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Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

Description: Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.
Date: November 30, 2013
Creator: Bliss, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

De-coupling of exchange and persistence times in atomistic modelsof glass formers

Description: With molecular dynamics simulations of a fluid mixture of classical particles interacting with pair-wise additive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials, we consider the time series of particle displacements and thereby determine distributions for local persistence times and local exchange times. These basic characterizations of glassy dynamics are studied over a range of super-cooled conditions and shown to have behaviors, most notably de-coupling, similar to those found in kinetically constrained lattice models of structural glasses. Implications are noted.
Date: August 15, 2007
Creator: Hedges, Lester O.; Maibaum, Lutz; Chandler, David & Garrahan, Juan P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application and testing of transparent plastics used in airplane construction

Description: This report discusses the efforts being made to remove the source of danger to passengers arising from the fracturing of silicate glass and some of the alternatives presented include: single-layer safety glass, multi-layer safety glass, transparent plastic resins.
Date: November 1, 1938
Creator: Riechers, K & Olms, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

Description: The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive ...
Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stressed glass technology for actuators and removable barrier applications.

Description: There are commercial and military applications in which a material needs to serve as a barrier that must subsequently be removed. In many cases it is desirable that once the barrier has served its function that it then be reduced to small pieces. For example, in pipelines and in downhole drilling applications, valves are needed to function as barriers that can sustain high pressures. Later the valves must be removed and essentially disappear or be rendered to such a small size that they do not interfere with the functioning of other equipment. Military applications include covers on missile silos or launch vehicles. Other applications might require that a component be used once as an actuator or for passive energy storage, and then be irreversibly removed, again so as not to interfere with the function or motion of other parts of the device. Brittle materials, especially those that are very strong, or are pre-stressed, are ideal candidates for these applications. Stressed glass can be produced in different sizes and shapes and the level of strength and pre-stress, both of which control the fragmentation, can be manipulated by varying the processing. Stressed glass can be engineered to fracture predictably at a specific stress level. Controlling the central tension allows the fragment size to be specified. The energy that is stored in the residual stress profile that results from ion exchange or thermal tempering processes can be harnessed to drive fragmentation of the component once it has been deliberately fractured. Energy can also be stored in the glass by mechanical loading. Energy from both of these sources can be released either to perform useful work or to initiate another reaction. Once the stressed glass has been used as a barrier or actuator it can never be ''used'' again because it fragments into many ...
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Schwing, Kamilla, J.; Warren, Mial E.; Glass, Sarah Jill & Tappan, Alexander Smith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcium Silicates: Glass Content and Hydration Behavior

Description: Pure, MgO doped and B2C3 doped monocalcium, dicalcium, and tricalcium silicates were prepared with different glass contents. Characterization of the anhydrous materials was carried out using optical microscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The hydration of these compounds was studied as a function of the glass contents. The hydration studies were conducted at 25°C. Water/solid ratios of 0.5, 1, 10, and 16 were used for the various experiments. The hydration behavior was monitored through calorimetry, conductometry, pH measurements, morphological developments by scanning electron microscopy, phase development by X-ray powder diffraction, and percent combined water by thermogravimetry. A highly sensitive ten cell pseudo-adiabatic microcalorimeter was designed and constructed for early hydration studies. Conductometry was found to be of great utility in monitoring the hydration of monocalcium silicate and the borate doped dicalcium silicates.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Zgambo, Thomas P. (Thomas Patrick)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Wind Loading and Strength of Cladding Glass

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on glass cladding behavior under wind loads. Procedures for investigating cladding behavior are discussed. This report includes graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: May 1983
Creator: Reed, Dorothy A. & Simiu, Emil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coffee Maker

Description: The view of the glass coffee maker is from an angle showing the lid. The two screws holding the wooden handle are also visible in this view.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: 1941
Creator: Schlumbohm, Peter
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Final Report on Actinide Glass Scintillators for Fast Neutron Detection

Description: This is the final report of an experimental investigation of actinide glass scintillators for fast-neutron detection. It covers work performed during FY2012. This supplements a previous report, PNNL-20854 “Initial Characterization of Thorium-loaded Glasses for Fast Neutron Detection” (October 2011). The work in FY2012 was done with funding remaining from FY2011. As noted in PNNL-20854, the glasses tested prior to July 2011 were erroneously identified as scintillators. The decision was then made to start from “scratch” with a literature survey and some test melts with a non-radioactive glass composition that could later be fabricated with select actinides, most likely thorium. The normal stand-in for thorium in radioactive waste glasses is cerium in the same oxidation state. Since cerium in the 3+ state is used as the light emitter in many scintillating glasses, the next most common substitute was used: hafnium. Three hafnium glasses were melted. Two melts were colored amber and a third was clear. It barely scintillated when exposed to alpha particles. The uses and applications for a scintillating fast neutron detector are important enough that the search for such a material should not be totally abandoned. This current effort focused on actinides that have very high neutron capture energy releases but low neutron capture cross sections. This results in very long counting times and poor signal to noise when working with sealed sources. These materials are best for high flux applications and access to neutron generators or reactors would enable better test scenarios. The total energy of the neutron capture reaction is not the only factor to focus on in isotope selection. Many neutron capture reactions result in energetic gamma rays that require large volumes or high densities to detect. If the scintillator is to separate neutrons from gamma rays, the capture reactions should produce heavy particles and few ...
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Bliss, Mary & Stave, Jean A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kiln-Fired Glass in the Junior College Arts and Crafts Program

Description: The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the discovery of suitable uses for the enameling kiln in the arts and crafts program at the junior college level in the production of kiln-formed glass and the testing of methods and materials that will permit work of aesthetic merit at a nominal cost to the students and the school.
Date: August 1963
Creator: Buchanan, Robert Gordon
Partner: UNT Libraries


Description: No Description Available.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: unknown
Creator: James Couper and Son & Dresser, Christopher
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

Description: The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, ...
Date: October 27, 2006
Creator: Gonterman, J. Ronald & Weinstein, Michael A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Testing of Glasses for Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. Fiscal Year 1994 Report

Description: The purpose of this project is to measure the intermediate and long-term durability of vitrified waste forms developed by Lockheed Idaho Technology Co. (LITCO) for the immobilization of calcined radioactive wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Two vitreous materials referred to as Formula 127 and Formula 532, have been subjected to accelerated durability tests to measure their long-term performance. Formula 127 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % fluorite (CaF2) as a primary crystalline phase. It shows low releases of glass components to solution in 7-, 28-, 70-, and 140-day Product Consistency Tests performed at 2000 m⁻¹ at 90 C. In these tests, release rates for glass-forming components were similar to those found for durable waste glasses. The Ca and F released by the glass as it corrodes appear to re-precipitate as fluorite. Formula 532 consists of a glass matrix containing 5-10 vol % of an Al-Si-rich primary crystalline phase. The release rates for components other than aluminum are relatively low, but aluminum is released at a much higher rate than is typical for durable waste glasses. Secondary crystalline phases form relatively early during the corrosion of Formula 532 and appear to consist almost entirely of the Al-Si-rich primary phase (or a crystal with the same Al:Si ratio) and a sodium-bearing zeolite. Future test results are expected to highlight the relative importance of primary and secondary crystalline phases to the rate of corrosion of Formula 127 and Formula 532.
Date: April 1995
Creator: Ellison, A. J. G.; Wolf, S. F. & Bates, John K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

Description: Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Glass, Sarah Jill
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass: Producing Glass Fiber

Description: As detailed in the fact sheet, this new glass fiber-producing process can yield fibers that are more uniform in diameter, break less easily, and be produced more economically.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Recca, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gradient Index Spheres by the Sequential Accretion of Glass Powders

Description: The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.
Date: June 15, 2008
Creator: Velez, Mariano
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

Description: Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glasses approach "saturation" with respect to the leachate solution. This effect may lower the dissolution rate to 1/100 to 1/1000 of the unsaturated rate. Although rate controls on glass dissolution are best understood for conditions far from saturation, most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to saturation. Our understanding of controls on dissolution rates close to saturation, versus far from saturation, are therefore of greater significance for assessing release rates of radionuclides from repositories. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to saturation is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. The form of the affinity term and parameters used to model glass dissolution are clearly critical for accurate estimates of glass performance in a repository. The concept of saturation with respect to glass dissolution is problematic because of the thermodynamically unstable nature of glass. Saturation implies similar rates of forward (dissolution) and back (precipitation) reactions, but glasses cannot precipitate from aqueous solutions; there can be no back reaction to form glass. However experiments have shown that glasses do exhibit saturation effects when dissolving, analogous to saturation effects observed for thermodynamically stable materials. Attempts to model the glass dissolution process have therefore employed theories and rate equations more commonly used to model dissolution of crystalline solids, as described below
Date: July 8, 1998
Creator: Bourcier, W L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department