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Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

Description: We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600°C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc.
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The correlation of indentation size effect experiments with pyramidal and spherical indenters.

Description: Experiments were conducted in annealed iridium using pyramidal and spherical indenters over a wide range of load. For a Berkovich pyramidal indenter, the hardness increased with decreasing depth of penetration. However, for spherical indenters, hardness increased with decreasing sphere radius. Based on the number of geometrically necessary dislocations generated during indentation, a theory that takes into account the work hardening differences between pyramidal and spherical indenters is developed to correlate the indentation size effects measured with the two indenters. The experimental results verify the theoretical correlation.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Swadener, J. G. (John G.); George, Easo P. & Pharr, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

Description: Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.
Date: March 26, 2008
Creator: Racek, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining the toughness of ceramics from Vickers indentationsusing the crack-opening displacements: An experimental study

Description: Recently, a method for evaluating the fracture toughness of ceramics has been proposed based on the computed crack-opening displacements of cracks emanating from Vickers hardness indentations. In order to verify this method, experiments were carried out to determine the toughness of a commercial silicon carbide ceramic, Hexaloy SA, by measuring the crack-opening profiles of such Vickers indentation cracks. While the obtained toughness value of Ko = 2.3 MPavm was within 10% of that measured using conventional fracture toughness testing, the computed crack-opening profiles corresponding to this toughness displayed poor agreement with those measured experimentally, raising concerns about the suitability of this method for determining the toughness of ceramics. The effects of subsurface cracking and cracking during loading are considered as possible causes of such discrepancies, with the former based on evidence observed for secondary radial cracking which affected the crack opening profile and deduced toughness values.
Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: Kruzic, J.J. & Ritchie, R.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of boron/boron-nitride multilayers

Description: Boron-Nitride films are of interest for their high hardness and wear resistance. Large intrinsic stresses and poor adhesion which often accompany high hardness materials can be moderated through the use of a layered structure. Alternate layers of boron (B) and boron-nitride (BN) are formed by modulating the composition of the sputter gas during deposition from a pure B target. The thin films are characterized with TEM to evaluate the microstructure and with nanoindentation to determine hardness. Layer pair spacing and continuity effects on hardness are evaluated for the B/BN films.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Jankowski, A. F.; Wall, M. A.; Hayes, J. P. & Alexander, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanoindentation Results from Direct Molded vs. Machined UHMWPE Tibial Bearings

Description: Nanoindentation has been used to compare the micromechanical properties of direct molded vs. machined bearing surfaces on UHMWPE tibial components. Differences in micromechanical properties (hardness and elastic storage modulus) were observed between these two types of bearing surfaces, and are believed to result from (1) differences in surface roughness, and (2) differences in morphology of the UHMWPE. Clinical studies of in-vivo UHMWPE wear rates in acetabular cups have reported differences between direct molded and machined bearings.{sup 1,2} Other studies of retrieved components have reported differences as well.{sup 3} Variations in surface characteristics (rather than bulk properties) may cause these differences in wear behavior. This study's objective was to compare micro-mechanical interactions at the bearing surfaces of direct molded components with those of machined components. A nanoindenter was used to perform instrumented microindentations on these surfaces. Da ta was analyzed to study both the load vs. displacement behavior during the indentation cycle, and also to measure the elastic storage modulus and hardness as a function of depth.
Date: November 13, 1999
Creator: Higgins, J.E.; Joy, D.C.; Pharr, G.M.; Schmidt, M.A. & Swadener, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical characterization of irradiated prototype silicon pixel sensors for BTeV

Description: The pixel detector in the BteV experiment at the Tevatron (Fermi Laboratory) is an important detector component for high-resolution tracking and vertex identification. For this task the hybrid pixel detector has to work in a very harsh radiation environment with up to 10{sup 14} minimum ionizing particles/cm{sup 2}/year. Radiation hardness of prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors has been investigated. We present Electrical characterization curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment. We tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation techniques: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on irradiation with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.
Date: November 13, 2002
Creator: al., Maria Rita Coluccia et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Depth-Sensing Indentation Tests with a Knoop Indenter

Description: The present work shows how data obtained in a depth-sensing indentation test using a Knoop indenter may be analyzed to provide elastic modulus and hardness of the specimen material. The method takes into account the elastic recovery along the direction of the short axis of the residual impression as the indenter is removed. If elastic recovery is not accounted for, the elastic modulus and hardness are overestimated by an amount that depends on the ratio of E/H of the specimen material. The new method of analysis expresses the elastic recovery of the short diagonal of the residual impression into an equivalent face angle for one side of the Knoop indenter. Conventional methods of analysis using this corrected angle provide results for modulus and hardness that are consistent with those obtained with other types of indenters.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Riester, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics

Description: This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.
Date: May 31, 2011
Creator: Sun, K. X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of failed and nickel-coated 3093 beam clamp components at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP).

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company (BJC), are undertaking a major effort to clean up the former gaseous diffusion facility (K-25) located in Oak Ridge, TN. The decontamination and decommissioning activities require systematic removal of contaminated equipment and machinery followed by demolition of the buildings. As part of the cleanup activities, a beam clamp, used for horizontal life lines (HLLs) for fall protection, was discovered to be fractured during routine inspection. The beam clamp (yoke and D-ring) was a component in the HLL system purchased from Reliance Industries LLC. Specifically, the U-shaped stainless steel yoke of the beam clamp failed in a brittle mode at under less than 10% of the rated design capacity of 14,500 lb. The beam clamp had been in service for approximately 16 months. Bechtel Jacobs approached Argonne National Laboratory to assist in identifying the root cause of the failure of the beam clamp. The objectives of this study were to (1) review the prior reports and documents on the subject, (2) understand the possible failure mechanism(s) that resulted in the failed beam clamp components, (3) recommend approaches to mitigate the failure mechanism(s), and (4) evaluate the modified beam clamp assemblies. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and chemical analysis of the corrosion products on the failed yoke and white residue on an in-service yoke indicated the presence of zinc, sulfur, and calcium. Analysis of rainwater in the complex, as conducted by BJC, indicated the presence of sulfur and calcium. It was concluded that, as a result of galvanic corrosion, zinc from the galvanized components of the beam clamp assembly (D-ring) migrated to the corroded region in the presence of the rainwater. Under mechanical stress, the corrosion process would have accelerated, resulting in the catastrophic failure of the yoke. As suggested by Bechtel ...
Date: October 11, 2010
Creator: Singh, D.; Pappacena, K.; Gaviria, J.; Burtsteva, T. & Division, Nuclear Engineering
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indenter geometry effects on the measurements of mechanical properties by nanoindentation with sharp indenters

Description: The measurement of mechanical properties by nanoindentation methods is most often conducted using indenters with the Berkovich geometry (a triangular pyramid) or with a sphere. These indenters provide a wealth of information, but there are certain circumstances in which it would be useful to make measurements with indenters of other geometries. We have recently explored how the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus can be achieved using sharp indenters other than the Berkovich. Systematic studies in several materials were conducted with a Vickers indenter, a conical indenter with a half-included tip angle of 70.3{degrees}, and the standard Berkovich indenter. All three indenters are geometrically similar and have nominally the same area-to-depth relationship, but there are distinct differences in the behavior of each. Here, we report on the application of these indenters in the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation methods and some of the difficulties that occur.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Tsui, T.Y.; Pharr, G.M. & Oliver, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends in the design of front-end systems for room temperature solid state detectors

Description: The paper discusses the present trends in the design of low-noise front-end systems for room temperature semiconductor detectors. The technological advancement provided by submicron CMOS and BiCMOS processes is examined from several points of view. The noise performances are a fundamental issue in most detector applications and suitable attention is devoted to them for the purpose of judging whether or not the present processes supersede the solutions featuring a field-effect transistor as a front-end element. However, other considerations are also important in judging how well a monolithic technology suits the front-end design. Among them, the way a technology lends itself to the realization of additional functions, for instance, the charge reset in a charge-sensitive loop or the time-variant filters featuring the special weighting functions that may be requested in some applications of CdTe or CZT detectors.
Date: October 7, 2003
Creator: Manfredi, Pier F. & Re, Valerio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of depth-area relationships associated with nanoindentations

Description: Determination of hardness from indentation testing requires the measurement of the contact area. For indents generated at very low loads (<20 mN) or shallow depths (<250 nm), optical methods do not have sufficient resolution. One approach utilized in current state-of-the-art mechanical properties microprobes (MPM) involves the measurement of indenter depth. Calculation of the plastic area then requires a relation between depth and contact area. This relation is generally derived either by assuming the indenter is perfectly sharp (``Ideal Indenter`` assumption) or by calibrating the shape using materials having known hardness and elastic modulus values. The validity of both approaches was examined by using a Scanning Force Microprobe (SFM) to measure the actual dimensions of the residual impressions made by the MPM. The SFM data revealed that the ``Ideal Indenter`` assumption underestimates the actual plastic area. This result accounts for the fact that hardness values measured with the MPM are typically higher than those obtained with conventional hardness testers.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Riester, L. & Ferber, M. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A method is presented for designing a two-layer pressure vessel wherein contact between the layers is produced by controlled yielding of the inner vessel by internal pressure. The amount of prestress depends upon the dimensions of the vessel, the properties of the material of construction, and the prestressing pressure. The method takes into account the actual stress-strain curve of the material and satisfies the rules of plastic flow with work hardening. (auth)
Date: January 29, 1964
Creator: Schneider, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

Description: Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.
Date: June 6, 2012
Creator: Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Wilethane 44 Cure

Description: Wilethane 44 is a polyurethane adhesive developed by the Materials Team within ESA-MEE at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a replacement for Hexcel Corporation Urethane 7200. Urethane 7200 is used in numerous weapon systems, but it was withdrawn from the market in 1989. The weapons complex requires a replacement material for use in the W76-1 LEP and the W88, as well as for assembly of JTAs for other warheads. All polyurethane systems are susceptible to moisture reacting with unreacted isocyanate groups. This side reaction competes with the curing reaction and results in CO{sub 2} formation. Therefore, a polyurethane adhesive can exhibit foaming if appropriate environmental controls are not in place while it cures. A designed experiment has been conducted at TA-16-304 to determine the effects of ambient conditions on the properties of cured Wilethane 44. Temperature was varied from 15 C to 30 C and relative humidity from 15% to 40%. The density, hardness at 24 hours, and butt tensile strength on aluminum substrates were measured and fitted to quadratic equations over the experimental space. Additionally, the loss and storage moduli during cure were monitored as a function of cure temperature. These experiments provide a stronger basis for establishing appropriate environmental conditions and cure times when using Wilethane 44. The current guidelines are a working time of 90 minutes, a cure time of 18 hours, and a relative humidity of less than 25%, regardless of ambient temperature. Viscosity measurements revealed that the working time is a strong function of temperature and can be as long as 130 minutes at 15 C or as short as 90 minutes at 30 C. The experiments also showed that the gel time is much longer than originally thought, as long as 13 hours at 15 C. Consequently, it may be necessary to extend the ...
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Weigle, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings

Description: Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.
Date: August 10, 2007
Creator: Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The processing-structure-property relationship is investigated for electrodeposited foils of the gold-copper alloy system. A model is presented that relates the deposition process parameters to the nanocrystalline grain size. An activation energy of 1.52 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} for growth is determined for a long pulse (&gt;10 msec) mode, and is 0.16 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} for short pulses (&lt;5 msec). The affect of nanocrystalline grain size on the mechanical properties is assessed using indentation measurements. A Hall-Petch type variation of the Vickers microhardness with nanocrystalline grain size (&gt;6 nm) is observed for Au-Cu samples with 1-12 wt.% Cu as tested in cross-section. The hardness increases three-fold from a rule-of-mixtures value &lt;1 GPa to a maximum of 2.9 GPa.
Date: February 25, 2005
Creator: Jankowski, A F; Saw, C K; Harper, J F; Vallier, R F; Ferreira, J L & Hayes, J P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department