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Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

Description: This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Date: October 9, 1997
Creator: Becker, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a design package for a viscous barrier at the Savannah River Site

Description: This paper describes elements of a design for a pilot-scale field demonstration of a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), which uses a new generation of barrier liquids for permeation grouting. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS), originally built to control contaminated runoff for the H Reactor, and which has been contaminated mainly by radionuclides. The LBNL viscous barrier technology employs barrier liquids which, when injected into the subsurface, produce chemically benign nearly impermeable barriers through a very large increase in viscosity. The initially low-viscosity liquids are emplaced through multiple injection points in the subsurface and the intersecting plumes merge and completely surround the contaminant source and/or plume. Once in place, they gel or cure to form a nearly impermeable barrier. The barrier liquid to be used in this application is Colloidal Silica (CS), an aqueous suspension of silica microspheres in a stabilizing electrolyte. It has excellent durability characteristics, poses no health hazard, is practically unaffected by filtration, and is chemically and biologically benign.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Moridis, G.J.; James, A. & Oldenburg, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Innovative technology summary report: Innovative grouting and retrieval

Description: Innovative grouting and retrieval (IGR) technology provides an innovative and cost-effective approach for full-pit and hot-spot retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste sites and in situ disposal of buried waste with improved confinement. Innovative grouting technology: minimizes spreading of contamination by agglomerating the soil particles containing plutonium/americium particulates into nonaerosolizable particles; minimizes worker risks and exposure; is more effective in controlling the spread of contamination than common mining practices such as directed air flow, misting, and fixant sprays; eliminates further treatment because the grouted, rubberized waste is ready for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); reduces capital expenditures, operating costs, and containment structure requirements; and is an estimated five times faster than the baseline technology of removal, packaging, and storage.
Date: October 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GROUND WATER PROTECTION ISSUES WITH GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS

Description: Closed loop vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps are grouted to facilitate heat transfer and prevent ground water contamination. The grout must exhibit suitable thermal conductivity as well as adequate hydraulic sealing characteristics. Permeability and infiltration tests were performed to assess the ability of cementitious grout to control vertical seepage in boreholes. It was determined that a superplasticized cement-sand grout is a more effective borehole sealant than neat cement over a range of likely operational temperatures. The feasibility of using non-destructive methods to verify bonding in heat exchangers is reviewed.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Allan, M. L. & Philippacopoulos, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

Description: Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied.
Date: October 1995
Creator: Allan, M. L. & Kukacka, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford tank initiative cone penetrometer stand alone grouting module

Description: The HTI subsurface characterization task will use the Hanford Cone Penetrometer platform (CPP) to deploy contaminant sensor and soil sampling probes into the vadose zone surrounding SST 241-AX-104. Closure of the resulting penetration holes may be stipulated by WAC requirements. A stand alone grouting capability deployable by the CPP has been developed. This qualification test plan defines testing of this capability to be performed at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste Disposal Complex.
Date: October 15, 1998
Creator: CALLAWAY, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection Department's well inventory (through the second quarter of 1991)

Description: This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: To provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program; and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiolytic and Thermal Generation of Gases from Hanford Grout Samples : Interim Report

Description: Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H2) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N2) = 0.12, G(O2) = 0.026, G(N2O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N2 and O2 could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H2) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 C, H2, N2, and N2O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.
Date: October 1993
Creator: Meisel, Dan; Jonah, Charles D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, Max S. & Mulac, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

Description: The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program FY-99 Status Report

Description: The Low-Activity Waste Process Technology Program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) anticipates that large volumes of low-level/low-activity wastes will need to be grouted prior to near-surface disposal. During fiscal year 1999, grout formulations were studied for transuranic waste derived from INTEC liquid sodium-bearing waste and for projected newly generated low-level liquid waste. Additional studies were completed on radionuclide leaching, microbial degradation, waste neutralization, and a small mockup for grouting the INTEC underground storage tank residual heels.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Herbst, Alan Keith; Mc Cray, John Alan; Kirkham, Robert John; Pao, Jenn Hai & Hinckley, Steve Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

Description: Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M. S. & Mulac, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

Description: The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Allan, M. L. & Kukacka, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection Department`s well inventory (through the second quarter of 1991)

Description: This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. Wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated. The purpose of this report is as follows: To provide a historical record of the wells that EPD/EMS has monitored; to provide a document containing a list of wells that are currently in the EPD/EMS Groundwater Monitoring Program; and to provide pertinent information about all wells listed in EPD/EMS documents.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Rogers, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

Description: The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, October 1993. Volume 38, No. 4

Description: This document contains a Commission issuance in which the Commission denies the petitioners` motion to quash or modify a subpoena issued by the NRC staff in the course of an investigation to determine if the petitioners` have violated NRC regulations and to determine if safety-related problems exist at NRC-licensed facilities. The pertinent regulations and the Commission`s Memorandum and Order are included.
Date: October 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins

Description: The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this paper is one possible solution to preserving the integrity of these solidified waste forms: the encapsulation of beaded anion exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground granulated blast furnace slag, Type I-II (mixed) portland cement, and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the study reported herein show the cured waste form tested has a low leach rate for nitrate ion from the resin (and a low leach rate is inferred for Tc-99) and acceptable durability as assessed by the water immersion and freezing/thawing test protocols. The results also suggest a tested surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1990
Creator: Morgan, I.L. & Bostick, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department