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Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

Description: This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Shade, J.W., Kincaid, C.T.; Whyatt, G.A.; Rhoads, K.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Freshley, M.D.; Blanchard, K.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments

Description: The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K. & Persoff, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

Description: The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory evaluation of performance and durability of polymer grouts for subsurface hydraulic/diffusion barriers. Informal report, October 1993--May 1994

Description: Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier. Subsurface barriers increase the performance of waste disposal sites by providing a low permeability layer that can reduce percolation water migration into the waste site, minimize surface transport of contaminants, and reduce migration of volatile species. Also, a barrier can be constructed to envelop the site or plume completely, there by containing the contaminants and the potential leakage. Portland cement grout curtains have been used for barriers around waste sites. However, large castings of hydraulic cements result invariably in cracking due to shrinkage, thermal stresses induced by the hydration reactions, and wet-dry cycling prevalent at and sites. Therefore, improved, low permeability, high integrity materials are under investigation by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development, Integrated Demonstrations and Programs. The binders chosen for characterization include: an acrylic, a vinylester styrene, bitumen, a polyester styrene, furfuryl alcohol, and sulfur polymer cement. These materials cover broad ranges of chemical and physical durability, performance, viscosity, and cost. This report details the results of laboratory formulation, testing, and characterization of several innovative polymer grouts. An appendix containing a database of the barrier materials is at the end of this report.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Heiser, J.H. & Milian, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of cement-based seal-system components in a waste-disposal environment

Description: A grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay was developed as part of the closure system of shallow subsurface structures for disposal of low-activity radioactive wastes. Heat output, volume change, and compressive strength of the sealing grout were monitored with time, at elevated temperature, and in physical models, to determine if this closure grout could maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of the disposal structure. To determine if contact with an alkaline liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the sealing grout, cured specimens were immersed in a liquid waste simulant containing high concentrations of sodium and aluminum salts. After 21 days at 60 C, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. XRD revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. The new phase has an XRD pattern similar to the commercial synthetic zeolite Losod. Scanning electron microscopy used with x-ray fluorescence showed that clusters of this phase had formed in grout pores, to increase rout density and decrease its effective porosity. Testing was repeated at 100 C for 5 days using a simulant containing sodium hydroxide and aluminum nitrate and results were similar. Physical and chemical tests indicate acceptable performance of this grout as a seal-system component.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Malone, P.G.; Wakeley, L.D.; Burkes, J.P. & McDaniel, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas Generation from Hanford Grout Samples : Final Report

Description: The radiolytic yields of hydrogen nitrogen, oxygen, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been (gamma) irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for hydrogen and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled "virgin" waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of hydrogen and nitrogen are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(oxygen) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(nitrous oxide) = 0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90 C similar amounts of hydrogen were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of nitrogen and nitrous oxide were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from the grout samples.
Date: March 1994
Creator: Jonah, Charles D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, Max S.; Mulac, W. A. & Meisel, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

Description: The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.
Date: January 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grout Facilities Standby Plan

Description: This plan defines how the Grout Facilities will be deactivated to meet the intent of the recently renegotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). The TPA calls for the use of the grout process as an emergency option only in the event that tank space is not available to resolve tank safety issues. The availability of new tanks is expected by 1997. Since a grout startup effort would take an estimated two years, a complete termination of the Grout Disposal Program is expected in December 1995. The former Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) Strategy, adopted in 1988, called for the contents of Hanford`s 28 newer double-shell waste tanks to be separated into high-level radioactive material to be vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository; low-level wastes were to be sent to the Grout Facility to be made into a cement-like-mixture and poured into underground vaults at Hanford for disposal. The waste in the 149 older single-shell tanks (SST) were to undergo further study and analysis before a disposal decision was made.
Date: September 29, 1994
Creator: Claghorn, R. D.; Kison, P. F.; Nunamaker, D. R. & Yoakum, A. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

G3 model of gas and liquid migration from grout containing radioactive waste

Description: Grout has been evaluated as a means of containing low-level radioactive waste for long-term disposal. Concerns about hydrogen and reactive gas generation in the Hanford Site grout disposal facility lead to the development of the G3 model, which has predicted buildup of radiolytically formed gases in the grout region and their migration to air-filled regions. The G3 model is a one-dimensional code that couples models of gas diffusion with two-phase gas and liquid flow. It was coupled to a compartment diffusion model and these models predicted the concentrations of hydrogen I nitrous oxide, and other gases in air-filled regions of the grout disposal facility. The results have served as the technical basis for safety studies. A unique finding of the G3 model was that a liquid return, or expulsion of unbound liquid from the grout region, could occur. This liquid return is driven by displacement caused by gas bubbles that form within the grout`s microstructure. Liquid return is very sensitive to the level of gas production, the geometry and design of the grout region, and the material properties of the grout. Experimental evidence and observations that support code predictions will be discussed in this paper.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Roblyer, S. P.; Finfrock, S. H. & Powell, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

REGAL model of gas and liquid migration from grout containing radioactive waste

Description: A concern for hydrogen and flammable gas generation in the Hanford Site grout radioactive waste disposal facility led to the development of the REGAL model. This model predicts buildup of radiolytically formed gases in the grout region and their migration to air-filled regions surrounding the grout. The REGAL model is a three-dimensional finite difference code that couples models of gas diffusion, two-phase gas and liquid flow, liquid evaporation and condensation, and heat transfer. Final preliminary software quality assurance of the REGAL code has not been completed at this time; however, the current status of the model is adequate to demonstrate the liquid expulsion predictions described in this paper. A unique finding of this model was that an expulsion of liquid from the grout region could occur. This liquid is from the radioactive waste tanks and may contain soluble radioisotopes and chemicals, such as {sup 137}Cs and nitrates. This liquid expulsion is driven by displacement of gas bubbles formed within the grout microstructure. Liquid expulsion is very sensitive to the level of gas production, geometry and design of the grout region, and material properties of the grout.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Roblyer, S. P.; Finfrock, S. H.; Ritter, G. A. & Schwinkendorf, K. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste receiving and processing module 2A mixing tests status report

Description: The purpose of this report is to document the Phase II test conditions, observations, and results of this work. This report provides additional mixing performance test data and rheologic data that provide further indications that there are clear and distinct advantages in the preliminary choice of high-shear mixing alone, and high-shear dispersion in combination with, or followed by, a low-speed type mixer/stirrer for WRAP 2A facility design. Another objective was to determine if significant scale-up problems might exist in the various mix and mixer designs. In the later Phase 2 tests the test material quantities were significantly larger than in the Phase 1 tests.
Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Weber, J. R. & Hull, K. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

Description: Efforts are being made to devise technologies that provide interim containment of waste sites while final remediation alternatives are developed. Permeation grouting, a technique used extensively in the civil and mining engineering industry has been investigated as a method for emplacing a subsurface containment barrier beneath existing waste sites. Conceptually an underlying barrier is placed by injecting grout into the formation at less than fracturing pressure from a series of directionally drilled boreholes beneath the waste site. This study evaluated the penetration and performance characteristics in varying soil conditions of four different grout materials (two microfine cements, mineral wax, and sodium silicate) at a field scale. Field testing consisted of grout injection via sleeve (tube-a`-manchette) pipe into both vertical and horizontal borehole configurations at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration site at Sandia National Laboratories. Prior to, during, and after grout injection non-intrusive geophysical techniques were used to map grout flow. Following the tests, the site was excavated to reveal details of the grout permeation, and grouted soil samples were cored for laboratory characterization. The non-intrusive and intrusive grout mapping showed preferential flow patterns, i.e., the grout tended to follow the path of least resistance. Preliminary testing indicates that permeation grouting is a feasible method for emplacing a low permeability subsurface barrier in the semi-arid unconsolidated alluvial soils common to the Southwest. Despite the success of this project, difficulties in predicting grout flow in heterogeneous soils and non-intrusive methods for imaging grout location and continuity are issues that need more attention.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Dwyer, B. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of annual exposure for grout operations

Description: An analysis is presented of the direct radiation exposures and dose rates to personnel from assumed quantities of radioactive grout, and Double Shell Tank (DST) waste feed. This analysis was based on filling four disposal vaults per year. Whole body doses were analyzed for occupational workers assigned to the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The study makes assumptions that must be met by the facility. Otherwise, the GTF will meet all DOE and WHC direct radiation exposure criteria. This analysis will be published in the Grout Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).
Date: February 3, 1994
Creator: Potter, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-destructive examination of grouted waste

Description: This data report contains the results of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and unconfined compressive strength (USC) measurements on a grouted simulant of 106AN tank waste. This testing program was conducted according to the requirements detailed in WHC-1993a. If successful, these methods could lead to a system for the remote verification of waste form quality. The objectives of this testing program were: to determine if a relationship exists between the velocity of ultrasonic compression waves and the unconfined compressive strength of simulated grouted waste, and if so, determine if the relationship is a valid method for grout quality assessment; and to determine if a relationship exists between the attenuation of wave amplitude and the age of test specimens. The first objective was met, in that a relationship between the UPV waves and USC was determined. This method appears to provide a valid measure of the quality of the grouted waste, as discussed in Sections 3.0 and 4.0. The second objective, to determine if the attenuation of UPV waves was related to the age of test specimens was partially met. A relationship does exist between wave amplitude and age, but it is doubtful that this method alone can be used to verify the overall quality of grouted waste. Section 2.0 describes the test methods, with the results detailed in Section 3.0. A discussion of the results are provided in Section 4.0.
Date: November 18, 1994
Creator: Benny, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

Description: The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Allan, M. L. & Kukacka, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas generation from Hanford grout samples. Final report

Description: The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CO from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been {gamma} irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for H{sub 2} and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled ``virgin``waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(O{sub 2}) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(N{sub 2}O) =0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90{degrees}C similar amounts of H{sub 2} were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from ...
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Jonah, C. D.; Kapoor, S.: Matheson, M. S.; Mulac, W. A. & Meisel, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

Description: The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ``good`` grout, which will resist liquid release.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Powell, W. J. & Benny, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A TOUGH2 equation-of-state module for the simulation of two-phase flow of air, water, and a miscible gelling liquid

Description: The injection of grout into the subsurface can be used to encapsulate contaminated regions of an aquifer, or to form underground barriers for the isolation of contaminant sources and to prevent the spreading of existing plumes. This requires identifying grouts, or barrier fluids, which when injected into the subsurface exhibit a large increase in viscosity and eventually solidify, sealing the permeable zones in the aquifer. Simulation and modeling analysis are indispensable tools for designing the injection and predicting the performance of the barrier. In order to model flow and transport in such systems, the thermophysical properties of the fluid mixtures have to be provided, and the governing mass- and energy-balance equations for multiphase flow in porous media have to be solved numerically. The equation-of-state module EOS11 described herein is an extension of the EOS7 module of the TOUGH2 code for flow of saline water and air. In the modeling approach, the chemical grout is treated as a miscible fluid the viscosity of which is a function of time and concentration of the gelling agent in the pore water. If a certain high viscosity is reached and the movement of the grout plume ceases, the gel is assumed to solidify, leading to a new porous medium with changed soil characteristics, i.e. reduced porosity and permeability, increased capillary strength for a given water content, and changed initial saturation distribution.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G. J. & Pruess, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of fluidized-bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, February--May 1994

Description: During Phase I (first 18 months) the project is segregated into four areas of reporting: (A) Grout Formulation, (B) Grout Characterization, (C) Water Quality Monitoring, (D) Subsidence Control & Contaminant Transport. The first component involves formulating a grout mixture with appropriate flowability to be used in filling complex mine voids. The Grout Characterization component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. This report separately progress on all components of the program in order of project subtask.
Date: June 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land containment system: Horizontal grout barrier: A method for in situ waste management

Description: The DOE has a number of sites where wastes can potentially leak into the ground and escape into the environment. Both the DOE and others are faced with a need to control a wide variety of pollutants on land: leaking underground storage tanks, unstabilized soluble wastes entering the groundwater, leachates from dump sites and other sources. Current technologies require either removal and repackaging of the waste from its existing location or, the ability to tie vertical barrier walls into an underlying impermeable layer to contain leaking wastes. Necessary elements in control are land containment systems capable of completely surrounding and holding the contamination until it is removed, stabilized and/or treated in situ. Horizontal barrier placement technology as currently practiced is not highly developed. A search of the barrier industry indicates that no other existing/developed technique is as capable as the innovative horizontal grout barrier method promises to be in providing means for vertical containment of preexisting land disposed materials. The primary competitive technologies are triple rod jet grouting and freeze walls.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Ridenour, D. E. & Saugier, R. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

Description: Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.
Date: March 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of in situ-constructed horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

Description: A new design of jet grouting tool that can be guided by horizontal well casings and that operates in the horizontal plane has been used for the in situ placement of grout and construction of a prototype horizontal barrier that is free of windows. Jet grouting techniques have been advanced to permit construction of horizontal barriers underneath contaminated soil without having to excavate or disturb the waste. The paper describes progress on the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) In Situ Land Containment Project which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) for DOE`s Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The Fernald project is to demonstrate a novel, enabling technology for the controlled underground placement of horizontal panels of grout, and the joining of adjacent panels to construct practical, extensive barriers. Construction strategy, equipment mechanics and operating details of this new method are described.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Pettit, P. J.; Ridenour, D.; Walker, J. & Saugier, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

Description: The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.
Date: July 21, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department