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Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

Description: We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.
Date: May 15, 2009
Creator: McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Telluric and D.C. Resistivity Techniques Applied to the Geophysical Investigation of Basin and Range Geothermal Systems, Part III: The Analysis of Data From Grass Valley, Nevada

Description: This paper contains a detailed interpretation of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Beyer, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Miscanthus: A Review of European Experience with a Novel Energy Crop

Description: Miscanthus is a tall perennial grass which has been evaluated in Europe over the past 5-10 years as a new bioenergy crop. The sustained European interest in miscanthus suggests that this novel energy crop deserves serious investigation as a possible candidate biofuel crop for the US alongside switchgrass. To date, no agronomic trials or trial results for miscanthus are known from the conterminous US, so its performance under US conditions is virtually unknown. Speculating from European data, under typical agricultural practices over large areas, an average of about 8t/ha (3t/acre dry weight) may be expected at harvest time. As with most of the new bioenergy crops, there seems to be a steep ''learning curve.'' Establishment costs appear to be fairly high at present (a wide range is reported from different European countries), although these may be expected to fall as improved management techniques are developed.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Scurlock, J.M.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: The Rhizosphere Association of the Nitrogen Fixing Bacterial Species Azotobacter Paspali with the Tropical Grass Paspalum Notatum: Specificity of Colonization and Contribution to Plant Nutrition, July 1, 1995 - February 14, 1997

Description: The nitrogen fixing bacterium azotobacter paspali was first isolated from the roots of the sub-tropical grass, palpium notatum, and added to the clenus in 1996, by Dr. J. Dobereiner (Brazil). It is mentioned that this root association bacteria shows remarkable signs of host-plant specificity to one eco-type of this grass. This specificity is rare in non-symbiotic plant microbe interactions so far identified.
Date: February 14, 1997
Creator: Kennedy, Christina K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compare harvest systems. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

Description: Our primary objectives for this task were to determine field performance and harvest losses for several types of cutting and baling equipment and to compare these values with those found in the literature. Originally, we had planned to study use of preservatives and their effect on harvest and storage losses, but since the MNVAP processing plant is not currently buying hay treated with preservatives, we did minimal work with preservatives during this phase of the project.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Wilcke, W.F. & Hietala, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

Description: This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.
Date: February 23, 1999
Creator: Demirgian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Fire on Soil Seed Banks on the Hanford Site

Description: The Hanford wildfire in the summer of 2000 destroyed much of the vegetation on the Hanford Site, often resulting in soil erosion and dust storms. The 200 W Area has been affected by dust storms, and a re-vegetation project has been planned for the area to the west, the source of much of the dust. To determine if the seed bank in this area had been damaged by the fire, inhibiting natural re-growth, soil samples were collected from three burned areas and watered to see how much seedling emergence would occur. The soil was then sifted for grass seeds and the seeds examined for signs of fire damage. From this data it was concluded that significant damage to the seed bank probably occurred in the 200 West Expansion Area, and slight damage may have occurred primarily to monocot seeds in the seed banks farther west.
Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Baker, Sarah E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale Dependence of Soil Permeability to Air: Measurement Method and Field Investigation

Description: This work investigates the dependence soil air-permeability on sampling scale in near-surface unsaturated soils. A new dual-probe dynamic pressure technique was developed to measure permeability in situ over different length scales and different spatial orientations in the soil. Soils at three sites were studied using the new technique. Each soil was found to have higher horizontal than vertical permeability. Significant scale dependence of permeability was also observed at each site. Permeability increased by a factor of 20 as sampling scale increased from 0.1 to 2 m in a sand soil vegetated with dry grass, and by a factor of 15 as sampling scale increased from 0.1 to 3.5 m in a sandy loam with mature Coast Live Oak trees (Quercus agrifolia). The results indicate that standard methods of permeability assessment can grossly underestimate advective transport of gas-phase contaminants through soils.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Garbesi, K.; Sextro, R.G.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Wooley, J.D.; Owens, J.A. & Nazaroff, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

Description: Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Ryon, Michael G; Parr, Patricia Dreyer & Cohen, Kari
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the habitat of Henslow's sparrows and Grasshopper sparrows compared to random grassland areas

Description: Henslow's Sparrows are endangered prairie birds, and Grasshopper Sparrows are considered rare prairie birds. Both of these birds were abundant in Illinois, but their populations have been declining due to loss of the grasslands. This begins an ongoing study of the birds habitat so Fermilab can develop a land management plan for the Henslow's and Grasshoppers. The Henslow's were found at ten sites and Grasshoppers at eight sites. Once the birds were located, the vegetation at their sites was studied. Measurements of the maximum plant height, average plant height, and duff height were taken and estimates of the percent of grass, forbs, duff, and bare ground were recorded for each square meter studied. The same measurements were taken at ten random grassland sites on Fermilab property. Several t-tests were performed on the data, and it was found that both Henslow's Sparrows and Grasshopper Sparrows preferred areas with a larger percentage of grass than random areas. Henslow's also preferred areas with less bare ground than random areas, while Grasshoppers preferred areas with more bare ground than random areas. In addition, Grasshopper Sparrows preferred a lower percentage of forbs than was found in random areas and a shorter average plant height than the random locations. Two-sample variance tests suggested significantly less variance for both Henslow's Sparrows and Grasshopper Sparrows for maximum plant height in comparison to the random sites. For both birds, the test suggested a significant difference in the variance of the percentage of bare ground compared to random sites, but only the Grasshopper Sparrow showed significance in the variation in the percentage of forbs.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Maier, Kristen; Walton, Rod; Kasper, Peter & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Weathering characteristics of minesoils and rooting patterns of key shrub and grass species were evaluated at sites reclaimed for 6 to 14 years from three surface coal mine operations in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. Non-weathered minesoils were grouped into 11 classifications based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Comparisons of saturated paste extracts, from non-weathered and weathered minesoils show significant (p < 0.05) reductions in SAR levels and increased EC. Weathering increased the apparent stability of saline and sodic minesoils thereby reducing concerns of aggregate slaking and clay particle dispersion. Root density of four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canascens), alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), and Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys junceus) were nominally affected by increasing EC and SAR levels in minesoil. Results suggest that saline and sodic minesoils can be successfully reclaimed when covered with topsoil and seeded with salt tolerant plant species.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Musslewhite, Brent & Jin, Song
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

Description: This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K. & Kaufmann, Ronald M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

Description: This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Lorenz, K. & Lal, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States country report for IEA integrated bioenergy systems activity

Description: This paper describes efforts to model hybrid poplar and switchgrass production costs and supply curves. Estimates of the full economic cost of producing switchgrass bales and hybrid poplar chips in six US regions are presented. Average production costs vary by region and yield, ranging from $US 25 to $62/dry ton for switchgrass bales and $US 30 to $86/dry ton for poplar chips. Biomass prices are generally lower for switchgrass than for hybrid poplar, and are higher in the Lake States and Corn Belt than for other regions. Estimated national biomass supply curves are also presented. Assuming average US yields of 5 dry ton/acre/year, approximately 300 million dry tons of switchgrass could be supplied nationally at farm-gate prices of less than $30/dry ton. Approximately 250 million dry tons of woody crops can be potentially supplied nationally at farm-gate prices of less than $40/dry ton. This is enough biomass to produce 24 to 33 billion gallons of ethanol at a feedstock price of $0.36 to $0.63/gal (depending on conversion efficiency), or 600 billion kWh at a price of $0.04 to $0.05/kWh.
Date: September 22, 1995
Creator: Walsh, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experience with atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of switchgrass

Description: Switchgrass was gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor rated at 800 kW (2.75 MMBtu/hr) thermal input and operating at atmospheric pressure. A combustible gas with higher heating value varying between 4.2--5.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (114--160 Btu/scf) was produced. Carbon conversion was approximately 85%. Difficulties in feeding high moisture switchgrass inhibited smooth reactor operation. Several feed systems for switchgrass were tried with varying degrees of success. The results of gasification trials using switchgrass as fuel are described.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Smeenk, J. & Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of ethanol production from switchgrass using hybrid thermal/biological processing

Description: The economics of ethanol production from switchgrass using Waterloo fast pyrolysis with a fermentation step is investigated. Standard chemical engineering methods are used to estimate capital investment and operating costs. Order of magnitude method is employed for preliminary approximation of capital investment. The azeotropic ethanol production capacity used in this case study is 189 million liters/year (50 million gallons/year). All cost figures are updated to 1997 US $. Total capital investment is estimated to be $142 million, while the annual operating cost is about $118 million with an ethanol selling price of $0.62/l ($2.35/gal). This compares to $0.58/l ($2.20/gal) for ethanol from popular wood as determined in a previous study of the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process. Conservation of energy, especially, in the separation and purification steps, and generation of steam from lignin to meet energy requirements are evaluated in terms of energy saving costs. Additional steam has to be purchased, at $0.30 million/year, in order to meet the heat energy requirement of the process. Sensitivity analyses of feedstock cost and yield of sugar fermentation on the selling price of ethanol show that feedstock cost is positively related to ethanol selling price, while the yield has a negative relationship with selling price.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: So, K.S.; Brown, R.C. & Scott, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

Description: The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% ...
Date: November 8, 1998
Creator: Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Miller, G. A.; Teel, A. & Brown, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and architecture of the cell walls of grasses and the mechanisms of synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. Final report for period September 1, 1988 - April 30, 2001

Description: This program was devoted toward complete understanding of the polysaccharide structure and architecture of the primary cell walls grasses and cereals, and the biosynthesis of the mixed-linkage beta-glucane, a cellulose interacting polymer that is synthesized uniquely by grass species and close relatives. With these studies as focal point, the support from DOE was instrumental in the development of new analytical means that enabled us to characterize carbohydrate structure, to reveal new features of cell wall dynamics during cell growth, and to apply these techniques in other model organisms. The support by DOE in these basic studies was acknowledged on numerous occasions in review articles covering current knowledge of cell wall structure, architecture, dynamics, biosynthesis, and in all genes related to cell wall biogenesis.
Date: October 18, 2001
Creator: Carpita, Nicholas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical progress report: Peripheral mower blade. Fifth quarter report ending 9/30/99

Description: On July 5, 1999 a demonstration with mowers using the peripheral mower blade was held at the Adel, Georgia airport. There were people invited from a wide range of mower usage and fields of professions. The local county road department, the school system, the county commissioners, several agricultural equipment dealers, and highway road contractors from Georgia, Florida, and Alabama were invited. The nineteen-foot peripheral mower that was tested in Florida was used in the demonstration to mow a large volume of grass and covering a lot of acres in a short time. It's ability to move fast and with low horsepower requirements made it quite impressive. The quality of the cut of the grass was also examined very closely by all that attended. The smaller seven-foot mower was also demonstrated. This unit attracted a lot of attention with its ability to mow in close areas and handle high grass. The cut of the grass from this mower was also examined closely. The road department personnel questioned the mower's ability to absorb foreign objects without them being thrown from under the deck, We did a small demonstration with several metal objects and operating the mower over the top of them. The entire group of people was impressed.
Date: September 30, 1999
Creator: Darden, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

Description: In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Nelson, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops

Description: Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable feedstock resources. The Department of Energy is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soil conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row crops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different biomass crops for selected wildlife species is also under study. To date, these studies have shown that in comparison with row crops biomass plantings of both grass and tree crops increased biodiversity of birds; however, the habitat value of tree plantations is not equivalent to natural forests. The effects on native wildlife of establishing multiple plantations across a landscape are being studied. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing biomass feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the probable effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Tolbert, V.R. & Schiller, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

Description: Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Downing, M.; Walsh, M. & McLaughlin, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

Description: In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) ...
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department