833 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

An investigation of aircraft heaters 36: preliminary investigation of a combustion-type aircraft heater

Description: Report presenting experimental results on the thermal performance of an aircraft combustion-type heater. The performance of the heater with a counterflow and a parallel-flow return passage on the gas side does not appear predictable by use of existing equations. The thermal conductance for the gases within the combustion chamber is predicted to be many times lower than the experimental data indicate.
Date: August 1951
Creator: Boelter, Llewellyn Michael Kraus; Elswick, W. R.; Sanders, V. D. & Rubesin, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 14: an air and heat flow analysis of a ram-operated heater and duct system

Description: Report presenting a method of graphical analysis that allows for the prediction of the thermal and aerodynamic performance of a ram-operated heater and duct system, for cabin heating or wing de-icing, at any altitude and airplane speed. Performance can be predicted from the isothermal total pressure drop across the components of the duct system at several ventilating air rates and the thermal output of the heater at various air and exhaust gas rates.
Date: March 1944
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Morrin, E. H.; Martinelli, R. C. & Poppendiek, H. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Upper Sand Mountain Parish Solar Construction Workshops. Final performance report

Description: The Upper Sand Mountain Parish continues to employ its initial strategy for involving high school vocational students with the pre cutting and instructional assembly aid to area families. The parish project works with high school vocational classes in pre fabbing solar devices into kit form. Then, students are employed to serve as instructors for Saturday construction workshops at the local electric cooperative. Trained teams of older and unemployed adults work with youth in building solar greenhouses for those able to pay labor. Over three years, the project has assisted and built 50 to 60 attached solar greenhouses with construction teams realizing in excess of $26,000 in labor for newly developed skills. The project continues to assist owners in monitoring and developing horticulturally as well as energy producing greenhouses. During the spring of 1982, the parish assisted greenhouse owners in marketing over 60,000 bedding plants worth over $3000. Monthly Greenhouse Owner Fellowship meetings have been a helpful setting for sharing of ideas and exchange of insights. A low interest solar loan fund, offering 5% loans for three years, has assisted over 30 families in going solar. The principle for this revolving fund has almost reached the $15,000 mark. The track record for loan repayments has been exceptional. Through workshops and tours we have aquainted hundreds of people across the southeast with low cost/low technology solar projects and a workable strategy for involving community groups and students in them. With church involvement, we have provided over $25,000 in grants to over 200 area families. Workshop information and plans are available to those interested for bread box solar water heaters, food dryers, window box collectors, insulation panels, and greenhouses.
Date: February 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results on D-12A-2

Description: The purpose of this report is to describe the recent tests of D-12A-2. The tests of D-12A-2 began on April 30 and ended on May 8. The unusually long test period was a result of an extensive series of magnetic field measurements in which we attempted to determine the shielding affects of a sextupole compensating coil and the decay of the currents induced in this coil. This report is short, but much of the data from the tests are included or summarized. We begin with a description of the coil and conductor, continue with the training history, the results of magnetic measurements, including the use of a sextupole compensating coil and then describe the results of heater induced quenches including estimates of axial and transverse quench propagation velocities.
Date: August 8, 1984
Creator: Hassenzahl, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured strain in Nb3Sn coils during excitation and quence

Description: The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a 'common coil' fashion capable of reaching 11 T at 4.2 K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.
Date: June 1, 2005
Creator: Caspi, S.; Barlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S. A.; Hannaford, C. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Thermal and Thermomech-Anical Modeling for the Near Surface Test Facility Heater Experimants at Hanford: Appendix D

Description: Appendix D is a complete set of figures illustrating the detailed calculations necessary for designing the heater experiments at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Hanford, Washington. The discussion of the thermal and thermomechanical modeling that yielded these calculations is presented in Volume 1. A summary of the figures and the models they illustrate is given in Table D1. The most important figures have also been included in the discussion in Volume 1, and Table D2 lists the figure numbers in this volume that correspond to figure numbers used there.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Chan, T. & Remer, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 17: experimental inquiry into steady state unidirectional heat-meter corrections

Description: Report divided into two sections. One discusses a correction that must be applied to a heat meter when it is used at temperatures other than temperatures at which it was calibrated. The other section contains the results of an application of the two methods of correcting the heat-transfer rates for contact and heat-meter resistance to experimental data.
Date: August 1944
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Poppendiek, H. F. & Gier, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 15: the emissivity of several materials

Description: Report presenting a determination of the mean effective emissivity as a function of temperature for the surfaces of several metals and insulating materials. A description and discussion of the measuring technique is presented. The results are plotted on a variety of graphs.
Date: January 1944
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Bromberg, R. & Gier, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Aircraft Heaters 26: Development of a Sensitive Plated-Type Thermopile for Measuring Radiation

Description: Report presenting an analysis of the factors determining the power efficiency of radiation thermopiles of the type in which receivers consist of parts of conducts themselves or of coatings or other electrically insulating materials in intimate contact with the conductors. Criterions for maximum power efficiency are calculated for these thermopiles, which can then be applied to general thermopile designs.
Date: July 1948
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Dempster, E. R.; Bromberg, R. & Gier, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of aircraft heaters 24: the heat meter in the transient state for unidirectional heat transfer

Description: Report describing the behavior of the heat meter when it is used in thermal circuits which are under the influence of transient potentials. Three scenarios are considered: a heat meter suddenly placed on a hot surface, a heat meter mounted on the interior surface of the cabin wall of an uninsulated airplane climbing through air of decreasing temperature, and a heat meter mounted on the interior surface of the composite cabin wall of an airplane climbing through air of decreasing temperature.
Date: September 1944
Creator: Boelter, L. M. K.; Poppendiek, H. F.; Dunkle, R. V. & Gier, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion and Deposits in Regenerative Air Preheaters

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on the field tests performed on air preheaters. It also discusses the corrosion resistance of different materials, and their corrosive effects. This report contains tables, graphs, photographs and illustrations.
Date: August 1953
Creator: Barkley, J. F.; Karlsson, Hilmer; Berk, A. A.; Stark, C. F. & Burdick, L. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

Description: The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J. & Maguire, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Owens-Illinois subsystem design package for the SEC-601 air-cooled solar collector

Description: Information used to evaluate the subsystem design of the Owens-Illinois Model SEC-601 Solar Collector is presented. The collector is of modular design and is approximately 12 feet 3 inches wide and 8 feet 7 inches tall. It contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. Included in this report are the Subsystem Performance Specifications and the Assembly and Installation Drawings of the Solar Collectors and Manifold.
Date: February 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Freeze-protection loop for direct solar-water-heating systems. Final report

Description: Even a one-time freeze condition can do destructive damage to a direct solar water heating system. The project funded under grant DE-FG4480R4, 1-1-80 to 8-1-81, proposed to demonstrate a simple installation procedure whereby thermosiphoning warm water from storage would prevent solar collectors from freezing. Installing the freeze protection loop in owner maintained solar systems was inconclusive. Owners were not attentive to freeze warnings or did not understand the simple instructions. A controlled situation was established using a refrigerator to produce below freezing temperatures. Experiments conducted with this equipment showed that the thermosiphoning principle could not be relied on to prevent freezing. Thermosiphoning cannot be relied on to prevent freezing in a direct solar water heating system. The direct system is an effective means of heating water in north Florida, but the system must be drained, either manually or automatically, to provide reliable system protection.
Date: November 4, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Windjammer solar-water-heating system. Final technical report

Description: The results of the Windjammer Solar-Water-Heating System tests showed that it was not as an efficient system as a comparable conventional system for converting solar energy into heat energy. However, it was determined that the innovative mode used less electric back-up energy for water heating. Reduced fossil fuel energy consumption being the ultimate objective of a solar water heating, the principle employed has been shown to be a workable energy saving concept. The differential mode of temperature control emerged as the more efficient mode of operation for the innovative system and under comparable conditions is projected to be nearly equivalent to the conventional solar system. Although the concept has proven workable, the costs feasible, and the potential for considereable improvements exists, additional research and development is needed to advance the design into its most practical application.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Windham, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

Description: The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Water Heaters - The Next Generation

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing an aggressive goal to cut the cost of solar water-heating systems in half. Replacing metal and glass components with less expensive plastic ones is a key strategy for that goal. This is a short (2-page) fact sheet about new technologies for solar water heaters.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Burch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superfluid Performance of Tevatron IR Quad Heaters

Description: A collaborative team from the two laboratories measured the performance of a Tevatron Interaction region (IR) quadrupole at temperatures from 1.8 K to 4.4 K. These studies included measurement of their performance as a function of temperature as well as measurement of the effectiveness of the protection heaters. Heater diffusion times were measured for various temperatures, current levels, and power densities. These results and their implications on the design of magnet protection systems and magnet design operating in this temperature range will be discussed.
Date: December 12, 1996
Creator: Lietzke, A.; McInturff, A.D. & Scanlan, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

Description: This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M. & Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

Description: Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.
Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Widder, Sarah H. & Baechler, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured Strain of Nb3Sn Coils During Excitation and Quench

Description: The strain in a high field Nb{sub 3}Sn coil was measured during magnet assembly, cool-down, excitation and spot heater quenches. Strain was measured with a full bridge strain gauge mounted directly over the turns and impregnated with the coil. Two such coils were placed in a ''common coil'' fashion capable of reaching 11T at 4.2K. The measured steady state strain in the coil is compared with results obtained using the FEM code ANSYS. During quenches, the transient strain (due to temperature rise) was also measured and compared with the calculated mechanical time response to a quench.
Date: April 16, 2005
Creator: Caspi, S.; Bartlett, S.E.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

Description: We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Freifeld, B. M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T. C.; Toole, P. & Pratt, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department