIRCE and used to study longitudinal confinement in beams with a variety of axial profiles. The effects of errors in the longitudinal-control fields are presented.
Date: December 27, 1995
Creator: Sharp, W.M.; Friedman, A. & Grote, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear chemistry progress report, Oregon State University. August 1, 1995--August 1, 1996

Description: In this report, the authors summarize the highlights of the work done between August 1, 1995, and August 1, 1996. The work reported herein is the result of a collaborative effort between the nuclear chemists at Oregon State University and many other individuals and research groups. Each project discussed was the result of a joint effort of the groups, interchanging roles in data acquisition and analysis. The work described is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/nucleon), and intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ion reactions. Their work in the low energy regime included: the first US studies of fusion utilizing radioactive beams. Half of their effort was spent in the study of intermediate energy nuclear collisions. Among the accomplishments were: the establishment of a systematics of angular momentum transfer in peripheral collisions; completion of the first portion of high resolution studies of heavy residue formation in reactions induced by 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au utilizing the MSU A1200 separator; synthesis of several new neutron-deficient nuclides in reactions of 20 MeV/nucleon {sup 197}Au with heavy targets (Ti, Zr and Au); their participation in exclusive studies of heavy residue formation in the reaction of 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 86}Kr with {sup 197}Au in which it was found that the residues had large associated particle multiplicities indicating their formation in highly dissipative collisions, and that particle emission leading to residue formation relative to fission was favored as the dissipated energy increased.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Loveland, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chamber propagation physics for heavy ion fusion

Description: Chamber transport is an important area of study for heavy ion fusion. Final focus and chamber-transport are high leverage areas providing opportunities to significantly decrease the cost of electricity from a heavy ion fusion power plant. Chamber transport in two basic regimes is under consideration. In the low chamber density regime ({approx_lt}0.003 torr), ballistic or nearly-ballistic transport is used. Partial beam neutralization has been studied to offset the effects of beam stripping. In the high chamber density regime ({approx_gt}.1 torr), two transport modes (pinched transport and channel transport) are under investigation. Both involve focusing the beam outside the chamber then transporting it at small radius ({approx} 2 mm). Both high chamber density modes relax the constraints on the beam quality needed from the accelerator which will reduce the driver cost and the cost of electricity.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Callahan, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3D particle simulations of space-charge-dominated beams in HIF accelerator experiments

Description: The development of a high current, heavy-ion beam for inertial confinement fusion requires a detailed understanding of the behavior of the beam, including effects of the large self-fields. This necessity makes particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation the appropriate tool, and for this reason, the three-dimensional PIC/accelerator code WARP3d is being developed. WARP3d has been used extensively to study the creation and propagation of ion beams both to support experiments and for the understanding of basic beam physics. An overview of the structure of the code is presented along with a discussion of features that make the code an effective tool in the understanding of space-charge dominated beam behavior. A number of applications where WARP3d has played an important role is discussed, emphasizing the need of three-dimensional, first principles simulations. Results and comparisons with experiment are presented.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A.; Lund, S.M. & Haber, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability and production of superheavy nuclei

Description: Beyond uranium heavy elements rapidly become increasingly unstable with respect to spontaneous fission as the proton number Z increases, because of the disruptive effect of the long-range Coulomb force. However, in the region just beyond Z = 100 magic proton and neutron numbers and the associated shell structure enhances nuclear stability sufficient to allow observation of additional nuclei. Some thirty years ago it was speculated that an island of spherical, relatively stable superheavy nuclei would exist near the next doubly magic proton-neutron combination beyond {sup 208}Pb, that is, at proton number Z = 114 and neutron number N = 184. Theory and experiment now show that there also exists a rock of stability in the vicinity of Z = 110 and N = 162 between the actinide region, which previously was the end of the peninsula of known elements, and the predicted island of spherical superheavy nuclei slightly southwest of the magic numbers Z = 114 and N = 184. The authors review here the stability properties of the heavy region of nuclei. Just as the decay properties of nuclei in the heavy region depend strongly on shell structure, this structure also dramatically affects the fusion entrance channel. The six most recently discovered new elements were all formed in cold-fusion reactions. They discuss here the effect of the doubly magic structure of the target in cold-fusion reactions on the fusion barrier and on dissipation.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Moeller, P. & Nix, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation studies of the LBNL heavy-ion beam combiner experiment

Description: Transverse beam combining is a cost-saving option employed in many designs for heavy-ion inertial fusion energy drivers. A major area of interest, both theoretically and experimentally, is the resultant transverse phase space dilution during the beam merging process. Currently, a prototype combining experiment is underway at LBNL and we have employed a variety of numerical descriptions to aid in both the initial design of the experiment data. These range from simple envelope codes to detailed 2- and 3-D PIC simulations. We compare the predictions of the different numerical models to each other and to experimental data at different longitudinal positions.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Fawley, W.M.; Seidl, P.; Haber, I.; Friedman, A. & Grote, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments at The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion

Description: An overview of experiments is presented, in which the physical dimensions, emittance and perveance are scaled to explore driver-relevant beam dynamics. Among these are beam merging, focusing to a small spot, and bending and recirculating beams. The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion (VNL) is also developing two driver-scale beam experiments involving heavy-ion beams with I(sub beam) about 1 Ampere to provide guidance for the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) for driver system studies within the next 5 years. Multiple-beam sources and injectors are being designed and a one-beam module will be built and tested. Another experimental effort will be the transport of such a beam through about 100 magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment will determine transport limits at high aperture fill factors, beam halo formation, and the influence on beam properties of secondary electron Research into driver technology will be briefly presented, including the development of ferromagnetic core materials, induction core pulsers, multiple-beam quadrupole arrays and plasma channel formation experiments for pinched transport in reactor chambers.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Seidl, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Celata, C. M.; Faltens, A.; Kwan, J. W.; MacLaren, S. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs

Description: Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Grote, D.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

Description: Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to &gt;100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.
Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G. & Meier, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)
Date: March 17, 2000
Creator: Bangerter, R.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department