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Investigation of Internal Regenerative Fuel-Heating System for 20-Inch Ram Jet

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple internal regenerative fuel preheater for a 20-inch-diameter ram jet. Data obtained at subsonic sea-level conditions indicated that fuel could be successfully preheated in this manner.
Date: September 1, 1949
Creator: Baker, Sol & Perchonok, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat-Requirements for Ice Protection of a Cyclically Gas-Heated, 36 Degree Swept Airfoil with Partial-Span Leading-Edge Slat

Description: From Summary: "Heating requirements for satisfactory cyclic de-icing over a wide range of icing and operating conditions have been determined for a gas-heated, 36 degree swept airfoil of 6.9-foot chord with a partial-span leading-edge slat. Comparisons of heating requirements and effectiveness were made between the slatted and unslatted portions of the airfoil. Studies were also made comparing cyclic de-icing with continuous anti-icing, and cyclic de-icing systems with and without leading-edge ice-free parting strips. De-icing heat requirements were approximately the same with either heated or unheated parting strips because of the aerodynamic effects of the 36 degrees sweep angle and the spanwise saw-tooth profile of leading-edge glaze-ice deposits. Cyclic de-icing heat-source requirements were found to be one-fourth or less of the heat requirements for complete anti-icing. The primary factors that affected the performance of the cyclic de-icing heating system were ambient air temperature, heat distribution, and thermal lag."
Date: May 14, 1956
Creator: Gray, Vernon H. & von Glahn, Uwe H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Program support for Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch

Description: The technical monitoring of 16 DOE research and development projects in the solar controls and passive cooling areas is reviewed. Two of these projects have been concluded and the remainder are now in their final stages of completion. A second major task to provide assistance in program planning included the preparation and review of several program element plans, participation at planning meetings and workshops, preparation of energy displacement projections, and a variety of supplementary administrative tasks. The review of unsolicited proposals was provided on a continuing basis and aid was supplied in the preparation and evaluation of PRDA and RFP solicitations as required by DOE headquarters.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Martin, M. & Wahlig, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eighth national passive solar conference. Final report

Description: The Eighth National Passive Solar Conference was held near Santa Fe, New Mexico at the Glorieta Conference Center on September 5 to 11, 1983. Nearly 900 people from all across the nation and the world attended the conference. Close to 200 technical papers were presented, 50 solar product exhibits were available; 34 poster sessions were presented; 16 solar workshops were conducted; 10 renowned solar individuals participated in rendezvous sessions; 7 major addresses were delivered; 5 solar home tours were conducted; 2 emerging architecture sessions were held which included 21 separate presentations; and commercial product presentations were given for the first time ever at a national passive solar conference. Peter van Dresser of Santa Fe received the prestigious Passive Solar Pioneer Award, posthumously, from the American Solar Energy Society and Benjamin T. Buck Rogers of Embudo received the prestigious Peter van Dresser Award from the New Mexico Solar Energy Association. This report reviews conference organization, attendance, finances, conference evaluation form results, and includes press coverage samples, selected conference photos courtesy of Marshall Tyler, and a summary with recommendations for future conferences. The Appendices included conference press releases and a report by the New Mexico Solar Industry Development Corporation on exhibits management.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Owen, A. & Zee, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of passive solar buildings

Description: The use of simulation analyses as both a design and an evaluation tool is discussed. The reasons and techniques of simulation analysis are described and various possibilities discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings. First draft

Description: The primary purpose of this document is to promote the use and further development of solar energy through a systematic categorizing of all the attributes in a solar energy system that may impact on those requirements in the nationally recognized model codes relating to the safeguard of life or limb, health, property, and public welfare. Administrative provisions have been included to integrate this document with presently adopted codes, so as to allow incorporation into traditional building, plumbing, mechanical, and electrical codes. In those areas where model codes are not used it is recommended that the requirements, references, and standards herein be adopted to regulate all solar energy systems. (MOW)
Date: March 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

Description: An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S. & Roach, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Urban alternative homestead

Description: The three main areas of work were in redesigning and correcting the design flaws of the active heating system, the passive solar heating system, and the furnace controls, so that the building would heat and cool itself more efficiently and evenly than it had before. The active system was re-plumbed, fixing leaks, and adding joints and parts needed to work properly. Its tanks were insulated and new pumps installed. The passive system was reworked by adding a shadescreen to the outside of the greenhouse for summer cooling, and by adding ductwork to remove excess heat from the greenhouse and office, and redistribute it to the rest of the building, or to the outside. To help heat the north rooms, this recycled heat was very helpful. Also, insulating the floor under the north rooms was very helpful in providing more even heating. In order for the heating system to operate more efficiently, the electronic controls had to be reworked so the proper messages could be sent to the furnace about when to use each kind of heat. The lowered gas usage of the house told the story about how much better the active and passive systems were when the grant was completed. Moreover, the house was much more comfortable, not only from the overheating in the summer, but from a more even distribution of the heat to the north rooms. The fact that the electrical usage increased reflected the fact that the new pumps took more electricity to run them, and that the active system did not have all of the flaws worked out.
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design methodologies for energy conservation and passive heating of buildings utilizing improved building components. Progress report, 1 August 1977--31 October 1977

Description: Construction of the experimental building demonstrating light weight ceiling thermal storage tiles, transparent insulation assemblies, and specialized louvers is well underway. Difficulties in acquiring materials have put the building two weeks behind schedule. A superior heat mirror product is being used in place of the original proposed transparent insulation for the south windows. Negotiations are underway to acquire superior logging devices at no additional cost for monitoring the building.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Habraken, J. & Johnson, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

Description: This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Gustashaw, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Communication strategy to commercialize passive solar energy

Description: Although certain technical and economic issues remain to be clarified, passive solar market development is increasingly dependent upon communications such as information dissemination, education, training and promotional activities. Target audiences are identified as both recipients and disseminators of passive solar communications. Form and quality of information are discussed in terms of the stages of an innovation adoption decision-making process. Several communication-related barriers which impede the commercialization of passive solar are discussed and general information and education responses are suggested. The paper ends with a statement of precepts which should guide passive solar communication programs.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wolcott, D. R. & Shoemaker, F. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOLCOST support and maintenance. Quarterly technical status report

Description: The Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio Method for passive solar heating was fully implemented as a stand-alone software package under the title SOLCOST-PASSIVE. The software includes a coupled economic analysis capability which was slightly modified (from the LASL methodology) to include variable fuel escalations in time. Three passive system types can be evaluated with the methodology, and also any combinations of the three. Temperature swings for direct gain systems can also be computed. The typical output from the program for a simple water wall passive system is shown. One of the useful outputs from the program is the table of Absorbed Solar Radiation Factors. This table allows the user to evaluate the monthly effect of nine different factors which combine to yield the solar radiation absorbed by the system. The format of the cash flow table is very similar to the current SOLCOST cash flow table. A column discounted cash flow values has been added to clarify the use of discounting. Other changes from the SOLCOST economics include the addition of resale value at the end of the ownership period and the addition of discounted payback times. (MHR)
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance estimation using correlation methods

Description: Correlation methods of prediction have advantages in greatly simplifying the time and complexity of performance predictions of passive solar buildings but are severely constrained in the number of variables which can be considered. Their accuracy is generally adequate for design purposes provided they are applied to buildings which correspond reasonably closely to the reference designs used in developing the correlations. The most simplified correlation procedures (such as the SLR method) are amenable to use with hand calculators, especially if pre-calculated tables are available corresponding to the weather data for the location of interest. When reporting the results of these calculations, the designer should be especially careful to specify the range of validity of the analysis, especially as pertains to both operating characteristics and design parameters. Correlation techniques are especially amenable to use in microcomputer routines which can be used in a design office. Very quick answers can be obtained during the schematic design and design development phases of a building to aid in deciding between different design options. This would include trade-offs between various conservation options and passive solar options.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of DOE-1 to passive solar heating of commercial buildings: preliminary results

Description: The DOE-1 building energy analysis computer program is being modified to include analysis of passive solar and large thermal mass heating and cooling systems. SUNSPOT is a detailed thermal network computer program developed for direct gain systems as a reference analysis tool to compare with DOE-1. It was validated by comparison of calculated results with experimental test cell data. A series of runs was then made to determine the sensitivity of solar fraction to type of glazing, location and quantity of mass, and method of computing infrared radiant interchange among inside surfaces. Simulations using DOE-1 in its present form indicate that the weighting factors used in the program are not satisfactory for large-mass/direct-gain systems. However, it does appear that the weighting factor approach can be retained if an efficient method of determining weighting factors appropriate to passive systems can be developed. Future work will proceed in that direction.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hunn, B.D.; Schnurr, N.M.; Peterson, J.L.; Kerrisk, J.F. & Moore, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test building instrumentation cooperative agreement: heating/daylighting prototype development. Phase II. Passive and hybrid solar manufactured building project. Project status report No. 2, April 16, 1980-March 16, 1981

Description: Progress is reported on the test building instrumentation and problems encountered are described. An instrumentation trip report is presented dealing with installation of data acquisition systems, roof and roll runner building. (MCW)
Date: March 23, 1981
Creator: Lindsey, L.L. & Snyder, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of the ghost ranch greenhouse-residence

Description: The greenhouse-residence unit of the Sundwellings Demonstration Center at Ghost Ranch, Abiguice, New Mexico, has been studied by computer modeling and simulation techniques. A thermal network model of the building has been developed in the framework of PASOLE, the Los Alamos passive solar energy simulation program. Simulation studied based on hourly weather data recorded during the 1977--78 heating season leave been done. Model validation was done by hourly comparisons of simulation predicted temperatures in the building with measured values of corresponding temperatures. The building model was used to predict a 12-month performance with the 1976--77 Los Alamos weather data. A solar fraction, the ratio of the solar portion of the residence heat input to the total heating load, was computed to be 60%. Other performance and design questions studies with 12-month Los Alamos simulation runs include the importance of the thermocirculation vents, the effect of external insulation on the residence walls, and the effect of nighttime insulation on the greenhouse glazing.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Jones, R.W. & McFarland, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems

Description: Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Jones, R.W. & McFarland, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State of the art in passive solar heating

Description: The state of the art is outlined according to four major categories: passive solar practice, evaluation, design air, and products and materials. Needed future research activities and joint industry/government activities are listed. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designing passive solar buildings to reduce temperature swings

Description: Control of temperature swings is a major consideration in design of passive solar heated buildings - especially so as the designer seeks to achieve most of the building heat from the sun. Observations of temperature swings in several passive buildings are cited. Methods of temperature control are discussed, both by means of control intervention such as using of auxiliary backup heating, ventilation, and blowers, and by means of building design. The design approach is preferred as the main course with the intervention techniques used for fine tuning.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Balcomb, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

Description: A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive-solar design manual for the United States Navy

Description: A passive solar design manual for single-family detached residences and dormitory-type buildings is being developed. The design procedure employed in the manual is a simplification of the original monthly solar load ratio (SLR) method. The new SLR correlations involve a single constant for each system. The correlation constant appears as a scale factor permitting the use of a universal performance curve for all passive systems. Furthermore, by providing location-dependent correlations between the annual solar heating fraction (SHF)* and the minimum monthly SHF, we have eliminated the need to perform an SLR calculation for each month of the heating season.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Wray, W.O.; Biehl, F.A.; Kosiewicz, C.R. & Miles, C.R. Durlak, E.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department