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Pilot Plant Tests and Design Study of a 2.5 MGD Horizontal-Tube Multiple-Effect Plant

Description: From Summary: "Heat transfer coefficients for 2-, 2.5-, and 3-inch diameter horizontal aluminum-brass tubes are presented and correlated as functions of tube diameter, tube spacing, feed rate, feed salinity, heat flux, boiling point, and vapor velocity. A model of the heat transfer mechanism is proposed to explain and correlate the results."
Date: October 1969
Creator: Universal Desalting Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Liquid-Metal Heat-Transfer Experiment

Description: From Introduction: "The primary objective of the Boiling Liquid Metal Program in the Reactor Engineering Division at Argonne is to be obtain experimental information pertinent to the the boiling-heat transfer and fluid-flow behavior of the alkali metals, especially sodium."
Date: June 1965
Creator: Holtz, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transfer in the LTV Evaporator: An Analysis of Pilot Plant Data and Predictive Techniques for Plant Operation and Design

Description: Summary & Conclusions: "The study presented in this report was directed toward resolving the uncertainties in the design and prediction methods for heat transfer performance as well as toward analyzing certain aspects of the scaling problem."
Date: June 1963
Creator: Prengle, Dukler & Crump, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sixth Annual Report: Freeport Test Facility, Freeport, Texas

Description: From Introduction: "The Sixth Annual Report presents a wide variety of information findings and recommendations concerning the Multiple-Effect VTE evaporation method of desalination. The included data are derived from the results obtained from operation, maintenance, and development studies conducted for the the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water, at Freeport, Texas. Not only are the technical, logistical, and economical evaluations for the Fiscal Year 1967 operations presented herein, but also the process and mechanical development program results as related to the process in particular, and desalination in general."
Date: October 1969
Creator: Stearns-Roger Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Data on Rain Deflection from Aircraft Windshields by Means of High-Velocity Jet-Air Blast

Description: A preliminary experimental investigation is being conducted to determine the feasibility of preventing rain from impinging on aircraft windshields by means of high-velocity jet-air blast. The results indicate that rain deflection by jet blast appears feasible for flight speeds comparable with landing and take-off speeds of interceptor-type jet aircraft; however, attainment of good visibility through the mist generated by raindrop breakup presents a problem. For the simulated windshield and the lower windshield angles used in the investigation, air-flow rates of the order of 3.3 pounds per minute of unheated air per inch of windshield span were required for adequate rain deflection at a free-stream velocity of 135 miles per hour. A method has been devised whereby it is possible to produce large-diameter water drops (1000 to 1500 p.) in a moving air stream, without breakup, at speeds in excess of 175 miles per hour.
Date: July 25, 1955
Creator: Ruggeri, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on an NACA 65(sub 1) -212 Airfoil at an Angle of Attack of 4 Deg

Description: The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 651-212 airfoil at an angle of attack of 40 were determined. The collection efficiency, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement were calculated from the trajectories and are presented herein.
Date: September 10, 1952
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J.; Serafini, John S. & Moshos, George J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Power Requirements for Ice Prevention and Cyclical De-Icing of Inlet Guide Vanes with Internal Electric Heaters

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the electric power requirements necessary for ice protection of inlet guide vanes by continuous heating and by cyclical de-icing. Data are presented to show the effect of ambient-air temperature, liquid-water content, air velocity, heat-on period, and cycle times on the power requirements for these two methods of ice protection. The results showed that for a hypothetical engine using 28 inlet guide vanes under similar icing conditions, cyclical de-icing can provide a total power saving as high as 79 percent over that required for continuous heating. Heat-on periods in the order of 10 seconds with a cycle ratio of about 1:7 resulted in the best over-all performance with respect to total power requirements and aerodynamic losses during the heat-off period. Power requirements reported herein may be reduced by as much as 25 percent by achieving a more uniform surface-temperature distribution. A parameter in terms of engine mass flow, vane size, vane surface temperature, and the icing conditions ahead of the inlet guide vanes.was developed by which an extension of the experimental data to icing conditions and inlet guide vanes, other than those investigated was possible.
Date: December 1, 1950
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe & Blatz, Robert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of Local Liquid-Water Concentration About an Ellipsoid of Fineness Ratio 10 Moving in a Droplet Field

Description: Trajectories of water droplets about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 10 (10 percent thick) in flight through a droplet field were computed with the aid of a differential analyzer. Analyses of these trajectories indicate that the local concentration of liquid water at various points about an ellipsoid varies considerably and under some conditions may be several times the free-stream concentration. Curves of the local concentration factor as a function of spatial position were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters that describe flight and atmospheric conditions. The data indicate that the expected local concentration factors should be considered when choosing the location of devices that protrude into the stream from aircraft fuselages or missiles, or when determining antiicing heat requirements for the protection of these devices.
Date: April 1, 1955
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Dorsch, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Droplet Impingement and Ingestion by Supersonic Nose Inlet in Subsonic Tunnel Conditions

Description: The amount of water in cloud droplet form ingested by a full-scale supersonic nose inlet with conical centerbody was measured in the NACA Lewis icing tunnel. Local and total water impingement rates on the cowl and centerbody surfaces were also obtained. All measurements were made with a dye-tracer technique. The range of operating and meteorological conditions studied was: angles of attack of 0 deg and 4.2 deg, volume-median droplet diameters from about 11 to 20 microns, and ratios of inlet to free-stream velocity from about 0.4 to 1.8. Although the inlet was designed for supersonic (Mach 2.0) operation of the aircraft, the tunnel measurements were confined to a free-stream velocity of 156 knots (Mach 0.237). The data are extendable to other subsonic speeds and droplet sizes by dimensionless impingement parameters. Impingement and ingestion efficiencies are functions of the ratio of inlet to free-stream velocity as well as droplet size. For the model and range of conditions studied, progressively increasing the inlet velocity ratio from less than to greater than 1.0 increased the centerbody impingement efficiency and shifted the cowl impingement region from the inner- to outer-cowl surfaces, respectively. The ratio of water ingested by the inlet plane to that contained in a free-stream tube of cross section equal to that at the inlet plane also increased with increasing inlet velocity ratio. Theoretically calculated values of inlet water (or droplet) ingestion are in good agreement with experiment for annular inlet configurations.
Date: May 1, 1958
Creator: Gelder, Thomas F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Dye-Tracer Technique for Experimentally Obtaining Impingement Characteristics of Arbitrary Bodies and a Method for Determining Droplet Size Distribution

Description: A dye-tracer technique has been developed whereby the quantity of dyed water collected on a blotter-wrapped body exposed to an air stream containing a dyed-water spray cloud can be colorimetrically determined in order to obtain local collection efficiencies, total collection efficiency, and rearward extent of impingement on the body. In addition, a method has been developed whereby the impingement characteristics obtained experimentally for a body can be related to theoretical impingement data for the same body in order to determine the droplet size distribution of the impinging cloud. Several cylinders, a ribbon, and an aspirating device to measure cloud liquid-water content were used in the studies presented herein for the purpose of evaluating the dye-tracer technique. Although the experimental techniques used in the dye-tracer technique require careful control, the methods presented herein should be applicable for any wind tunnel provided the humidity of the air stream can be maintained near saturation.
Date: March 1, 1955
Creator: VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gelder, Thomas F. & Smyers, William H., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method for Determining Cloud-Droplet Impingement on Swept Wings

Description: The general effect of wing sweep on cloud-droplet trajectories about swept wings of high aspect ratio moving at subsonic speeds is discussed. A method of computing droplet trajectories about yawed cylinders and swept wings is presented, and illustrative droplet trajectories are computed. A method of extending two-dimensional calculations of droplet impingement on nonswept wings to swept wings is presented. It is shown that the extent of impingement of cloud droplets on an airfoil surface, the total rate of collection of water, and the local rate of impingement per unit area of airfoil surface can be found for a swept wing from two-dimensional data for a nonswept wing. The impingement on a swept wing is obtained from impingement data for a nonswept airfoil section which is the same as the section in the normal plane of the swept wing by calculating all dimensionless parameters with respect to flow conditions in the normal plane of the swept wing.
Date: April 1, 1953
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Brun, Rinaldo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method for Rapid Determination of the Icing Limit of a Body in Terms of the Stream Conditions

Description: The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.
Date: March 1, 1953
Creator: Callaghan, Edmund E. & Serafini, John S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Penetration of Air Jets Issuing from Circular, Square, and Elliptical Orifices Directed Perpendicularly to an Air Stream

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the penetration of air jets d.irected perpendicularlY to an air stream. Jets Issuing from circular, square, and. elliptical orifices were investigated. and. the jet penetration at a position downstream of the orifice was determined- as a function of jet density, jet velocity, air-stream d.enaity, air-stream velocity, effective jet diameter, and. orifice flow coeffIcient. The jet penetrations were determined for nearly constant values of air-stream density at three tunnel-air velocities arid for a large range of Jet velocities and. densities. The results were correlated in terms of dimensionless parameters and the penetrations of the various shapes were compared. Greater penetration was obtained. with the square orifices and the elliptical orifices having an axis ratio of 4:1 at low tunnel-air velocities and low jet pressures than for the other orifices investigated. The square orifices gave the best penetrations at the higher values of tunnel-air velocity and jet total pressure.
Date: February 1, 1950
Creator: Ruggeri, Robert S.; Callaghan, Edmund E. & Bowden, Dean T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of Local Liquid-Water Concentration About and Ellipsoid of Fineness Ratio 5 Moving in a Droplet Field

Description: Trajectories of water droplets about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 5 (which often approximates the shape of an aircraft fuselage or missile) were computed with the aid of a differential analyzer. Analyses of these trajectories indicate that the local concentration of liquid water at various points about an ellipsoid in flight through a droplet field varies considerably and under some conditions may be several times the free-stream concentration. Curves of the local concentration factor as a function of spatial position were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters Re(sub 0) (free-stream Reynolds number) and K (inertia), which contain flight and atmospheric conditions. These curves show that the local concentration factor at any point is very sensitive to change in the dimensionless parameters Re(sub 0) and K. These data indicate that the expected local concentration factors should be considered when choosing the location of, or when determining antiicing heat requirements for, water- or ice-sensitive devices that protrude into the stream from an aircraft fuselage or missile. Similarly, the concentration factor should be considered when choosing the location on an aircraft of instruments that measure liquid-water content or droplet-size distribution in the atmosphere.
Date: July 1, 1954
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Brun, Rinaldo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Correlation of Temperature Profiles Downstream of a Heated Air Jet Directed at Various Angles to Air Stream

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the temperature profiles downstream of heated air jets directed at angles of 90 deg, 60 deg, 45 deg, and 30 deg to an air stream. The profiles were determined at two positions downstream of the jet as a function of jet diameter, jet density, jet velocity, free-stream density, free-stream velocity, jet total temperature, orifice flow coefficient, and jet angle. A method is presented which yields a good approximation of the temperature profile in terms of the flow and geometric conditions.
Date: December 1, 1952
Creator: Ruggeri, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A General Correlation of Temperature Profiles Downstream of a Heated-Air Jet Directed Perpendicularly to an Air Stream

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the temperature profile downstream of a heated-air jet directed perpendicularly to an air stream. The profiles were determined at several positions downstream of the jet as functions of jet density, jet velocity, freestream density, free-stream velocity, jet temperature, and orifice flow coefficient. A method is presented which yields a good approximation of the temperature profile in terms of dimensionless parameters of the flow and geometric conditions.
Date: September 1, 1951
Creator: Callaghan, E. E. & Ruggeri, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Cloud Droplets on 36.5-Percent-Thick Joukowski Airfoil at Zero Angle of Attack and Discussion of Use as Cloud Measuring Instrument in Dye-Tracer Technique

Description: The trajectories of droplets i n the air flowing past a 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil at zero angle of attack were determined. The amount of water i n droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. With the detailed impingement information available, the 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil can serve the dual purpose of use as the principal element in instruments for making measurements in clouds and of a basic shape for estimating impingement on a thick streamlined body. Methods and examples are presented for illustrating some limitations when the airfoil is used as the principal element in the dye-tracer technique.
Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Brun, R. J. & Vogt, Dorothea E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Droplets in 60 Deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Description: Trajectories were determined for water droplets or other aerosol particles in air flowing through 600 elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of a flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around. a 600 bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. Some of these have a pocket on the outside wall. The elbows produced by the complex potential function are suitable for use in aircraft air-inlet ducts and have the following characteristics: (1) The resultant velocity at any point inside the elbow is always greater than zero but never exceeds the velocity at the entrance. (2) The air flow field at the entrance and exit is almost uniform and rectilinear. (3) The elbows are symmetrical with respect to the bisector of the angle of bend. These elbows should have lower pressure losses than bends of constant cross-sectional area. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations so that collection efficiency, area, rate, and distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form. A comparison of the 600 elbow with previous calculations for a comparable 90 elbow indicated that the impingement characteristics of the two elbows were very similar.
Date: October 1, 1956
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.; Saper, Paul G. & Kadow, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Droplets in 90 deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Description: Trajectories were determined for droplets in air flowing through 90 deg elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion with low pressure losses. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of the flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around a 90 deg bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. The elbows produced by the complex potential function selected are suitable for use in aircraft air-intake ducts. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations in such a manner that the collection efficiency, the area, the rate, and the distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form.
Date: September 1, 1953
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.; Brun, Rinaldo J. & Boyd, Bemrose
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department