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Studies on the structure and function of glucosephosphate isomerases: chemical modifications, chemical cleavages and structural analyses

Description: Human glucosephosphate isomerase was subjected to a series of chemical modifications aimed at identifying residues essential for catalytic activity. Specific lysyl, arginyl, tryptophanyl and histidyl residues were found to react stoichiometrically with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-NaBH4, 2,3-butadione, N-bromosuccinimide and N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate, respectively.
Date: December 1981
Creator: Lu, Hsieng Sen
Partner: UNT Libraries

Modulation of ³H-Myo-Inositol Uptake by Glucose and Sorbitol in Cultured Bovine Lens Epithelial Cells

Description: Myo-[3H]-inositol accumulation in cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) occurred by both high- and low affinity, Nat-dependent transport sites. High ambient glucose significantly inhibited myo-[ 3 H]-inositol uptake; the co-administration of sorbinil, an aldose reductase inhibitor, prevented the inhibitory effect on the low affinity transport site. A glucose-sensitive process for myo-[3 H]-inositol uptake on the high-affinity transport site was uncovered by Lineweaver-Burk analysis. Dixon plot analysis confirmed that the effect of glucose was due to competitive inhibition of the high-affinity myo-inositol transport site while the effect of sorbitol was due to competitive inhibition of the low-affinity myo-inositol transport site.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Chen, Hai-Qing
Partner: UNT Libraries

P02.123. The anti-diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects of common and cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. aromaticum): a randomized controlled trial

Description: This paper accompanies a poster presentation on the anti-diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects of common and cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. aromaticum).
Date: June 12, 2012
Creator: Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Perri, Dan; Seely, Dugald; Ardilouze, J.; Ridout, Rowena; Bowers, K. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

PREFERENTIAL INHIBITION OF THE GROWTH OF VIRUS-TRANSFORMED CELLS IN CULTURE BY RIFAZONE-82, A NEW RIFAMYCIN DERIVATIVE

Description: Rifazone-8{sub 2} (R-8{sub 2}), a new rifamycin derivative, is shown to preferentially inhibit the growth of virus-transformed chick cells in culture. Macromolecular synthesis and glucose uptake of transformed cells are also appreciably decreased in the presence of low concentrations of R-8{sub 2} where the normal cells appear unaffected. While R-8{sub 2} is shown to be a selective inhibitor of RNA-directed DNA polymerase in vitro, its action on the growth of transformed cells may involve some other mechanism.
Date: March 28, 1974
Creator: Bissell, Mina J.; Hatie, Carroll; Tischler, Allan N. & Calvin, Melvin.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glucose or Altered Ceramide Biosynthesis Mediate Oxygen Deprivation Sensitivity Through Novel Pathways Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans

Description: This article discusses how RNA-sequencing analysis was performed to assess how a glucose-supplemented diet and/or a hyl-2 mutation altered the transcriptome.
Date: August 5, 2016
Creator: Ladage, Mary L.; King, Skylar D.; Burks, David J.; Quan, Daniel L.; Garcia, Anastacia M.; Azad, Rajeev K. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

CRADA with International Polyol Chemicals, Inc. (IPCI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-053): Process Optimization for Polyols Production from Glucose

Description: The objective of this CRADA is to provide sufficient process development to allow a decision for commercialization of the International Polyol Chemicals, Inc. (IPCI) process for production of polyols from glucose. This cooperative research allowed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to focus its aqueous processing systems expertise on the IPCI process to facilitate process optimization. The project was part of the Department of Energy's (DOE/EE-OIT) Alternative Feedstocks Program (AFP). The project was a demonstration of the cooperative effort between the AFP and the Department of Agriculture's Alternative Agriculture Research Center, which was also funding IPCI research.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Elliott, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glucose As an Energy Source to Increase Self-control in Restrained Eaters

Description: Research evidence is suggestive of a strength model of self-control, also known as ego depletion, in social psychological literature. Engaging in an initial task of self-control depletes a limited resource, resulting in less self-control on a subsequent, unrelated task. The strength model of self-control has been applied to many practical, everyday situations, such as eating behaviors among dieters. Newer studies suggest that blood glucose is the resource consumed during acts of self-control. Consuming glucose seems to "replete" individuals who have been depleted, improving performance and self-control. The current study aimed to examine the effects of ego-depletion on restrained eaters. The hypothesis was that restrained eaters who were depleted by a task of self-control would exhibit more disinhibition on a taste-test task than would restrained eaters who were not depleted. However, if the participants were given glucose following the depletion task, then their self-control would be "repleted" and they would exhibit similar control to that of the non-depleted participants. Contrary to expectations there were no differences between the groups in terms of total amount of cookies consumed. These results are inconsistent with a glucose model of self-control. Suggestions for future research and implications of the findings are discussed.
Date: August 2013
Creator: Valentine, Lisa. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Physical, Chemical and Catalytic Properties of the Isozymes of Bovine Glucose Phosphate Isomerase

Description: Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) occurs in different bovine tissues as multiple, catalytically active isozymes which can be resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. GPI from bovine heart was purified to homogeneity and each of the isozymes was resolved. Four of the five isozymes were characterized with regard to their physical, chemical and catalytic properties in order to establish their possible physiological significance and to ascertain their molecular basis. The isozymes exhibited identical native (118 Kd) and subunit (59 Kd) molecular weights but had different apparent pi values of 7.2, 7.0, 6.8 and 6.6. Structural analyses showed that the amino terminus was blocked and the carboxyl terminal sequence was -Glu-Ala-Ser-Gly for all four isozymes. The most basic isozyme was more stable than the more acidic isozymes (lower pi values) at pH extremes, at high ionic strength, in the presence of denaturants or upon exposure to proteases. Kinetic constants, such as turnover number, Km and Ki values, were identical for all isozymes. Identical amino acid composition and peptide mapping by chemical cleavage at methionine and cysteine residues of the isozymes suggest a postsynthetic modification rather then a genetic origin for the in vivo isozymes. When the most basic isozyme was incubated in vitro under mild alkaline conditions, there was a spontaneous generation of the more acidic isozymes with electrophoretic properties identical to those found in vivo. The simultaneous release in ammonia along with the spontaneous shift to more acidic isozymes and changes in the specific cleavage of the Asn-Gly bonds by hydroxylamine of the acidic isozyme indicates deamidation as the probable molecular basis. In summary the isozymes appear to be the result of spontaneous, postsynthetic modifications involving the addition of an equal number of negative charges and are consistent with the deamidation process.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Cini, John Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries

Glucose Induces Sensitivity to Oxygen Deprivation and Alters Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Description: An organisms’ diet represents an exogenous influence that often yields colossal effects on long-term health and disease risk. The overconsumption of dietary sugars for example, has contributed to significant increases in obesity and type-2 diabetes; health issues that are costly both economically and in terms of human life. Individuals who are obese or are type-2 diabetic often have compromised oxygen delivery and an increased vulnerability to oxygen-deprivation related complications, such as ischemic strokes, peripheral arterial disease and myocardial infarction. Thus, it is of interest to identify the molecular changes glucose supplementation or hyperglycemia can induce, which ultimately compromise oxygen deprivation responses. By utilizing the Caenorhabditis elegans genetic model system, which is anoxia tolerant, I determined that a glucose-supplemented diet negatively impacts responses to anoxia and that the insulin-like signaling pathway, through fatty acid and ceramide biosynthesis and antioxidant activity, modulates anoxia survival. Additionally, a glucose-supplemented diet induces lipid accumulation. Use of RNA-sequencing analysis to compare gene expression responses in animals fed either a standard or glucose-supplemented diet revealed that glucose impacts the expression of genes involved with multiple cellular processes including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, stress responses, cell division, and extracellular functions. Several of the genes we identified are homologous to human genes that are differentially regulated in response to metabolic diseases, suggesting that there may be conserved gene expression responses between C. elegans supplemented with glucose and a diabetic and/or obese state observed in humans. These findings support the utility of C. elegans to model specific aspects of the T2D disease process (e.g., glucose-induced sensitivity to oxygen deprivation) and identify potentially novel regulators of common complications seen in hyperglycemic and T2D patients (e.g., macrovascular complications).
Date: August 2015
Creator: Garcia, Anastacia M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-Control in Overweight and Obese Individuals: The Relationship of Dispositional Self-Control and Blood Glucose

Description: Currently, the etiology of obesity is conceptualized as a confluence of environmental, socioeconomic, behavioral, biological and genetic factors. With regard to behavioral factors, some have suggested that a failure of self-control may contribute to the difficulty of an overweight/obese individual because of their inability to resist food or maintain physical activity. Recent research proposed that self-control could be described as similar to a muscle that can be fatigued. Thus, if an individual engages in a self-control task they have lessened ability to utilize self-control on a subsequent task. Theory also suggests self-control may be fueled by a finite resource, identified as blood glucose. The role blood glucose plays is important to understand, especially in overweight and obese populations, as they may be more likely to be insulin resistant. In effect overweight and obese individuals are less likely to adequately process glucose. Therefore overweight/obese individuals might react to self-control tasks differently than normal weight individuals. Participants who were considered normal weight, overweight, and obese were recruited from the UNT research pool. They answered questions about their trait self-control in daily life and engaged in either a task that required them to exert self-control (e.g., resist crossing out a letter unless criteria is met) or a control task (e.g., cross out a letter without restriction). All participants then engaged in a subsequent self-control task to assess if engaging in the initial self-control task reduced performance on the subsequent self-control task compared to the control task. The current research findings were not in line with previous research, in that a depletion effect in self-control was not observed; in neither the normal weight individuals nor the overweight and obese groups. There were several limitations that may have contributed to these findings including; higher DSC than observed in the general population and a possible adaptation ...
Date: August 2016
Creator: Edwards, Kate
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase of Different Sizes

Description: Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified from human placenta utilizing cross-linked spherical particle phosphocellulose. In three steps, GPI could be purified approximately 5500 fold with greater than 50% recovery. The purified enzyme exhibited four bands upon non-denaturing PAGE and isoelectric focusing (IEF) when stained with GPI specific activity stain. The four isozymes were isolated by preparative IEF. The isoelectric points of the isozymes were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis showed two types of subunits with different molecular weights. Structural analyses showed both types of subunits had blocked amino termini. Other properties of the isozymes and subunits, including immunological reactivity, pH stability, peptide mapping and amino acid composition, were also established.
Date: December 1989
Creator: Sun, An Qiang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Development of Novel, Simple Multianalyte Sensors for Remote Environmental Analysis

Description: Advancement of our polymerized crystalline colloidal array chemical sensing technology. They have dramatically advanced their polymerized crystalline colloidal array chemical sensing technology. They fabricated nonselective sensors for determining pH and ionic strength. They also developed selective sensors for glucose and organophosphorus mimics of nerve gas agents. They developed a trace sensor for cations in water which utilized a novel crosslinking sensing motif. In all of these cases they have been able to theoretically model their sensor response by extending hydrogel volume phase transition theory. They also developed transient sampling methods to allow their ion sensing methods to operate at high ionic strengths. They also developed a novel optrode to provide for simple sampling.
Date: February 18, 2003
Creator: Asher, Sanford A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

Description: In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.
Date: May 4, 2005
Creator: Cortright, Randy D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY SYNTHESIZED 'gamma-KETOACID' PHOSPHATE AS A DIPHOSPHATE ESTER OF 2-KETO-L-GULONIC ACID

Description: The summary of this report is that a substance isolated from Chlorella Pyrenoidosa metabolizing {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the light, previously believed to be a diphosphate ester of a 2-carboxy-4-pentulose, has now been shown to be a disphosphate of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid. The phosphate groups appear to be attached to two of the carbon atoms 3-6. Evidence is presented suggesting that this compound arises from glucose, or a glucose phosphate, which is not in rapid equilibrium with photosynthetically produced glucose derivatives.
Date: June 1, 1962
Creator: Moses, V.; Ferrier, R.J. & Calvin, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEHYDRATION CONDENSATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

Description: EARLIER investigations have demonstrated that di-cyandiamide (DCDA), the dimer of cyanamide, can successfully promote the dehydration condensation of: (1) glucose and orthophosphate to give glucose-6-phosphate; (2) adenosine and orthophosphate to give adenosine-5'-monophosphate; (3) orthophosphate to give pyrophosphate; (4) alanine to give alanylalanine and alanylalanylalanine. These reactions were carried out in dilute aqueous solutions in the dark. (It was also demonstrated that the combination of ultra-violet light and dicyandiamide could promote the synthesis of dipeptides. This observation has since been confirmed by other investigators.) These experiments were designed to demonstrate one possible means by which such compounds could have been formed on the prebiotic Earth, thus providing materials needed for the origin of living systems. Dicyandiamide itself could have been, present on the primitive Earth as was demonstrated with the ultra-violet irradiation of cyanide solution.
Date: April 1, 1965
Creator: Steinman, Gary; Kenyon, Dean H. & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glucose and Altered Ceramide Biosynthesis Impact the Transcriptome and the Lipidome of Caenorhabditis elegans

Description: The worldwide rise of diabetes and obesity has spurred research investigating the molecular mechanisms that mediate the deleterious effects associated with these diseases. Individuals with diabetes and/or obesity are at increased risk from a variety of health consequences, including heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease; all of these complications have oxygen deprivation as the central component of their pathology. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a model system for understanding the genetic and molecular regulation of oxygen deprivation response, and in recent years methods have been developed to study the effects of excess glucose and altered lipid homeostasis. Using C. elegans, I investigated transcriptomic profiles of wild-type and hyl-2(tm2031) ( a ceramide biosynthesis mutant) animals fed a standard or a glucose supplemented diet. I then completed a pilot RNAi screen of differentially regulated genes and found that genes involved in the endobiotic detoxification pathway (ugt-63 and cyp-25A1) modulate anoxia response. I then used a lipidomic approach to determine whether glucose feeding or mutations in the ceramide biosynthesis pathway or the insulin-like signaling pathway impact lipid profiles. I found that gluocose alters the lipid profile of daf-2(e1370) (an insulin-like receptor mutant) animals. These studies indicate that a transcriptomic approach can be used to discover novel pathways involved in oxygen deprivation response and further validate C. elegans as a model for understanding diabetes and obesity.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Ladage, Mary Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

Description: The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.
Date: February 11, 2003
Creator: Noll, Kenneth M. & Romano, Antonio H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation of Isotopic Lactate and Acetate

Description: A scheme of glucose degradation has been validated by the use of intermediates of known isotopic composition. In this scheme: glucose {yields} lactic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-3,4) + acetic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-2,5) + acetone {yields} iodoform (C-1,6) + acetate (C-1,6; 2,5), it was found that (a) in the oxidation of lactic acid, approximately 4.7% of the acetic acid was oxidized to CO{sub 2}; and (b) under the conditions prescribed, BaCO{sub 3} from the degradation of Ba acetate contained approximately 1.5% of the activity of the methyl group.
Date: February 24, 1948
Creator: Aronoff, S.; Haas, V.A. & Fries, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department