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Evolution of 2D Potts Model Grain Microstructures from an Initial Hillert Size Distribution

Description: Grain growth experiments and simulations exhibit self-similar grain size distributions quite different from that derived via a mean field approach by Hillert [ 1]. To test whether this discrepancy is due to insufficient anneal times, two different two-dimensional grain structures with realistic topologies and Hillert grain size distributions are generated and subjected to grain growth via the Monte Carlo Potts Model (MCPM). In both cases, the observed self-similar grain size distributions deviate from the initial Hillert form and conform instead to that observed in MCPM grain growth simulations that start from a random microstructure. This suggests that the Hillert grain size distribution is not an attractor.
Date: October 19, 1998
Creator: Battaile, C.C. & E.A., Holm
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Results are reported concerning studies of hydraulic cyclones (hydroclones) for application to particle size classification of ThO/sub 2/. Tests were run with a 0.50-in. diam. hydroclone. It was shown that a single pass through this hydroclone would reduce the material greater than 10 mu from 12 wt.% to less than 1% while the mean diameter was reduced from 1.7 to 0.9 mu . When the overflow (fine) fraction was again pumped through the hydroclone, the overflow solids from the second pass were 98 wt.% less than 2 mu in diameter. The mean diameter was reduced from 0.9 mu to about 0.7 mu by the second pass. A yield of 5 to 7 wt.% of solids (to the overflow streamn) and a ratio of overflow to feed volume of 0.25-0.30 were observed during the hydroclone tests. Although this low yield is undesirable, recommendations are made that would increase the yield sufficiently to make desirable the incorporation of hydroclones in the ThO/sub 2/ production flow sheet. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1958
Creator: Bennett, L.L. & Thomas, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Grain Size on the Acoustic Emission Generated During Plastic Deformation of Copper

Description: Acoustic emission signals from polycrystalline Al 1100 samples during plastic deformation were analyzed with respect to the strain rate and grain size. A kinematic model is proposed to account for the observed behavior. An experimental acoustic emission parameter, equivalent to the average energy of the acoustic events, correlates satisfactorily with the computed energy of moving dislocations during the deformation process. Both energies attain a maximum value for a certain grain size and are directly dependent on the strain rate.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Baram, J. & Rosen, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Critical Current Densities in Nb3Sn Films with Engineered Microstructures--Artifical Pinning Microstructures

Description: Films with layers of Nb, Cu, and Sn have been fabricated to simulate a Nb{sub 3}Sn bronze-type process. These Nb{sub 3}Sn films have produced critical current densities greater than 1 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 7.5 T. Niobium films doped with Y, Sc, Dy, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ti have been deposited with e-beam co-evaporation onto 75 mm diameter Si wafers with a 100 nm SiO{sub 2} buffer layer. The Nb layer was followed by a layer of Cu and a layer of Sn to complete the bronze-type process. The films with the highest J{sub c} had about 8 vol. % Sc and about 18 vol. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization of the microstructure by TEM shows that these high J{sub c} films contained high density of inclusions about 5 nm in size and that the grain size of the Nb{sub 3}Sn is about 20-25 nm for samples heat treated at 700 C for up to eight hours.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Dietderich, D.R.; Kelman, M.; Litty, J.R. & Scanlan, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grain size dependent mechanical properties in nanophase materials

Description: It has become possible in recent years to synthesize metals and ceramics under well controlled conditions with constituent grain structures on a manometer size scale (below 100 nm). These new materials have mechanical properties that are strongly grain-size dependent and often significantly different than those of their coarser grained counterparts. Nanophase metals tend to become stronger and ceramics are more easily deformed as grain size is reduced. The observed mechanical property changes appear to be related primarily to grain size limitations and the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments. A brief overview of our present knowledge about the grain-size dependent mechanical properties of nanophase materials is presented.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Siegel, R.W. & Fougere, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of stress distributions on the microstructural level in Alloy 600

Description: Stress distribution in a random polycrystalline material (Alloy 600) was studied using a topologically correct microstructural model. Distributions of von Mises and hydrostatic stresses at the grain vertices, which could be important in intergranular stress corrosion cracking, were analyzed as functions of microstructure, grain orientations and loading conditions. Grain size, shape, and orientation had a more pronounced effect on stress distribution than loading conditions. At grain vertices the stress concentration factor was higher for hydrostatic stress (1.7) than for von Mises stress (1.5). The stress/strain distribution in the volume (grain interiors) is a normal distribution and does not depend on the location of the studied material volume i.e., surface vs/bulk. The analysis of stress distribution in the volume showed the von Mises stress concentration of 1.75 and stress concentration of 2.2 for the hydrostatic pressure. The observed stress concentration is high enough to cause localized plastic microdeformation, even when the polycrystalline aggregate is in the macroscopic elastic regime. Modeling of stresses and strains in polycrystalline materials can identify the microstructures (grain size distributions, texture) intrinsically susceptible to stress/strain concentrations and justify the correctness of applied stress state during the stress corrosion cracking tests. Also, it supplies the information necessary to formulate the local failure criteria and interpret of nondestructive stress measurements.
Date: April 1995
Creator: Kozaczek, K. J.; Petrovic, B. G.; Ruud, C. O. & Mcllree, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microhardness and elastic modulus of nanocrystalline Al-Zr

Description: An investigation of the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Al-Zr alloy composites has been conducted via nanoindentation and Vickers microhardness experiments. The microhardness of the samples exhibits a four-fold increase over the concentration range of 0-30 wt.% Zr, from {approximately}0.7 GPa to nearly 3 GPa. The aluminum grain size is found to be strongly correlated with the level of zirconium present in the samples, suggesting that the observed hardness increase can be attributed to the combined effects of alloying and grain size reduction. The elastic moduli of the nanocrystalline Al-Zr samples are determined to be similar to the modulus of coarse-grained aluminum and independent of zirconium content.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Rittner, M.N.; Weertman, J.R. & Eastman, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Residual stress, strain, and faults in nanocrystalline palladium and copper

Description: Nanocrystalline Pd and Cu, prepared by inert gas condensation and warm compaction, were studied using x-ray diffraction techniques. A sample of Cu with sub-micrometer grain size produced by severe plastic deformation was also examined. The Warren-Averbach technique was used to separate the line broadening due to grain size, root-mean-squared strain, and faults. Peak shifts and asymmetry were used to determine the long range surface stresses, stacking fault probability, and twin probability. The Young`s modulus of a Pd sample was determined by an ultrasonic technique, and compared with the coarse-grained, fully-dense value.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Sanders, P.G.; Witney, A.B.; Weertman, J.R.; Valiev, R.Z. & Siegel, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

Description: Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Blanton, M. L.; Gardiner, W. W. & Dirkes, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of strain rate and temperature on the structure/property behavior of high-purity titanium

Description: The effect of strain rate, temperature, grain size, and texture on the substructure and mechanical response of high-purity polycrystalline titanium is presented. The compressive stress-strain response of 20 and 240 {mu}m grain size high-purity Ti was found to depend on both the applied strain rate; 0.001 {le} {epsilon} {le} 7500 s{sup -1}, and the test temperature; 77 {le} T {le} 873 K. The rate of strain hardening in Ti is seen to increase with increasing strain rate. The substructure of high-purity Ti deformed at high-strain-rate or quasi-statically at 77K displayed a higher incidence of deformation twinning than during quasi-static deformation at 298K.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Gray, G.T. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure-property relationships of antiferroelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} based materials: Hydrostatic depoling characteristics

Description: A novel technique has been developed for the synthesis of homogeneous, weakly agglomerated highly filterable Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) powders. PZT 95/5 based ceramics were fabricated from these powders to determine interrelationships among microstructure, dielectric properties and pressure induced ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transitions. Initial measurements indicate that microstructure has a substantial effect on hydrostatic depoling characteristics. While smaller grain size materials and higher switching pressures, subtleties in microstructure, which may include entrapped porosity, resulted in a more diffuse depoling characteristic. In addition, greater than 90% dense materials were obtained at process temperatures as low at 900{degrees}C. were only 30% of the values of PZT 95/5 fired at 1300{degrees}C, the dielectric constants of the 900{degrees}C materials were almost a factor of two higher. Backscattered electron Kikuchi pattern analysis determined that adjacent, nonlinear, irregularly shaped domain structures observed by electron channel imaging were 109{degrees} domains.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Tuttle, B.; Voigt, J. & Moore, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{open_quotes}Exchange-spring{close_quotes} Nd-Fe-B alloys: Investigations into reversal mechanisms and their temperature dependence

Description: In order to investigate factors affecting coercivity a series of two-phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based nanocomposite alloys with different excess iron concentrations were produced by melt-spinning methods. The constituent grain size was estimated by diffraction methods to be in the range of 150 {Angstrom} - 500 {Angstrom}, and room-temperature demagnetization curves verify that the alloys studied exhibit a modest remanence enhancement. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) and dc-demagnetization (DCD) measurements performed at temperatures in the range 275 K {le} T {le} 350 K illustrate that the coercivity and irreversible magnetization develops in a bimodal, incoherent manner from a demagnetized state but upon demagnetization from a saturated state the system evinces collective, exchange-coupled behavior as illustrated by the reversible magnetization M{sub rev}. The temperature dependencies and values of the irreversible susceptibility X{sub irr} (DCD) suggest that a moderating phase with a magnetic anisotropy intermediate to the two constituent main phases may be present in the alloys.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Lewis, L.H.; Welch, D.O. & Panchanathan, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressive strength, plastic flow properties, and surface frictional effects of 1100, 3003 and 6061 aluminum alloys

Description: The purpose of this study is to find aluminum alloys that are effective for use as wire vacuum seals in the 800MeV particle accelerator located at the Louis Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) in Los Alamos, NM. Three alloys, Al 1100, Al 3003, and Al 6061, are investigated under uniaxial compression to determine stresses for a given height reduction from 0 to 70 percent, and to find plastic flow and surface interaction effects. Right-circular cylindrical specimens are compressed on-end (cylindrically) and radially (for modeling as compressed wire). Aluminum 1100 and 3003 alloys are compared for length to diameter ratios of 1 and 2 for both compression types, and are then compared to results of radial compression of annealed small diameter Al 1100 wire currently used at LAMPE. The specimens are also compressed between three different platen surfaces, polished steel, etched steel, and aluminum 6061-T6, to determine effects of friction. The Al 3003 alloy exhibits 20 to 25% lower stresses at all height reductions than Al 1100 for both cylindrical and radial compression.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Pinkerton, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ study of dislocation behavior in columnar Al thin film on Si substrate during thermal cycling

Description: In situ transmission electron microscopy (150 kV) has been employed to study the evolution of dislocation microstructure during relatively rapid thermal cycling of a 200 nm Al thin film on Si substrate. After a few thermal cycles between 150 and 500 C, nearly stable Al columnar grain structure is established with average grain less than a {micro}m. On rapid cooling (3--30+ C/s) from 500 C, dislocations first appear at a nominal temperature of 360--380 C, quickly multiplying and forming planar glide plane arrays on further cooling. From a large number of such experiments the authors have attempted to deduce the dislocation evolution during thermal cycling in these polycrystalline Al films and to account qualitatively for the results on a simple dislocation model.
Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Allen, C. W.; Schroeder, H. & Hiller, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Monte Carlo model of Zener pinning which shows f{sup {minus}1} dependence

Description: A novel Monte Carlo (MC) model of Zener pinning has been developed. It differs from previous MC models in that it does not simulate polycrystalline grain growth. Instead a single boundary moving through an array of particles is simulated. The boundary curvature defines the driving force acting on the boundary; this is constant throughout the simulation. By incrementally increasing the volume fraction of particles, the pinning force is gradually increased. The boundary is eventually pinned when driving force equals the pinning force. This defines the Zener criterion and enables the volume fraction dependence of the model to be determined. The value of this approach is that there is no limit imposed on either the volume fraction of particles or their size. Simulations have been carried out over a range of volume fractions, from 0 < f < 0.25 for particles with volumes of 27 sites. The pinning force exerted by particles on a boundary is related to the characteristic shape during bypass, the so called dimple. When the simulation temperature is T{prime} = 0, dimples are not formed, the boundaries experience an artificially strong pinning force and the model exhibits an f{sup {minus}1/2} dependence. When T{prime} is greater than a critical value dimples are formed and the model shows an f{sup {minus}1} volume fraction dependence. The implications of this result for previously MC models of Zener pinning is discussed.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Miodownik, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hall-Petch hardening in pulsed laser deposited nickel and copper thin films

Description: Very fine-grained Ni and Cu films were formed using pulsed laser deposition on fused silica substrates. The grain sizes in the films were characterized by electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties were determined by ultra-low load indentation, with finite-element modeling used to separate the properties of the layers from those of the substrate. Some Ni films were also examined after annealing to 350 and 450 C to enlarge the grain sizes. These preliminary results show that the observed hardnesses are consistent with a simple extension of the Hall-Petch relationship to grain sizes as small as 11 nm for Ni and 32 nm for Cu.
Date: January 3, 2000
Creator: Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Banks, J.C. & Myers, S.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing recrystallization of metals with a multi-scale materials model

Description: The final report for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project entitled, ``Capturing Recrystallization of Metals in a Multiscale Materials Model'' is presented. In this project, deformation and recrystallization processes have been followed experimentally and theoretically in order to incorporate essential mechanisms from the defect (dislocation) and grain size length scales. A nonlinear rotational gradient theory has been developed which enables the incorporation of microstructural parameters. The evolution of these parameters during deformation and recrystallization has been characterized qualitatively and quantitatively, applying various electron optic techniques ranging over several length scales. The theoretical and experimental framework developed is general. It has been exemplified by an application to recrystallization in single crystals and bicrystals of aluminum. The recrystallization process has been modeled using a 3-D model for the changes in key structural parameters during recrystallization.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Hughes, D. A.; Bammann, D. J.; Godfrey, A.; Prantil, V. C.; Holm, E. A.; Miodownik, M. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concurrent solid state diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of aluminum alloy 7475

Description: Earlier studies on diffusion bonding (DB) of Al alloys have focused mostly in extrinsically changing the bonding conditions through the use of interlayers, surface etching, or environment. The problem with focusing on the extrinsic conditions only is that the benefits of the DB process are not fully utilized and instead, it can create problems for the base alloy. The approach we have taken to study solid state diffusion bondability of Al alloy is to utilize the intrinsic behavior of superplastic material. Beginning with this preprocessed material, we used a unique method, to obtain diffusion bonding concurrently with superplastic forming to achieve ductile, oxide-free bonds at significantly lower pressures and temperature in an argon atmosphere.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Sunwoo, A.; Lum, R. & Vandervoort, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A new process, Repetitive Corrugation and Straightening (RCS), has been developed to create bulk, nanostructured copper. In this investigation, a high purity (99.99%). copper bar measuring 6 x 6 x 50 mm with an average grain size of 765 {micro}m was used as the starting material. It was repetitively corrugated and straightened for 14 times with 90{degree} rotations along its longitudinal axis between consecutive corrugation-straightening cycles. The copper was cooled to below room temperature before each RCS cycle. The grain size obtained after the RCS process was in the range of twenty to a few hundred nanometers, and microhardness was increased by 100%. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium grain boundaries are observed. This work demonstrates the capability of the RCS process in refining grain size of metal materials. The RCS process can be easily adapted to large-scale industrial production and has the potential to pave the way to large-scale structural applications of nanostructured materials.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Zhu, Y.T. & Jiang, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department