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Streamlining climate change and air pollution reporting: Final Report

Description: The environmental policies currently being negotiated are likely to require Member State (MS) to control and report their emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and air pollutants (AP) more precisely. While there are likely to be associated costs, it is also likely that the cost of timely and targeted action will be less than the longer term cost of inaction. A number of European Union (EU) legal instruments are used to regulate emissions - several of these are under review. The review not only needs to anticipate future policy needs but also assess the alignment of the various instruments and whether the burden on users can be further minimized.
Date: July 2009
Creator: Pulles, Tinus; Goodwin, Justin; Kruijd, Jeroen; Jozwicka, Magdalena; Janssen, Katleen; Vandenbroucke, Danny et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Two Degree is Too Much! Impacts of 2°C Global Warming On Antarctic Penguins

Description: This research shows perennial Arctic ice is melting by nearly 10% a decade. It’s on course to disappear entirely by the end of the century. This means polar bears, walrus and seals living on the ice could become extinct. Many other Arctic species would also feel severe impacts. The fears of Inuit communities from Greenland to eastern Russia are also covered in the WWF report. Global warming puts traditional hunting and food-sharing at great risk." Sixty per cent of the tundra habitat of birds like ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers and terns could be lost in the 2°C warming scenario. Migratory birds will lose vital staging and breeding grounds, affecting biodiversity around the world. So, two degrees? It’s too much!
Date: October 2010
Creator: WWF (Organization). Antarctic Climate Change Focal Project.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the United States

Description: This study seeks to provide policymakers and other stakeholders with actionable information towards a road map for reducing energy consumption in the most cost-effective way. A major difference between the current study and some others is that we focus on individual equipment types that might be the subject of policies - such as labels, energy performance standards, and incentives - to affect market transformation in the short term, and on high-efficiency technology options that are available today. The approach of the study is to assess the impact of short-term actions on long-term impacts. “Short term” market transformation is assumed to occur by 2015, while “long-term” energy demand reduction impacts are assessed in 2030. In the intervening years, most but not all of the equipment studied will turn over completely. The 15-year time frame is significant for many products however, indicating that delay of implementation postpones impacts such as net economic savings and mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide. Such delays would result in putting in place energy-wasting technologies, postponing improvement until the end of their service life, or potentially resulting in expensive investment either in additional energy supplies or in early replacement to achieve future energy or emissions reduction targets.
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; E. Letschert, Virginie; E. McMahon, James & McNeil, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical Audit: Annex on emissions measurements and projections

Description: This document reviews the United Kingdom's process of compiling historical greenhouse gas emissions, the process of estimating greenhouse gas emissions projections, the state of greenhouse gas emissions, and the implications of these findings on the United Kingdoms domestic targets. The paper is based on analysis prepared by the Office of Climate Change in the United Kingdom in order to facilitate discussion within government departments.
Date: unknown
Creator: Great Britain. Office of Climate Change
Partner: UNT Libraries

Emissions Scenarios

Description: This Report describes climate change scenarios that extend to the end of the 21st century and how they were developed. The scenarios cover a wide range of the main driving forces of future emissions, from demographic to technological and economic developments. The set of emissions scenarios is based on an extensive assessment of the literature, six alternative modeling approaches, and an "open process" that solicited wide participation and feedback from many groups and individuals. The SRES scenarios include the range of emissions of all relevant species of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and sulfur and their driving forces.
Date: 2000
Creator: Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries

Description: In this position paper, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) urges Parties to reach an agreement on a REDD-plus (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) mechanism that recognizes that avoiding greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is a necessary component of achieving deep cuts.
Date: June 2010
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

Description: This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission ("Commission") in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide ("CO2") and other greenhouse gases ("GHGs"). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading ("proposed Directive") as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. This report provides descriptions and evaluations of alternative mechanisms for initial allocation of allowances. The report has the following specific objectives: - Provide a typology of alternative initial allocation mechanisms. - Describe the allocation mechanisms that have been used in previous emissions trading programmes. - Develop criteria for evaluating alternative mechanisms. - Evaluate the alternative mechanisms in light of these criteria. - Develop plant-level data that allow one to simulate various initial allocation alternatives and thus shed light on key empirical issues, including feasibility and sector- and plantlevel effects. - Provide an overview of major conclusions and implications.
Date: 2010
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Partner: UNT Libraries

Towards an Analytical Capacity in Costing of Abatement Options for Forestry and Agricultural Carbon Sinks

Description: This document is part of Technical Report (ref: EUR 21758 EN) from the Joint Research Centre and presents part of the modelling work conducted by DG JRC/IPTS as a contribution to the DG ENV Communication on post-2012 climate policy analysis (June 2005). The analysis with the POLES and GEM-E3 models show that the costs of abatement policies, both in marginal terms and total terms, can be significantly reduced if emissions trading and project based mechanisms are used.
Date: December 2002
Creator: Eurocare
Partner: UNT Libraries

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Analysis of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and assessing the risk of carbon leakage

Description: Since the EU took its historic decisions on combating climate change in 2008, the economic crisis has brought some fundamental changes to the political and economic landscape of the EU's climate policy. The pressure on the EU economy is intense. The EU, however, remains deeply committed to action on climate change. Arresting the rise in global temperature remains one of the biggest challenges facing this generation. This Communication has set out how changed global circumstances have impacted on the targets set in 2008. While the absolute costs of meeting a 20% target have been reduced, representing a welcome relief for businesses facing the uphill battle of recovery, it also represents a risk that the effectiveness of the 20% target as a motor for change diminishes.
Date: 2010
Creator: European Commission
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

Description: In preparation of the Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union, the cost implications of EU-wide emissions trading carbon dioxide were estimated by E3-Lab with their PRIMES energy systems model. According to the report, if each EU member States implemented its target under the Burden sharing agreement individually, the total annual cost for the EU to reach the Kyoto target would be 9.0 billion Pound.
Date: May 2000
Creator: Capros, P. & Manzos, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Kyoto Protocol Implementation

Description: This report analyze the impacts of linking JI and CDM to the future European Emission Allowance Trading System (ETSy). The result indicate that the volume of credits obtained through JI and CDM projects by the enlarged EU Emission Allowance Trading Scheme, as well as the magnitude of cost savings and allowance price impacts will crucially depend on how much competition there will be from EU Member States and other countries in JI and CDM credits.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Criqui, Patrick & Kitous, Alban
Partner: UNT Libraries

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

Description: Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.
Date: February 2, 2008
Creator: Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina & Kramer, Klaas Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

Description: Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.
Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst & Khrushch, Marta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

Description: Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Funk, K.; Milford, J. & Simpkins, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impacts and Costs of Climate Change

Description: The effects of global climate change from greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are diverse and potentially very large, and probably constitute the most serious long-term environmental issue currently facing the world. This paper is prepared as task 1 of the project 'Modelling support for Future Actions - Benefits and Cost of Climate Change Policies and Measures', ENV.C.2/2004/0088, led by K.U.Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The paper provides a rapid review and analysis of the impacts and economic costs from climate change. The objective is to provide estimates of the benefits of climate change policy, i.e. from avoided impacts, for support to the Commission in considering the benefits and costs of mitigation efforts, and to support DG Environment in its report to the Spring Council 2005 and in future international negotiations on climate change.
Date: September 2005
Creator: Watkiss, Paul; Downing, Tom; Handley, Claire & Butterfield, Ruth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Service Contract : EC - DG Environment − CNRS-IEPE: Options for the Operationalisation of the Kyoto Mechanisms - Economic Analysis based on Partial Equilibrium Models

Description: This report presents two series of studies performed before COP-6 and COP-6bis, in order to provide DG Environment with economic analysis of the issues at stake in international climate negotiations. These analysis used the background information provided by the large scale world energy partial equilibrium model POLES. They were also based on an extensive use of the Marginal Abatement Cost Curves produced by the POLES model through the ASPEN-sd software, specifically designed to produce assessment.
Date: October 2001
Creator: Institut d'Économie et de Politique de l'Énergie (France)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interactions of the EU ETS with Green And White Certificate Schemes: European Commission Directorate-General Environment

Description: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme ('EU ETS') began on 1 January 2005. The implementation of the EU ETS has raised interest in market-based approaches to achieving environmental and related public policy goals in the EU, particularly those related to promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Indeed, national and regional markets in tradable green certificates ('TGCs') and (to a lesser extent) tradable white certificates ('TWCs') already exist. Green certificate schemes are established or proposed in a number of Member States (e.g., Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK) and form part of a growing portfolio of measures to achieve the renewable targets outlined in Directive 2001/77/EC. White certificate schemes are considerably less widespread, although schemes have been established in Italy and the UK and further activity may be stimulated by the Commission proposal on energy services (COM(2003)739). Both the renewables Directive and the energy services proposal envisage the possible evolution and harmonisation of these instruments into EU-wide certificate schemes. This study has two major objectives: -1. Analyse interactions among EU ETS and green/white certificate markets. The first major objective is to describe the interactions between green and white certificate programmes and the EU ETS. -2. Assess implications of interactions for the policy objectives of the EU ETS. The second major objective deals with the implications of green/white certificate programmes for the objectives of the EU ETS.
Date: November 17, 2005
Creator: NERA Economic Consulting
Partner: UNT Libraries

Carbon Nanotube Membranes

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about a new program to use carbon nanotube membranes for removing carbon dioxide from coal plant exhaust (project title "Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration") including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet is the first open solicitation, announcing funding opportunities for involvement in the project.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Porifera, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CO2 Capture and Regeneration at Low Temperatures

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies (IMPACCT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses the development of non-water-based carbon dioxide solvents as part of the"Novel Non-Aqueous CO2 Solvents and Capture Process with Substantially Reduced Energy Penalties" project.
Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: Research Triangle Institute
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department