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Four Federal Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems: Powering Our Nation's Capital with Solar

Description: One of the fastest growing markets for photovoltaics (PV) is the urban sector. Municipal planners have discovered that PV systems operate favorably in their urban areas, and can be aesthetically integrated into the urban landscape. The federal government has a long history of using PV in a variety of applications, but until recently few applications have been in urban environments. During the last five years, four grid-connected PV systems have been installed on federally owned or federally leased facilities in the Washington, D.C. area: (1) Earth Day Park, (2) U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters, (3) the Pentagon, and (4) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Headquarters. This paper reviews these four urban, grid-connected systems-particularly the issues of siting, permitting, and grid interconnection.
Date: April 16, 2001
Creator: Plympton, P.; Kappaz, P.; Kroposki, B.; Stafford, B. & Thornton, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads (Preprint)

Description: This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''ENERGY-10 Photovoltaics: A New Capability.'' Whereas this paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program, the companion paper focuses on the implementation method. The case study in this paper is a commercial building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a residential application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together they provide a balanced view.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Balcomb, J. D.; Hayter, S. J. & Weaver, N. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update: Effective Load-Carrying Capability of Photovoltaics in the United States; Preprint

Description: This paper provides an update on the U.S. distribution of effective load-carrying capability (ELLC) for photovoltaics by analyzing recent load data from 39 U.S. utilities and time-coincident output of PV installations simulated from high-resolution, time/site-specific satellite data. Results show that overall regional trends identified in the early 1990s remain pertinent today, while noting a significant increase in PV ELCC in the western and northern United States, and a modest decrease in the central and eastern United States.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Perez, R.; Margolis, R.; Kmiecik, M.; Schwab, M. & Perez, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Very Large-Scale Deployment of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaics in the United States: Challenges and Opportunities; Preprint

Description: This paper analyzes the potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) to be deployed on a very large scale and provide a large fraction of a system's electricity. It explicitly examines how the hourly availability of PV interacts with the limited flexibility of traditional electricity generation plants. The authors found that, under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. This excess PV generation results in increased costs, which can increase dramatically when PV provides on the order of 10%-15% of total electricity demand in systems that are heavily dependent on inflexible baseload steam plants. Measures to increase penetration of PV are also discussed, including increased system flexibility, increased dispatchable load, and energy storage.
Date: April 1, 2006
Creator: Denholm, P. & Margolis, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaics Program Technology Overview (Fact Sheet)

Description: In high-value niche markets, such as remote, stand-alone power for telecommunications, PV is the most cost-effective option. The international market continues to show strong growth for applications ranging from water pumping, communications, and lighting, to village power. As manufacturing costs fall, PV is increasingly used for homes and other buildings already connected to the grid.
Date: April 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department