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Determination of frequencies of tritium releases and fire related incidents for tritium facilities SAR

Description: At the request of the Risk Analysis Group (RAG), and in support of the Tritium Facilities SAR, the Safety Information Management and Analysis group (SIMA) determined specific frequency values dealing with tritium releases and fire related incidents. All results summarized herein are based upon actual facility operating data from the Tritium Fault Tree Databank. The Descriptive Statistics function within Excel was utilized to compute initiator event frequencies from appropriate event data. All calculations have been technically reviewed to ensure that they are accurate mathematical representations of actual operating history as recorded in the databank.
Date: July 27, 1995
Creator: Wellmaker, K. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

Description: This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Barry, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNIT CURIE DOSE EVALUATION

Description: The development of radiological consequence lookup tables for postulated releases of radionuclides commonly used at Savannah River Site (SRS) and other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires the use of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)/MACCS2. MACCS2 users input site-specific data: such as stack or ground release, building wake effects, boundary distance from release source, and site-specific meteorological data. MACCS2 also allows the input of more general data such as plume rise and wet and/or dry deposition. The acceptance of such inputs gives the MACCS2 program a broad spectrum of uses at participating DOE facilities. The MACCS2 outputs are converted to an excel spreadsheet to facilitate fast and accurate results for various accident scenarios. Consequence lookup tables can be employed to determine the effects of radiological accident scenarios before they occur. The data is then used by DOE facilities to create regulations and controls to prepare for worst-case scenarios.
Date: April 14, 2008
Creator: Hang, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical report of radiation protection at GEND

Description: The information presented in this report was collected in response to a request by the GEND Plant Manager in November 1989. Included are a basic description of early operations, significant HP activities, unusual events, and a summary of environmental releases of radioactivity since plant start up in 1957. The bulk of this information was taken from microfilm records and personal recollection by John Holliday, GEND Health Physicist 1957 - 1985, under contract No. R-00162-X.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARAC: A support capability for emergency managers

Description: This paper is intended to introduce to the non-radiological emergency management community the 20-year operational history of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), its concept of operations, and its applicability for use in support of emergency management decision makers. ARAC is a centralized federal facility for assessing atmospheric releases of hazardous materials in real time, using a robust suite of three-dimensional atmospheric transport and diffusion models, extensive geophysical and source-description databases, automated meteorological data acquisition systems, and experienced staff members. Although originally conceived to respond to nuclear accidents, the ARAC system has proven to be extremely adaptable, and has been used successfully during a wide variety of nonradiological hazardous chemical situations. ARAC represents a proven, validated, operational support capability for atmospheric hazardous releases.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Pace, J.C.; Sullivan, T.J. & Baskett, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control and treatment of radioactive liquid waste effluents at the Savannah River Plant

Description: Radioactive waste effluents at the Savannah River Plant are treated on the basis of potential off-site effects. Those wastes that are not stored in tanks or released directly to plant streams are either discharged to seepage basins or treated further to reduce their activity before being discharged. Administrative controls require that releases not result in hamnful consequences and that they are also kept as low as practical. This document describes the controls, documents the releases of radionuclides to seepage basins, and describes other methods used to treat radioactive liquid wastes. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1974
Creator: Jacobsen, W.R.; Marter, W.L.; Orth, D.A. & Ross, C.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

Description: There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Cunnane, J.C. & Bates, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of stability zone influences and tracer patterns from the 1987 ANATEX (Across North America Tracer Experiment) experiment

Description: In this paper, we will show preliminary results which appear to connect much of the hit and miss behavior of the surface tracer samples to large scale stability zones 100 to 1000 km wide. With these wintertime stability effects in mind, we have done the best we can to characterize the observed overall tracer patterns as well as individual tracer releases. This type of survey information is important to numerical model development. Diagnostic models often have difficulty reproducing surface plume concentrations where transport over stable layers have occurred. Prognostic models can, in theory, model effects of strong stable layers. However, these models would have great difficulty predicting large scale stable regions such as those observed during ANATEX. Also, though these models have ways of budging in synoptic wind fields, temperature observations are presently ignored. This is because if both wind and temperature observations are forced too strongly into the model, conflicting results may be produced. 12 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Porch, W.M.; Gifford, F.A. & Hoard, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WHC fire hazards analysis policy

Description: The purpose of this document is to establish the fire protection policy for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) relative to US Department of Energy (DOE) directives for Fire Hazards Analyses (FHAs) and their relationship to facility Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) as promulgated by the DOE Richland Operations Office.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Evans, C. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

Description: The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: First, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

Description: This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Routson, R.C. & Bean, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

Description: The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Fields, D.E. & Sharp, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

Description: This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Chester, C.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lagrangian similarity modeling of vertical diffusion from a ground-level source

Description: Several alternate Lagrangian similarity predictions of turbulent diffusion in a thermally-stratified turbulent shear flow were compared with the Prairie Grass ground-level, crosswind-integrated tracer concentration data. The best agreement with the data was found by assuming that the eddy diffusivity K of a passive contaminant corresponds to that of heat, by using an exponent r equal to 1.5 or 2 in the vertical contaminant distribution exp(-(anti z/b anti z)/sup r/), and by using Chaudhry and Meroney's equation-d anti z/dx = K(anti z)/anti zu (c anti z) for the downwind growth of the mean height anti z of the diffusing contaminant.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Horst, T. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UCB-NE-101 user's manual

Description: The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig.
Date: February 1, 1989
Creator: Lee, W.W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UCB-NE-108 user's manual

Description: The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-108 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-108 effectively. UCB-NE-108 is a computer code for calculating the fractional release rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media, and transported through layers of porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. In a spent-fuel waste package the soluble cesium and iodine accumulated in fuel-cladding gaps, voids, and grain boundaries of spent fuel rods are expected to dissolve rapidly when groundwater penetrates the fuel cladding. UCB-NE-108 is a code for calculating the release rate at the interface of two layers of porous material, such as the backfill around a high-level waste package and natural rock, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 6 refs., 2 figs.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Kang, C.H. & Lee, W.W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of anti z and sigma/sub z/ for near ground releases of tracers in the atmosphere

Description: The Lagrangian similarity theory and statistical theory are used to determine the form of the concentration distribution for a plume in the atmospheric boundary layer. The power of z in the concentration distribution is shown to be a slowly varying function of anti z and z/sub 0/.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Weber, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applications of complex terrain meteorological models to emergency response management

Description: The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), US Department of Energy (DOE), has supported the development of mesoscale transport and diffusion and meteorological models for several decades. The model development activities are closely tied to the OHER field measurement program which has generated a large amount of meteorological and tracer gas data that have been used extensively to test and improve both meteorological and dispersion models. This paper briefly discusses the history of the model development activities associated with the OHER atmospheric science program. The discussion will then focus on how results from this program have made their way into the emergency response community in the past, and what activities are presently being pursued to improve real-time emergency response capabilities. Finally, fruitful areas of research for improving real-time emergency response modeling capabilities are suggested. 35 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Yamada, Tetsuji; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Rao, K.S.; Dickerson, M.H.; Bader, D.C. & Williams, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tritium distribution modeling in a Light Water New Production Reactor

Description: The tritium distribution and tritium release pathways in a new light water production reactor were examined. A computer model was developed to track the tritium as it makes its way through the various plant systems and ends up either as a release to the atmosphere, the cooling tower blowdown or to the solid waste system. The model was designed to predict the integrated yearly tritium releases and provide estimated airborne tritium concentrations in various locations within the plant. WNP-1 was used as a representative model for a Light Water New Production Reactor (LWNPR). The Tritium Distribution Model solves for the time dependent tritium concentration in a system of nodes. These nodes are connected to one another via a set of internodal flow paths and to various sources and sinks. For example, plant systems such as the primary system are the nodes, piping and leaks are the internodal flow paths, make-up water is a source, and release to the atmosphere is a sink. The expected water mass of each node; the flow rates between nodes, sources, and sinks; and tritium source rates are provided as input. The code will solve for the time dependent tritium concentration in each node and the amount of tritium ''released'' to the sinks. Preliminary calculations have been performed using WNP-1 plant specific information obtained primarily from the WNP-1 FSAR. Further work is currently in progress to refine the model and provide a more realistic set of input values which will better represent an operating LWNPR. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Date: May 1, 1989
Creator: Jaeckle, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

Description: Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Strohm, W.E. Jr. & Krinitzsky, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Canadian experimental HT release of June 10, 1987, US measurements

Description: In June 1987, an experiment was performed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Ontario, Canada, to study the oxidation of elemental tritium (HT) released to the environment. The experiment involved a 30-minute release of 3.54 TBq (95.7 Ci)of HT to the atmosphere at an elevation of one meter. Scientists from six countries participated in the experiment. The air measurements showed HT concentrations downwind of the release in general agreement with classical atmospheric diffusion (Gaussian) up to the maximum distance measured (400 m). The HTO/HT ratios were shown to slowly increase downwind (approx. 4 x 10/sup /minus/5/ at 50 m to almost 10/sup /minus/3/ at 400 m) as conversion of HT took place. After the release, HTO concentrations in the atmosphere remained elevated. Vegetation samples were also taken since the vegetation and associated soil system have been implicated in the oxidation of HT. Freeze-dried water from vegetation samples was found to be low in HTO immediately after the release suggesting a low direct uptake of HTO in air by vegetation. The tritiated water concentration increased during the first day, peaking during the second day (about 15--30 kBq/L of water at 50 m from the source), and decreasing by the end of the second day. This pattern suggests oxidation in the soil followed by plant uptake through sorption of soil water. This was confirmed by measurements taken by other groups at the experiment site. The HTO in vegetation decreased with distance downwind with the same pattern as the HT measured during the release indicating that the oxidation of HT was linearly related to the HT concentration in the atmosphere during the exposure period. An adequate description of the process can be made through the observed phenomenon of HT deposition into the soil with subsequent rapid oxidation by soil bacteria. 30 refs., ...
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Jalbert, R.A. & Murphy, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of radon flux attenuation by earthen uranium mill tailings covers

Description: This regulatory guide describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for calculating radon fluxes through earthen covers and for calculating the resulting minimum cover thickness needed to meet NRC and EPA standards. The guide also suggests methods for obtaining the various parameters used in calculating the radon fluxes and earthen cover thicknesses and suggests default values for certain parameters. This regulatory guide is applicable to active uranium tailings sites. The NRC staff is using the methods stated in this guide as a basis for review and concurrence of DOE remedial action plans for inactive sites. The guidance is intended to be used for calculating radon flux attenuation by earthen uranium mill tailings covers. The parameter values and examples presented are limited to earthen cover materials, but the diffusion theory and the methods presented are also applicable to man-made materials. Detailed supporting information for calculating minimum cover thickness is published separately in the ''Radon Attenuation Handbook for Uranium Mill Tailings Cover Design,'' NUREG/CR-3533 (Ref. 1).
Date: June 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues in prioritization for remedial action at ORNL

Description: A primary goal of the remedial action program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to effect closure of existing sites of contamination by radioactive material so that public health will be protected now and in the future. An important aspect of planning for remedial action is assessing programmatic priorities. Two types of remedial actions can be the imposition of institutional controls over contaminated sites and cleanup and closure of sites to an extent sufficient to ensure protection of public health in the absence of institutional controls. Current efforts in prioritizing remedial action sites at ORNL have focused principally on identifying broad issues that must be addressed in developing remedial action strategies. This paper briefly discusses the regulatory and institutional issues of importance to the development of remedial action strategies; a preliminary assessment of radiation doses associated with current levels of radioactivity at contaminated sites and their environs, which can provide useful information on the need for and most appropriate types of remedial action; and data and modeling needs for prioritization and their relationship to different options for program planning. 7 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Kocher, D.C. & Trabalka, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department