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Winter Fuels Markets

Description: This report analyzes the key factors affecting the various winter fuels markets, including consumption, production, reserves, and storage volumes.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Internal Regenerative Fuel-Heating System for 20-Inch Ram Jet

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple internal regenerative fuel preheater for a 20-inch-diameter ram jet. Data obtained at subsonic sea-level conditions indicated that fuel could be successfully preheated in this manner.
Date: September 1, 1949
Creator: Baker, Sol & Perchonok, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unstable Convection in Vertical Channels With Heating From Below, Including Effects of Heat Sources and Frictional Heating

Description: Note presenting an analysis of the effects of heat sources and frictional heating on the laminar fully developed channel flow subject to a body force between two parallel plates oriented in the direction of the body force. Solutions are obtained for combined forced- and natural-convection flows for the cases in which the wall temperature variations are linear and the wall temperatures are specified, the walls are both insulated, and the net mass flow in the channel is zero. Results regarding the linear side-wall temperatures and effects of having both side-walls insulated are provided.
Date: July 1955
Creator: Ostrach, Simon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Investigation of Graphite, Silicon Carbide, and Several Polymer-Glass-Cloth Laminates in a Mach Number 2 Air Jet at Stagnation Temperatures of 3,000 F and 4,000 F

Description: Memorandum presenting testing of several materials including graphite, silicon carbide, and a number of polymer-glass-cloth laminated constructions at temperatures of 3,000 and 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit in a laboratory-scale ceramic-heated air jet. The tests were made to utilize four possible mechanisms for the alleviation of the aerodynamic-heating problem of hypersonic aircraft, which included radiative heat transfer, pyrolysis, fusion, and mass-transfer cooling by ablation.
Date: January 9, 1958
Creator: Casey, Francis W., Jr. & Hopko, Russell N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Aerodynamic Heating to Provide Thrust by Vaporization of Surface Coolants

Description: Note presenting an analysis of the propulsive thrust and specific impulse attainable by cooling aircraft surfaces with liquefied or solidified gases with vaporization temperatures lower than the equilibrium surface temperature. Use of coolant vaporization as the sole means of propulsion yields low specific impulses at low speeds.
Date: February 1954
Creator: Moeckel, W. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coking of JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes

Description: A limited exploratory investigation of the rate of coking of four JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes was conducted in order to provide design information for fuel prevaporizers for turbojet-engine combustors. The fuels tested included two production and two minimum-quality JP-4 type fuels. The heating tube was operated at fuel pressures of approximately 500, 400, and 50 pounds per square inch. The operating fuel temperature was varied between approximately 600 degrees and 1200 degrees F.
Date: November 20, 1956
Creator: Smith, Arthur L.; Cook, William P. & Hlavin, Vincent F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Theoretical Study of the Effect of Upstream Transpiration Cooling on the Heat-Transfer and Skin-Friction Characteristics of a Compressible, Laminar Boundary Layer

Description: Note presenting an analysis which predicts the skin-friction and heat-transfer characteristics of a compressible, laminar boundary layer on a solid flat plate preceded by a porous section that is transpiration cooled. The analysis is restricted to a Prandtl number of unity and linear variation of viscosity with temperature. Results regarding a comparison of polynomial and exact velocity distribution, skin friction, heat transfer, and some practical implications of results are provided.
Date: May 1957
Creator: Rubesin, Morris W. & Inouye, Mamoru
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Mach 4 rocket-powered supersonic tunnel using ammonia-oxygen as working fluid

Description: From Summary: "A rocket-powered supersonic tunnel has been constructed to simulate the high heating rates encountered in hypersonic flow. A gas temperature of 4500 degrees Rankine at Mach 4 has been produced in the 15-inch test section of the tunnel. The calibration pressure data indicate reproducibility of test conditions in this facility. Physical, transport, and one-dimensional aerodynamic data from combustion products of ammonia and oxygen are included."
Date: September 1958
Creator: Graham, Robert W.; Guentert, Eleanor Costilow & Huff, Vearl N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 12: performance of a formed-plate crossflow exhaust gas and air heat exchanger

Description: Report presenting performance data on a Trane exhaust gas and air heat exchanger. Heat transfer rates were measured using specified exhaust gas rates and ventilating-air rates. The measured thermal outputs and static pressure drops are compared with predicted magnitudes.
Date: May 1943
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Dennison, H. G.; Guibert, A. G. & Morrin, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 13: performance of corrugated and noncorrugated fluted type exhaust gas-air heat exchangers

Description: Report presenting thermal and static pressure-drop performance data on three fluted-type heat exchangers. Two of the heaters used corrugated surfaces along the fluid passages and the third one was constructed with non-corrugated surfaces. Results regarding a comparison of results on the noncorrugated heater using two different air shrouds, heat transfer, isothermal static pressure drop, nonisothermal static pressure drop, and heater surface temperatures are provided.
Date: August 1943
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Guibert, A. G.; Miller, M. A. & Morrin, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 10: measured and predicted performance of a fluted-type exhaust gas and air heat exchanger

Description: Report presenting performance data on a small exhaust gas and air heat exchanger. The heat transfer rates were measured using about 8000 pounds per hour of exhaust gas and 4300 pounds per hour of ventilating air. The thermal performance of heater no. 2 can be estimated to 3 to 17 percent by use of the method described in the report.
Date: March 1943
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Dennison, H. G.; Guibert, A. G. & Morrin, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Effectiveness of Air-Heating a Hollow Steel Propeller for Protection Against Icing. 2: 50% Impartitioned Blades

Description: From Summary: "The icing protection afforded an internal air-heated propeller blade by radial partitioning at 50-percent chord to confine the heated air to the forward half of the blade was determined in the NACA Cleveland icing research tunnel. A modified production-model hollow steel propeller, was used for the investigation. Temperatures of the blade surfaces for several heating rates were measured under various tunnel icing conditions. Photographic observations of ice formations on blade surfaces and blade heat-exchanger effectiveness were obtained."
Date: May 1948
Creator: Perkins, Porter J. & Mulholland, Donald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of total hemispherical emissivity of various oxidized metals at high temperature

Description: Report presenting the results of measurements of total hemispherical emissivity at high temperatures for various metals are presented together with a limited description of the equipment and procedures used. Results regarding stainless steel, mild steel, titanium alloy, titanium, copper, aluminum, molybdenum, and tantalum are provided.
Date: March 1958
Creator: Wade, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and theoretical determination of thermal stresses in a flat plate

Description: Report determining the thermal stresses induced in a flat, rectangular, 75S-T6 aluminum-alloy plate by nonuniform heating both experimentally and theoretically. Results regarding the temperature distribution, longitudinal direct stresses, shear stresses, transverse direct stresses, and agreement between theory and experiment are provided.
Date: August 1952
Creator: Heldenfels, Richard R. & Roberts, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The temperature of unheated bodies in a high-speed gas stream

Description: From Summary: "The present report deals with temperature measurements on cylinders of 0.2 to 3 millimeters diameter in longitudinal and transverse air flow at speeds of 100 to 300 meters per second. Within the explored test range, that is, the probable laminar boundary layer region, the temperature of the cylinders in axial flow is practically independent of the speed and in good agreement with Pohlhausen's theoretical values; Whereas, in transverse flow, cylinders of certain diameter manifest a close relationship with speed, the ratio of the temperature above the air of the body to the adiabatic stagnation temperature decreases with rising speed and then rises again from a Mach number of 0.6. The importance of this "specific temperature" of the body for heat-transfer studies at high speed is discussed."
Date: December 1941
Creator: Eckert, E. & Weise, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of aircraft structural models subject to aerodynamic heating and external loads

Description: Report examining the problem of investigating the simultaneous effects of transient aerodynamic heating and external loads on aircraft structures for the purpose of determining the ability of the structure to withstand flight to supersonic speeds.
Date: September 1957
Creator: O'Sullivan, William J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Motion of a ballistic missile angularly misaligned with the flight path upon entering the atmosphere and its effect upon aerodynamic heating, aerodynamic loads, and miss distance

Description: From Summary: "An analysis is given of the oscillating motion of a ballistic missile which upon entering the atmosphere is angularly misaligned with respect to the flight path. The history of the motion for some example missiles is discussed from the point of view of the effect of the motion on the aerodynamic heating and loading. The miss distance at the target due to misalignment and to small accidental trim angles is treated. The stability problem is also discussed for the case where the missile is tumbling prior to atmospheric entry."
Date: October 1957
Creator: Allen, H. Julian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-transfer and pressure measurements on flat-faced cylinders at a Mach number of 2

Description: Report presenting flat-faced cylinders tested at Mach number 2 and sea-level conditions in the preflight jet. Both pressure distributions and heat-transfer rates were measured. Results regarding pressure measurements and heat-transfer measurements are provided.
Date: July 1958
Creator: Stoney, William E., Jr. & Markley, J. Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An experimental investigation of the effect of surface heating on boundary-layer transition on a flat plate in supersonic flow

Description: Report presenting wind-tunnel testing to investigate the effect of surface heating on boundary-layer transition on a flat plate. The identification of the onset and end of transition was made by inspection of the curves of surface-tube Mach number reading as a function of length Reynolds number obtained through the transition region.
Date: April 1951
Creator: Higgins, Robert W. & Pappas, Constantine C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental ablation cooling

Description: Report presenting the results of an experimental investigation on the ablation of a number of promising materials for heating conditions comparable to those which maybe encountered by unmanned reentry satellite vehicles or heating conditions associated with reentry ballistic missiles. Results regarding exploratory tests, further Teflon tests, and graphite testing are provided.
Date: July 15, 1958
Creator: Bond, Aleck C.; Rashis, Bernard & Levin, L. Ross
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Installation Manual for Thermal Energy Storage, Second Edition

Description: The second addition is a substantial revision of the original work. A new chapter on latent heat storage, an appendix on units and conversions, and an index have been added. The purpose for this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in solar heating systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestic hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Cole, Roger Lynn; Nield, Kenneth J.; Rohde, Raymond R. & Wolosewicz, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Winter Fuels Outlook 2010-2011

Description: This report discusses findings gleaned through the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) publication titled Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEWFO) for the 2010-2011 winter heating season. STEWFO projects how much American consumers should expect to see heating expenditures rise during the 2010-2011 winter season. These findings take into account the currently slow economic growth, high unemployment numbers, and uncertainty regarding the federal funding of the Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP).
Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater

Description: "An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing" (p. 1).
Date: February 4, 1952
Creator: Lewis, James P. & Bowden, Dean T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department