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Problems with Applying Topographically Driven Flow to Genesis of the Upper Mississippi Valley Zinc-Lead District and to Fluid Flow in the Illinois Basin

Description: A report about how topographically driven ground-water flow and other processes that involve dewatering of basins fail to account for the temperatures indicated by fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope studies in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district on the northern edge of the Illinois Basin.
Date: 1995
Creator: Spirakis, Charles S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Availability and Chemical Quality of Ground Water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, West-Central Colorado

Description: From introduction: This report presents the results of an investigation of the ground-water resources of the Crystal River and Cattle Creek drainage basins...The purpose of the investigation was to describe the geologic units, the aquifers and their characteristics, and the availability and chemical quality of ground water in the study area.
Date: 1976
Creator: Brogden, Robert E. & Giles, T. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Artificial-Recharge Experiments and Operations on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico

Description: Abstract: Experiments using highly turbid water from playa lakes for injection into the Ogallala Formation have resulted in greatly decreased yield of the recharge wells. Recharge of ground or surface water of good quality has indicated, however, that injection through wells in an effective method of recharging the aquifer. Water that is slightly turbid can be successfully injected for a period of time, but generally results in constantly declining yields and capacity for recharge. Redevelopment through pumping and surging significantly prolongs the life of recharge wells under some conditions. Surface spreading is little practiced on the High Plains, but locally may be a feasible means of artificial recharge.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Brown, Richmond F. & Signor, Donald C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential Radiological Doses From Groundwater Contaminated By The Saltstone Disposal Facility

Description: Assessments of radiological dose from usage of groundwater potentially contaminated by the Saltstone Disposal Facility (Z-Area) were made for a hypothetical future resident farmer. These assessments were made using the routine aqueous release model LADTAP XL (C), which is the model used for demonstrating liquid pathway dose compliance at SRS. The dose factors used in LADTAP XL (C) are those specified by the Department of Energy.
Date: February 14, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and Physical Character of Ground Water in the National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho

Description: Report documenting "the chemical and physical properties of the ground water beneath the National Reactor Testing Stations (NRTS), Idaho. The chemical properties described are chiefly the concentration and proportions of the dissolved constituents" (p. 1).
Date: May 1962
Creator: Olmsted, F. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recycling Ground Water in Waushara County, Wisconsin: Resource Management for Cold-Water Fish Hatcheries

Description: Recycling water within the local ground-water system is an effective means to increase quantity and control water temperature of the water supply and to control or avoid environmental pollution. A fish-rearing facility, operated for 15 months, returned water to the local ground-water system through an infiltration pond and recycled 83 percent of its water supply. For each 100 gallons pumped the net stress on the aquifer was equivalent to withdrawing 17 gallons. Despite recycling, nutrient content and temperature of the water supply were acceptable throughout the study period. The rearing-facility nutrient output ranged from 1 to 2 pounds of nitrate-nitrogen per day, but nitrate-nitrogen levels in the water supply remained below 4 mg/1. The water temperature ranged from 7°C to 14°C. Mathematical relations developed show that acceptable nitrate-nitrogen levels and water temperatures nearly optimum for salmonid rearing could be maintained during full-scale hatchery operation.
Date: April 1976
Creator: Novitzki, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waterlogging in an Alluvial Aquifer near Lake Minnequa, Pueblo, Colorado

Description: Abstract: The Lake Minnequa area, located immediately south of the Arkansas River, is mantled with as much as 46 feet (14 meters) of alluvium covering bedrock of Pierre Shale and Niobrara Formation. Surface water enters the area by the Minnequa Canal and the St. Charles Flood Ditch. The water is stored in Lake Minnequa and other reservoirs. Seepage from St. Charles Reservoirs No. 2 and No. 3 is the major source of water to the alluvial aquifer. The depth of the water table ranges from 0 to 40 feet (0 to 12.2 meters). A 0.5-square-mile (1.3-square-kilometers) area immediately south of Lake Minnequa has a water table less than 6 feet (1.8 meters) below land surface. Lake Minnequa is the principal cause of the shallow water table and resulting waterlogged soil. The bedrock hill east of Lake Minnequa and ground-water flow also contribute to the problem. To eliminate the waterlogging problem, the water table would have to be at least 6 feet (1.8 meters) below land surface. Possible alternatives for eliminating the problem include lowering the water, level in Lake Minnequa, placing a network of dewaterinq wells, or constructing a drainage system in the waterlogged area.
Date: July 1976
Creator: Emmons, Patrick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Model for Flow Through a Glacial Outwash Aquifer in Southeast Franklin County, Ohio

Description: Abstract: A glacial outwash aquifer of about 70 square miles in the Scioto River valley southeast of Columbus, Ohio, was modeled as a potentially major source of water. The model was constructed from available hydrologic data: Records of precipitation, well hydrographs, well logs, two ground-water level surveys, and analyses of six aquifer tests. Utilizing this array of data, water levels determined from a series of steady-state simulations of different hydraulic conductivity distributions were calibrated against measured (December 1977) ground-water levels. The simulations that provided the best matches used two hydraulic conductivity distributions: One was an areally varying hydraulic conductivity distribution; the other an areally uniform hydraulic conductivity (40 feet per day) distribution. After these more probable hydraulic conductivity distributions were found, they were utilized in steady state maximal pumping simulations. The maximal well-field yield of these simulations was 20.5 million gallons per day for the areally varying hydraulic conductivity distribution, and 11.3 million gallons per day for the areally uniform hydraulic conductivity. Sensitivity of well yield to changes in well position and streambed leakance changes was investigated also.
Date: November 1980
Creator: Weiss, Emanual J. & Razem, Allan C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

Description: The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.
Date: August 27, 2009
Creator: Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Digital Models of a Glacial Outwash Aquifer in the Pearl-Sallie Lakes Area, West-Central Minnesota

Description: From purpose and scope: The purpose of this investigation is to 1) study the hydrologic system in a glaciated terrain typified by numerous lakes, with particular focus on the effects of lake-ground-water interchange, 2) simulate the natural system by using two digital modeling methods--areal (map view) and vertical section, and 3) evaluate the utility of the models and determine the kinds and amount of basic data needed to obtain reasonable simulations.
Date: November 1975
Creator: Larson, Steven P.; McBride, Mark S. & Wolf, Ronald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground-Water Resources of the Upper Winooski River Basin, Vermont

Description: From introduction: This report describes the ground-water resources and related geologic environment of the upper Winooski River basin and is a part of a continuing program to locate and evaluate ground-water resources in Vermont.
Date: 1977
Creator: Hodges, Arthur L., Jr.; Willey, Richard E.; Ashley, James W. & Butterfield, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic Relations Between Lakes and Aquifers in a Recharge Area near Orlando, Florida

Description: Abstract: The three lakes investigated gain water- from adjoining water-table aquifer and lose water to Floridan aquifer by downward leakage. Net seepage (net exchange of water between lake and aquifers) can be estimated by equation S = AX + BY, where S is net seepage, X represents hydraulic gradient between lake and water-table aquifer, A is lumped parameter representing effect of hydaulic conductivity and cross-sectional area of materials in flow section of water-table aquifer, Y is head difference between lake level and potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, and B is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity, area, and thickness of materials between lake bottom and Floridan aquifer. If values of S, X, and Y are available for two contrasting water-level conditions, coefficients A and B are determinable by solution of two simultaneous equations. If the relation between lake- and ground-water level is same on all sides of the lake with regard to each aquifer and if X and Y are truly representative of these relations, then X and Y terms of equation provide valid estimates of inflow to lake from water-table aquifer and outflow from lake to Floridan aquifer.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Lichtler, W. F.; Hughes, G. H. & Pfischner, F. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal area, Nevada, Subsurface Site, Revision 1, April 1999

Description: Chapter 6.0 in the Shoal Subsurface Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) provided a framework for a data decision analysis (DDA) that would be used to determine investigation methods and data collection methods to minimize uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport predictions. Uncertain parameters were identified and possible field activities that could provide information on those uncertain parameters were briefly described. The DDA has now been completed (Pohll and Forsgren, 1999) and prompts this addendum to describe the outcome of the DDA, how it was used to determine the next phase of data collection for the Shoal Subsurface activities, and to provide details of the planned investigations sufficient to allow understanding of the scope and completion of the tasks involved.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: United States. Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

Description: A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.
Date: October 12, 2000
Creator: Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E. & Fruchter, Jonathan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

Description: Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.
Date: August 7, 2007
Creator: Reiner, Steven R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater maps of the Hanford site, June 1995

Description: The Groundwater Maps of the Hanford Site, June 1995 is a continuation of a series of reports (see Serkowski et al. 1995) that document the configuration of the water table aquifer beneath the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This series presents the results of the semiannual water level measurement program and the water table maps generated from these measurements. The reports document the changes in the groundwater level at the Hanford Site during the transition from nuclear material production to environmental restoration and remediation. In addition, these reports provide water level data to support the various site characterization and groundwater monitoring programs currently in progress on the Hanford Site. Groundwater Maps of the Hanford Site is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Hanford Site Operations and Engineering Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document fulfills reporting requirements specified in WHC-CM-7-5, Section 8.0 ``Water Quality`` and described in the environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site. (DOE-RL 1993a) This document highlights the three major operations areas (the 100, 200 and 300/1100 Areas) where wastes were discharged to the soil. Each area includes a summary discussion of the data, a well index map, and a contoured map of the water table surface. Appendix A contains all of the data collected for this program.
Date: March 15, 1996
Creator: Sweeney, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual measurement of <sup>13</sup>C and <sup>14</sup> isotopic composition to identify biodegradation of fuel hydrocarbons at the LLNL gasoline spill site

Description: Samples of groundwater were collected in the spring of 1996 for *jC and 14C determinations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). A sample of the FHC collected during steam injection was also analyzed. Groundwater was collected after appropriate pumping times in I-CHEM@l25ml amber glass� bottles fitted with l/8 inch teflon-coated rubber septa inserted into threaded caps. Bottles were filled leaving approximately a two inch head space, treated with 4 drops of saturated HgC12 solution, and stored upside- down refrigerated until analyses. Analyses were performed within 48 hours of collection. Two duplicates were collected using evacuated glass cylinders equipped with greased stopcocks and a l/4 inch rubber septa plug. Results of these duplicate samples were identical to those collected in the septa bottles (see Table 1).
Date: November 6, 1998
Creator: Davisson, M. L. & Rose, T. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department