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Summary of Some Current and Possible Future Environmental Problems Related to Geology and Hydrology at Memphis, Tennessee

Description: From introduction: This report summarizes information concerning many aspects of the geology and hydrology at Memphis, Tennessee. It also outlines some of the current problems related to the local geology and hydrology or ones that may arise as a result of urbanization and industrialization of the area.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Parks, William S. & Lounsbury, Richard W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effective Disaster Warnings - Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction

Description: This report describes and recommends ways to improve alert systems in order to reduce loss of lives, property, and economic activity caused by natural and man-made disasters.
Date: November 2000
Creator: National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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New sources of radiation

Description: An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Schimmerling, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RADIATION HAZARDS FROM THE USE OP DENTAL X-RAY UNITS

Description: It is well known that for many years x-rays have been used in the dental profession as a potent diagnostic tool. Deprived of this means of exploration, the dentist and patient alike would be at a great disadvantage. In spite of the necessity of x-rays in the dental field, little has been done, however, to protect the patient and the dentist from unnecessary exposure. X-rays cannot immediately be felt or seen, and therein lies the hazard attending their use. What cannot be sensed is often ignored, and through unconcern and neglect an exposure resulting in biological impairment or damage may result. It was felt therefore, that the potential hazard occurring during oral roentgenography should be investigated and that the results of the investigation would be of interest to the dental profession. Radiation survey results are shown for six dentists' offices in the San Francisco Bay area.
Date: November 26, 1952
Creator: Nolan, W. E. & Patterson, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Packaging configurations and handling requirements for nuclear materials

Description: The basic safety concepts for radioactive material are that the package is the primary protection for the public, that the protection afforded by the package should be proportional to the hazard and that the package must be proved by performance. These principles are contained in Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations which classify hazards of various radioactive materials and link packaging requirements to the physical form and quantities being shipped. Packaging requirements are reflected in performance standards to guarantee that shipments of low hazard quantities will survive the rigors of normal transportation and that shipments of high hazard quantities will survive extreme severity transportation accidents. Administrative controls provide for segregation of radioactive material from people and other sensitive or hazardous material. They also provide the necessary information function to control the total amounts in a conveyance and to assure that appropriate emergency response activities be started in case of accidents or other emergencies. Radioactive materials shipped in conjunction with the nuclear reactor programs include, ores, concentrates, gaseous diffusion feedstocks, enriched and depleted uranium, fresh fuel, spent fuel, high level wastes, low level wastes and transuranic wastes. Each material is packaged and shipped in accordance with regulations and all hazard classes, quantity limits and packaging types are called into use. From the minimal requirements needed to ship the low hazard uranium ores or concentrates to the very stringent requirements in packaging and moving high level wastes or spent fuel, the regulatory system provides a means for carrying out transportation of radioactive material which assures low and controlled risk to the public.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Jefferson, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Source term and radiation dose estimates for postulated damage to the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center

Description: Three scenarios representing significant levels of containment loss due to moderate, substantial, and major damage to the 102 Building at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center are postulated, and the potential radiation doses to the general population as a result of the airborne releases of radionuclides are estimated. The damage scenarios are not correlated to any specific level of seismic activity. The three scenarios are: (1) Moderate damage scenario--perforation of the enclosures in and the structure comprising the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. (2) Substantial damage scenario--complete loss of containment of the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory and loss of the filters sealing the inlet to the Radioactive Materials Laboratory hot cells. (3) Major damage scenario--the damage outlined in (2) plus the perforation of enclosures holding significant inventories of dispersible plutonium in and the structure comprising the Advanced Fuels Laboratory.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Mishima, J.; McPherson, R.B.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Watson, E.C. & Ayer, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

Description: The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated.
Date: September 9, 1983
Creator: Baumann, B. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fusion reactor wastes

Description: The potential waste releases for commercial fusion power plants were estimated by use of standard environmental analysis procedures incorporating a high degree of speculation. The analytical procedure is presented. A description was obtained for each of the ten fusion power plant concepts currently being developed. These concepts were then analyzed to determine the general characteristics and probable waste releases. (MOW)
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Young, J R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility Building 888. Hazards assessment document

Description: The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Lightning Simulation Facility, Building 888. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 65 meters.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Banda, Z. & Barnett, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

Description: A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Fullwood, R. & Jackson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of potential radiological impacts of /sup 233/U and /sup 239/Pu fuel cycles

Description: Nuclear fuel cycles utilizing /sup 233/U are currently the subject of considerable interest in the United States. This paper focuses on the identification of significant differences between the off-site radiological hazards posed by /sup 232/Th//sup 233/U (Th/U) and /sup 238/U//sup 239/Pu (U/Pu) fuel cycles, and represents a portion of our involvement in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), to be used in support of the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). The major contributors to radiological dose are likely to be uranium mining and milling (58.5% of total fuel cycle dose), reprocessing (33.9%), and light-water reactor power generation (7.3%). The remainder of the cycle, including enrichment processes, fuel fabrication, transportation, and waste management, contributes only 0.3% to total estimated fuel cycle dose.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Meyer, H. R.; Little, C. A.; Witherspoon, J. P. & Till, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hazards Evaluation Report Associated with the Operation of EBWR at 100 MW

Description: From Introduction: "This hazards report covers the basic modifications to the EBWR plant as designed to increase the present operating design rating of 20 Mwt to a new rating of 100 Mwt. it is written as a supplement to ANL-5781 (the original hazards report) and follows the outline of that report for purposes of cross reference."
Date: October 1960
Creator: Wimunc, E. A. & Harrer, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary Design and Hazards Report-Boiling Reactor Experiment V (BORAX V)

Description: From introduction: "The report is preliminary. At the time of writing, the status of the BORAX V project is that design of the reactor buildings and plant, done in collaboration with the architect-engineer with the architect-engineer has been completed and construction has just started; however, the mechanical design of the fuel and cores is still tentative."
Date: February 1960
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Static Electricity in Nature and Industry

Description: From Introduction: "In this bulletin "static electricity" is used in its commonly accepted meaning to include the various manifestations that result from the coming together or neutralization of positive and negative charges with have been separated by friction between unlike substances or otherwise. Although the scope of the this report is rather broad, it deals primarily with static electricity as a hazard. Casual and experimental observations recorded herein are thus given for a background and for the purpose of suggesting hazards not yet recognized."
Date: 1939
Creator: Guest, Paul G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiation risk perception and public information

Description: We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Boggs-Mayes, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiological safety design considerations for fusion research experiments

Description: A wide variety of fusion research experiments are in the planning or construction stages. Two such experiments, the Nova Laser Fusion Facility and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), are currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Although the plasma chamber vault for MFTF and the Nova target room will have thick concrete walls and roofs, the radiation safety problems are made complex by the numerous requirements for shield wall penetrations. This paper addresses radiation safety considerations for the MFTF and Nova experiments, and the need for integrated safety considerations and safety technology development during the planning stages of fusion experiments.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Crase, K.W. & Singh, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of the radiological and chemical toxicity of lead

Description: This report estimates the worst-case radiological dose to an individual from ingested lead containing picocurie levels of radionuclides and then compares the calculated radiological health effects to the chemical toxic effects from that same lead. This comparison provides an estimate of the consequences of inadvertently recycling, in the commercial market, lead containing nominally undetectable concentrations of radionuclides. Quantitative expressions for the radiological and chemical toxicities of lead are based on concentrations of lead in the blood stream. The result shows that the chemical toxicity of lead is a greater health hazard, by orders of magnitude, than any probable companion radiation dose.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Beitel, G. A. & Mott, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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