30 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Electric coheating as a means to test duct efficiency: A review and analysis of the literature

Description: Recent published literature on electric coheating was reviewed in order to assess its suitability for use in a method of test for the efficiency of residential duct systems. Electric coheating is the research use of electric heaters within the heated space to assess the thermal integrity of the building envelope. Information was sought in two primary areas: (1) experimental methodology and (2) accuracy of the coheating method. A variety of experimental variations was found, and the method was judged, on the basis of published data, to be capable of sufficient accuracy for use in duct testing.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leakage diagnostics, sealant longevity, sizing and technologytransfer in residential thermal distribution systems: Part II.Residential thermal Distribution Systesm, Phase VI FinalReport

Description: This report builds on and extends our previous efforts as described in "Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal Distribution Systems- CIEE Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Phase V Final Report, October 1997". New developments include defining combined duct and equipment efficiencies in a concept called "Tons At the Register" and on performance issues related to field use of the aerosol sealant technology. Some of the key results discussed in this report include: o Register, boot and air handler cabinet leakage can often represent a significant fraction of the total duct leakage in new construction. Because of the large range of pressures in duct systems an accurate characterization may require separating these components through improved leakage testing. o Conventional duct tape failed our accelerated longevity testing and is not, therefore, considered generally acceptable for use in sealing duct systems. Many other tapes and sealing approaches are available and practical and have passed our longevity tests. o Simulations of summer temperature pull-down time have shown that duct system improvements can be combined with equipment downsizing to save first cost, energy consumption, and peak power and still provide equivalent or superior comfort. o Air conditioner name plate capacity ratings alone are a poor indicator of how much cooling will actually be delivered to the conditioned space. Duct system efficiency can have as large an impact on performance as variations in SEER. o Mechanical duct cleaning techniques do not have an adverse impact on the ducts sealed with the Aerosol sealant. The material typically used in Aerosol sealing techniques does not appear to present a health or safety hazard. Results from this study were used by the California Energy Commission in the formation of the current Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings (CEC, (1998)), often referred to as Title ...
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Buchanan, C.; Modera, M.; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.; Walker, I. & Wang, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

Description: We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of ...
Date: June 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

Description: The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.
Date: June 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II

Description: This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

Description: The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants {open_quotes}ATETs{close_quotes} optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Horak, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of supply-side alternatives for the Handlova heating system

Description: The goals of this study were to: (1) perform technical and economical analyses for three alternatives for the production and distribution of thermal energy in the town of Handlova, Slovakia, (2) perform and economic evaluation for the main parameters for each alternative at the given required rate of return, (3) evaluate the sensitivity of the cost of delivered energy to several parameters, such as the thermal energy demand, cost of fuels and real interest rate, and (4) provide this information to the town officials for their decisions about the future development of the heat supply for space heating and water heating in the residential and non-residential sectors.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data base for district heating pipe system design

Description: A methodology and data base for assigning installation costs and length requirements of hot water pipes for district heat service are described. These variables are the most important elements in the cost of the distribution system. The assignment technique is applicable to any city and reflects such factors as land use intensity, congestion of present underground service lines, and local labor rates and materials procurement costs.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Lesse, R; Karkheck, J; Serry, H & Tessmer, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bates solar-industrial process-steam application. Draft safety report

Description: It has been proposed to install approximately 35,000 square feet of linear parabolic trough collectors on the roof of a corrugator plant. The collectors are to collect 5500 lbs/hr of steam to drive the corrugator. Each of the subsystems are described, and for each subsystem the possible safety hazards are identified, and recommendations are made to either eliminate or control the hazards at an acceptable level. Specific systems discussed are the master control system and data aquisition system, the collector, and heat transfer system. Fire safety, protection of personnel from burns and eye injury, and lightning protection are discussed. (LEW)
Date: April 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

Description: The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)
Date: January 7, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume IV

Description: This volume contains the following: discussion of cost estimating methodology, detailed cost estimates of Hudson No. 2 retrofit, intermediate thermal plant (Kearny No. 12) and local heater plants; transmission and distribution cost estimate; landfill gas cost estimate; staged development scenarios; economic evaluation; fuel use impact; air quality impact; and alternatives to district heating.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume VII. Appendix C

Description: This volume contains: Hudson No. 2 Limited Retrofit Cost Estimates provided by Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (SWEC); backup data and basis of estimate for SWEC Heater Plant and Gas Turbine Plant (Kearny No. 12) cost estimates; and Appendices - Analysis of Relevant Tax Laws.
Date: January 31, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984

Description: The potential for district heating was examined in terms of a total (regional) system and two subsystems of overlapping scales. The basis of the economic analysis of district heating was that the utility's electric and gas customers would not be economically burdened by the implementation of district heating, and that any incremental costs due to district heating (e.g. district heating capital and operating costs, replacement electric power, abandonment of unamortized gas mains) would be charged to district heating customers.
Date: January 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal-district-heating assessment model for decision making

Description: A methodology developed to assess the economic feasibility of district heating for any community in the United States is described. The overall philosophy which has guided its development is the conviction that district heating must be examined on a site-by-site basis. To support this approach, a set of extensive, in-house supporting data bases has been created and useful external data bases with national coverage have been identified. These data bases provide information at a sufficient level of detail to permit a first-cut examination of the district heating potential of a community without requiring outside data collection (allowing a substantial cost and time savings). The results of this blind look at a community permit a rapid, yet adequate estimate of district heating potential, costs, and energy savings. The data utilized in the initial examination can be supplemented or replaced by more detailed information obtained from on-site data collection, if the first results are promising. The fact that the data and methodology are computerized allows many locations within the community, alternate heat sources, ownership options, pipe technologies, etc. to be examined in a short period of time. The structure of the District Heating Model (DHM) (the methodology in computerized form) is described followed by a discussion of the application of the model to Provo, UT.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Reisman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.

Description: The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R. & Huber, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

Description: Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Balcomb, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

Description: In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.
Date: June 1, 1983
Creator: Lattin, M.W. & Hoppe, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network. Final report, September 1, 1978-May 31, 1979

Description: This volume presents information on the institutional factors, i.e., legal and regulatory aspects, a preliminary economic analysis, and a proposal for future studies on retrofitting existing thermal power plants so that they can supply heat for district heating and cooling systems for communities. (LCL)
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports

Description: The activities conducted by Solaron Corporation from November 1977 through September 1978 are summarized and the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is covered. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Williamson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution networks. Phase 1: identificatzon and assessment. Final report, Volume II. Detailed results

Description: The Phase I Identification and Assessment Study was aimed at surveying the State of Wisconsin to identify potential sites for a district heating system and evaluating these sites in terms of their technical, institutional and economic merits. Specific objectives of the study were to: identify candidate plants and service areas and to perform an energy market analysis for selected areas; identify and evaluate plant retrofit and distribution alternatives for the selected service areas; identify and evaluate institutional problems within the infrastructure; and perform an economic analysis for the candidate sites. The overall approach consisted of surveying the State of Wisconsin to identify all existing intermediate and base-loaded electric generating facilities. Once identified, screening criteria were developed to narrow the list to the three most promising sites. For each of the three sites, an extensive market analysis was performed to identify and characterize thermal loads and survey potential users on their views and concerns on the concept. Parallel to this effort, each of the three sites was evaluated on its technical and institutional merits. The technical evaluation centered on identifying and evaluating utility plant retrofit schemes and distribution system alternatives to service the identified thermal market. The institutional analysis evaluated potential barriers such as environmental, distribution system right-of-way and legal issues within the infrastructure of the state, city and community. Finally, all previous aspects of the analysis were combined to determine the economic viability of each site. The most promising site is Green Bay where process heat loads as well as building heat loads are located near the Pulliam Power Plant.
Date: September 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigations of the thermal energy grid concept

Description: This study examines, in a preliminary manner, the feasibility of the thermal grid concept. This concept essentially envisions the supply of heat to a long-distance transmission line from a dual-purpose nuclear or coal-fired power plant. The transmission line delivers heat to a subregion distribution network which delivers it to the consumer. District chilled water supply is also considered, using heat from the grid to power steam-turbine-driven water chillers. Candidate technologies for generation, transmission, and distribution of thermal energy are identified and assessed. Potential applications, including both industrial use and residential space conditioning and hot water supply, are evaluated. Results indicate that high-temperature hot-water transmission lines are favored for longer distances, while steam lines may be acceptable for shorter distances. It is also evident that thermal grid heat is more economically competitive for new applications, as opposed to retrofit situations, in the residential-commercial sector. The two applications are about equally feasible in the industrial sector. The results further indicate that thermal grid heat is most competitive in areas of high-heat-load density and expensive fuel costs. It appears that the thermal grid service area should include the industrial sector as a base load. The multifamily residential-commercial sector space and water heating loads can be added to the service area to maximize utilization of the transmission line and maintain low transmission costs. Supply of chilled water to the multifamily residential-commercial sector can also be included for new applications to increase the transmission line use factor. The thermal grid concept appears to be economically and technically feasible, when compared to oil and electric systems in the multifamily residential-commercial sector and coal- or oil-fired systems in the industrial sector, and should be explored in greater detail.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Olszewski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

Description: A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

Description: A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R. & Reilly, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department