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Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

Description: This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Wickline, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Associated Documentation

Description: The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Meachum, Teresa Ray & Lewis, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

Description: Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, is located in Areas 6 and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: •06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well •06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole •25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping •25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Evenson, Grant
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K. & Feng, Xiangdong
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

Description: This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for Landscape Waste

Description: DOE orders mandate the development of a waste minimization program. The program`s goals are to: reduce volumes of wastes and toxicity; implement a system of tracking and reporting improvements; and devise a method for performing tasks. To satisfy the requirements of this program, Sandia conducts pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) to identify waste-generating processes. The information collected from a PPOA then is used to identify waste minimization opportunities. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted using Sandia`s new methodology for prioritizing, evaluating and managing site-wide waste streams. This new methodology and the list of priority waste streams are described in the wastes revision of the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Plant. This PPOA addresses landscape waste minimization, partially in response to recent legislation and regulations.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Phillips, N.M. & Raubfogel, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

Description: For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.
Date: September 22, 1997
Creator: Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J. & Stoker, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D-area oil seepage basin bioventing optimization test plan

Description: The D Area Oil Seepage Basin (DOSB) was used from 1952 to 1975 for disposal of petroleum-based products (waste oils), general office and cafeteria waste, and apparently some solvents [trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE)]. Numerous analytical results have indicated the presence of TCE and its degradation product vinyl chloride in groundwater in and around the unit, and of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils within the unit. The DOSB is slated for additional assessment and perhaps for environmental remediation. In situ bioremediation represents a technology of demonstrated effectiveness in the reclamation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, and has been retained as an alternative for the cleanup of the DOSB. The Savannah River Site is therefore proposing to conduct a field treatability study designed to demonstrate and optimize the effectiveness of in situ microbiological biodegradative processes at the DOSB. The introduction of air and gaseous nutrients via two horizontal injection wells (bioventing) is expected to enhance biodegradation rates of petroleum components and stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated solvents. The data gathered in this test will allow a determination of the biodegradation rates of contaminants of concern in the soil and groundwater, allow an evaluation of the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater at the DOSB, and provide data necessary for the functional design criteria for the final remediation system.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Berry, C.J.; Radway, J.C.; Alman, D. & Hazen, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactivity measurements for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s permitted septic systems

Description: The purpose of this study is to identify septic tanks containing concentrations of radioactive materials that exceed specified screening levels so that septage exceeding these screening levels is not disposed of at LANL`s centralized sanitary treatment plant. LANL has 87 septic systems that have been permitted. Thirty-five are active, 2 are inactive, 18 are abandoned, and 32 have been bypassed to the centralized sanitary treatment plant. Six systems were identified as having measured concentrations above the screening levels. Of the six systems, four are no longer active and have been abandoned; and two had samples with concentrations that were only marginally above the screening levels. Two additional systems were identified as potentially having measured concentrations above the screening levels and will need to be resampled. Estimates of the measurement and sampling uncertainty were made. The estimated measurement uncertainty was compared to the values reported by the analytical laboratories. The estimated and reported measurement uncertainties tended to agree with one another. Pairs of measurements from duplicate and split samples were compared and found to predominantly agree with one another.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Nochumson, D.H.; Archuleta, J. & Deyloff, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

Description: Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.
Date: October 13, 1993
Creator: Rathbun, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to ...
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Breshears, David D.; Barnes, Fairley J.; Nyhan, John W. & Salazar, Johnny A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geohydrological feasibility study of the Black Warrior Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process

Description: Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geological and hydrological feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack W. Mclntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Black Warrior Basin of Mississippi and Alabama through literature surveys. Methane gas from coalbeds in the Black Warrior Basin is confined to the coal fields of northern Alabama. Produced water from degasification of coalbeds is currently disposed by surface discharge. Treatment prior to discharge consists of short-term storage and in-stream dilution. Mr. Mclntyre`s process appears to be applicable to the Black Warrior Basin and could provide an environmentally sound alternative for produced water production.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Reed, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Successful remediation of four uranium calibration pits at Technical Area II, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

Description: The first remediation of an Environmental Restoration (ER) Project site at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was successfully conducted in May and June 1994 at Technical Area II. The removal action involved four Uranium Calibration Pits (UCPs) filled with radioactive or hazardous materials. The concrete culvert pits were used to test and calibrate borehole radiometric logging tools for uranium exploration. The removal action consisted of excavating and containerizing the pit contents and contaminated soil beneath the culverts, removing the four culverts, and backfilling the excavation. Each UCP removal had unique complexities. Sixty 208-L drums of solid radioactive waste and eight 208-L drums of liquid hazardous waste were generated during the VCM. Two of the concrete culverts will be disposed as radioactive waste and two as solid waste. Uranium-238 was detected in UCP-2 ore material at 746 pci/g, and at 59 pci/g in UCP-1 silica sand. UCP-4 was empty; sludge from UCP-3 contained 122 mg/L (ppm) chromium.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Conway, R.; Wade, M.; Tharp, T. & Copland, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities

Description: Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established.
Date: October 4, 1999
Creator: Serkiz, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons Learned Report for the radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility (Trench 31, Project W-025)

Description: This report presents the lessons learned from a project that involved modification to the existing burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation. This project has been focused on the development and operation of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill which will accept low-level radioactive wastes that have been placed in proper containers.
Date: June 20, 1995
Creator: Irons, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

Description: The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.
Date: February 20, 2003
Creator: Meachum, T.R. & Lewis, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

Description: The 2001 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and any permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of any of the facilities during the 2001 permit year are discussed. Additionally, any special studies performed at the facilities, which related to the operation of the facility or application of the wastewater, are discussed.
Date: February 15, 2002
Creator: Meachum, T. R. & Lewis, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

Description: In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Becker, B.D.; Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A. & Crowe, B.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes E and F

Description: During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of j Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70 percent of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup -6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.
Date: May 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

Description: This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Burbank, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department