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Grouting guidelines for Hanford Tanks Initiative cone penetrometer borings

Description: Grouting of an open cone penetrometer (CP) borehole is done to construct a barrier that prevents the vertical migration of fluids and contaminants between geologic units and aquifers intersected by the boring. Whether to grout, the types of grout, and the method of deployment are functions of the site-specific conditions. This report recommends the strategy that should be followed both before and during HTI [Hanford Tanks Initiative] CP deployment to decide specific borehole grouting needs at Hanford SST farms. Topics discussed in this report that bear on this strategy include: Regulatory guidance, hydrogeologic conditions, operational factors, specific CP grouting deployment recommendations.
Date: May 18, 1998
Creator: Iwatate, D.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes E and F

Description: During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of j Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70 percent of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup -6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.
Date: May 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HWMA closure plan for the Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

Description: The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) calcined and evaporated aqueous wastes generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The calciner operated from 1963 to 1981, primarily processing high level waste from the first cycle of spent fuel extraction. Following the calciner shutdown the evaporator system concentrated high activity aqueous waste from 1983 until 1987. In 1988, US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) requested interim status for the evaporator system, in anticipation of future use of the evaporator system. The evaporator system has not been operated since it received interim status. At the present time, DOE-ID is completing construction on a new evaporator at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) and the evaporator at the WCF is not needed. The decision to not use the WCF evaporator requires Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) and DOE-ID to close these units. After a detailed evaluation of closure options, LITCO and DOE-ID have determined the safest option is to fill the voids (grout the vessels, cells and waste pile) and close the WCF to meet the requirements applicable to landfills. The WCF will be covered with a concrete cap that will meet the closure standards. In addition, it was decided to apply these closure standards to the calcining system since it is contained within the WCF building. The paper describes the site, waste inventory, closure activities, and post-closure care plans.
Date: May 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence: Quarterly report, March 1-May 31, 1995

Description: During Phase I (first 18 months) the project is segregated into four areas of reporting: (A) Grout Formulation, (B) Grout Characterization, (C) Water Quality Monitoring, (D) Subsidence Control & Contaminant Transport. The first component involves formulating a grout mixture with appropriate flowability and strength (flow and strength requirements will be set by other components) to be used in filling complex mine voids. The Grout Characterization component will determine the flowability characteristics of the formulated grout and model the flow of the grout filling the mine void. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the strength requirements and the migration of contaminants through the candidate grouts. This report separately discusses progress on all components of the program in order of project subtask. The subtasks are arranged according to the Network Diagram on the following pages. Progress for each subtask can be seen in the Gantt Chart following the Network Diagram.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes A--D

Description: During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion data. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 X 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground. The main report describes brief background to the project, describes and analyzes the grouting operations, draws conclusions from the work performed, and presents some of the lessons learned. Appendices contain: (A) pipe driving records; (B) casing grout injection records; (C) in-situ hydraulic conductivity testing records; and (D) grout quality control testing records.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory evaluation of performance and durability of polymer grouts for subsurface hydraulic/diffusion barriers. Informal report, October 1993--May 1994

Description: Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier. Subsurface barriers increase the performance of waste disposal sites by providing a low permeability layer that can reduce percolation water migration into the waste site, minimize surface transport of contaminants, and reduce migration of volatile species. Also, a barrier can be constructed to envelop the site or plume completely, there by containing the contaminants and the potential leakage. Portland cement grout curtains have been used for barriers around waste sites. However, large castings of hydraulic cements result invariably in cracking due to shrinkage, thermal stresses induced by the hydration reactions, and wet-dry cycling prevalent at and sites. Therefore, improved, low permeability, high integrity materials are under investigation by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development, Integrated Demonstrations and Programs. The binders chosen for characterization include: an acrylic, a vinylester styrene, bitumen, a polyester styrene, furfuryl alcohol, and sulfur polymer cement. These materials cover broad ranges of chemical and physical durability, performance, viscosity, and cost. This report details the results of laboratory formulation, testing, and characterization of several innovative polymer grouts. An appendix containing a database of the barrier materials is at the end of this report.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Heiser, J.H. & Milian, L.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field grouting summary report on the WAG seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text

Description: During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

Description: A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration was installed at a benign site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington. The composite barrier was emplaced beneath a 7,500 liter tank. The tank was chosen to simulate a typical DOE Complex waste form. The stresses induced on the waste form were evaluated during barrier construction. The barrier was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a conical shaped barrier with the waste form inside the cone. Two overlapping rows of cylindrical cement columns were grouted in a honeycomb fashion to form the secondary backdrop barrier layer. The primary barrier, a high molecular weight polymer manufactured by 3M Company, was then installed providing a relatively thin inner liner for the secondary barrier. The primary barrier was emplaced by panel jet grouting with a dual wall drill stem, two phase jet grouting system.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Dwyer, B.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (revised)

Description: Plugging and abandonment (P&A) of defunct groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1996). This document is the revised groundwater monitoring well P&A plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach employed by Y-12 Plant GWPP to identify wells that require P&A, the technical methods employed to perform P&A activities, and administrative requirements. Original documentation for Y-12 Plant GWPP groundwater monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A schedule be maintained. Wells are added to this list by issuance of both a P&A request and a P&A addendum to the schedule. The current Updated Subsurface Data Base includes a single mechanism to track the status of monitoring wells. In addition, rapid growth of the groundwater monitoring network and new regulatory requirements have resulted in constant changes to the status of wells. As a result, a streamlined mechanism to identify and track monitoring wells scheduled for P&A has been developed and the plan revised to formalize the new business practices.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

Description: The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: ALLAN,M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: DePew, R.E.; Rickett, K.; Redus, K.S.; DuMont, S.P.; Lewis, B.E.; DePaoli, S.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High performance CLSM field mixing and pumping test results

Description: An improved low bleed water CLSM mix was field tested on May 13, 1997 at the Throop portable auger batching plant. Production and pumping tests were very successful. The four cubic yards of material pumped into a ply wood form where it flowed 48 feet (the entire length of the form). The CLSM slurry was very uniform, self leveling, cohesive, showed no segregation, and had no bleed water. Properties of the High Performance CLSM were the same for material collected at the auger and at the end of the pipeline except for the air content which was 5.5% at the auger and 3.2% at the end of the pipeline. This is exactly what was expected and indicates that this CLSM is easy to mix and pump in the Throop/BSRI equipment. CLSM Mix TW-10 is recommended for Tank Closure based on the field batching and pumping tests.
Date: May 14, 1997
Creator: Rajendran, N. & Langton, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

Description: The Gunite{trademark} and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI{trademark}), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. T his is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Spence, R.D. & Kauschinger, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot-scale decontamination solution test results HGTP-93-0702-02

Description: Decontamination solution testing constitutes a task of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The HGTP provides technical support to the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Grout Disposal Program. Cementitious grout has been identified as the waste form for low-level radioactive waste. Grout processing equipment, including mixers, pumps, and piping, will require periodic maintenance. Decontamination of components is needed to reduce radiation dose to maintenance workers. The purpose of this work was to develop and test methods for decontaminating grout processing equipment. The proposed method of decontamination is to use a mild chemical solution, such as a 6 N citric acid to dissolve the grout. The method should effectively remove grout without causing degradation of grout processing equipment.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Clemmer, R. G.; Allen, R. P.; Bagaasen, L. M. & Fetrow, L. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of K-Area core samples for K-Area formation stabilization work

Description: Foundation stabilization work in K-Area has been recently completed by Bechtel Inc. This effort involved pumping cement and cement-sand grout into unconsolidated sediments under K-Area. Subsequent to stabilization, core samples were collected to document the extent of grout flow in the area. Samples of this core were examined by SRTC personnel in support of the grouting program at the request of Bechtel personnel. This report summarizes the results of the SRTC study.
Date: May 27, 1992
Creator: Langton, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid return from gas pressurization of grouted waste

Description: The ability to force pore liquids out of a simulated waste grout matrix using air pressure was measured. Specimens cured under various conditions were placed in a permeameter and subjected to increasing air pressure. The pressure was held constant for 24 hours and then stepped up until either liquid was released or 150 psi was reached. One specimen was taken to 190 psi with no liquid release. Permeability to simulated tank waste was then measured. Compressive strength was measured following these tests. This data is to assess the amount of fluid that might be released from grouted waste resulting from the buildup of radiolytically generated hydrogen and other gasses within the waste form matrix. A plot of the unconfined compressive strength versus breakthrough pressures identifies a region of ``good`` grout, which will resist liquid release.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Powell, W. J. & Benny, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Containment and stabilization technologies for mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes

Description: A prevalent approach to the cleanup of waste sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals and radionuclides is to contain and/or stabilize wastes within the site. Stabilization involves treating the wastes in some fashion, either in situ or above ground after retrieval, to reduce the leachability and release rate of waste constituents to the environment. This approach is generally reserved for radionuclide contaminants, inorganic hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, and nonvolatile organic contaminants. This paper describes the recent developments in the technical options available for containing and stabilizing wastes. A brief description of each technology is given along with a discussion of the most recent developments and examples of useful applications.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Buelt, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A TOUGH2 equation-of-state module for the simulation of two-phase flow of air, water, and a miscible gelling liquid

Description: The injection of grout into the subsurface can be used to encapsulate contaminated regions of an aquifer, or to form underground barriers for the isolation of contaminant sources and to prevent the spreading of existing plumes. This requires identifying grouts, or barrier fluids, which when injected into the subsurface exhibit a large increase in viscosity and eventually solidify, sealing the permeable zones in the aquifer. Simulation and modeling analysis are indispensable tools for designing the injection and predicting the performance of the barrier. In order to model flow and transport in such systems, the thermophysical properties of the fluid mixtures have to be provided, and the governing mass- and energy-balance equations for multiphase flow in porous media have to be solved numerically. The equation-of-state module EOS11 described herein is an extension of the EOS7 module of the TOUGH2 code for flow of saline water and air. In the modeling approach, the chemical grout is treated as a miscible fluid the viscosity of which is a function of time and concentration of the gelling agent in the pore water. If a certain high viscosity is reached and the movement of the grout plume ceases, the gel is assumed to solidify, leading to a new porous medium with changed soil characteristics, i.e. reduced porosity and permeability, increased capillary strength for a given water content, and changed initial saturation distribution.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G. J. & Pruess, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of K-Area core samples for K-Area formation stabilization work

Description: Foundation stabilization work in K-Area has been recently completed by Bechtel Inc. This effort involved pumping cement and cement-sand grout into unconsolidated sediments under K-Area. Subsequent to stabilization, core samples were collected to document the extent of grout flow in the area. Samples of this core were examined by SRTC personnel in support of the grouting program at the request of Bechtel personnel. This report summarizes the results of the SRTC study.
Date: May 27, 1992
Creator: Langton, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

Description: The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Bagaasen, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department