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Occurrence and Determination of Germanium in Coal Ash from Powerplants

Description: From Summary: "In this study the concentration of germanium was determined in numerous samples of coal and ash. A number of miscellaneous waste materials also were examined in the course of the investigation; the results are reported as a matter of general interest. The methods and equipment employed are discussed in detail."
Date: 1959
Creator: Corey, R. C.; Myers, J. W.; Schwartz, C. H.; Gibson, F. H. & Colbassani, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A HIGH IMPEDANCE INPUT CIRCUIT USING GERMANIUM TRANSISTORS

Description: A bootstrapped-emitter-follower circuit that achieves an input impedance greater than 10/sup 7/ ohms with germanium transistors is described. The circuit is analyzed and compared with a single emitter follower and a super-alpha- connected emitter follower for input impedance characteristics. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1958
Creator: Baum, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

P-N JUNCTION THEORY AND THE JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

Description: A theoretical discussion is presented of the P-N junction theory and the junction transistor. A P-N juncion is where the two regions of a Ge crystal meet, one side of which is P-type, the other N-type. An NPN junction transistor consists of a single crystal, one end of which is N-type, a middle section which is P-type, and the composite end which is N-type. Silicon and Ge are the semiconductors commonly used. (W.L.H.)
Date: June 1, 1958
Creator: Leivo, W J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unique Rock-n-Roll Dynamic Appearance of a Ge-Si Ad-Dimer on Si(001)

Description: The authors carry out a comparative study of the energetic and dynamics of Si-Si, Ge-Ge, and Ge-Si ad-dimers on top of a dimer row in the Si(001) surface, using first-principles calculations. The dynamic appearance of a Ge-Si dimer is distinctively different from that of a Si-Si or Ge-Ge dimer, providing a unique way for its identification by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Its rocking motion, observed in STM, actually reflects a 180{degree} rotation of the dimer, involving a piecewise-rotation mechanism. The calculated energy barrier of 0.74 eV is in good agreement with the experimental value of 0.82 eV.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: LU,ZHONG-YI; LIU,FENG; WANG,CAI-ZHUANG; QIN,X.R.; SWARTZENTRUBER,BRIAN S.; LAGALLY,M.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Picosecond Measurement of Interband Saturation, Intervalence Band Absorption, and Surface Recombination in Germanium

Description: The picosecond optical response of five thin germanium samples was measured following intense optical excitation using two variations of the excitation and probe technique. Seven-picosecond laser pulses of wavelength 1.054 um were used to measure the optical transmission of the samples for a variety of probe delays, excitation fluences, and sample temperatures. These parametric experiments were performed in an effort to determine if carrier cooling, carrier diffusion, or carrier recombination dominates the carrier dynamics immediately following excitation. The studies of a 5.7 um thick sample indicated that Auger recombination does not dominate the carrier dynamics, but that the carriers most likely cool immediately to within a few optical phonons of the lattice temperature. Lattice heating may also occur depending on excitation level. Neither cooling nor diffusion was ruled out as a major contributor to the transient optical response. A numerical analysis indicated that, although diffusion may be minimized in the thinner samples, the importance of surface recombination increases as the sample thickness decreases. The lattice temperature dependence of the optical transmission was found not to be in disagreement with the known temperature dependence of the low-density diffusion coefficient. Finally, new structure was observed in the data which is consistent with an increased intervalence band absorption at the highest excitation levels.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Perryman, Gary Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

Description: The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.
Date: June 7, 2012
Creator: Warren, Glen A. & Rodriguez, Douglas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY08 Annual Report: Amorphous Semiconductors for Gamma Radiation Detection (ASGRAD)

Description: This is the annual report for an old project funded by NA22. The purpose of the project was to develop amorphous semiconductors for use as radiation detectors. The annual report contains information about the progress made in synthesizing, characterizing, and radiation response testing of these new materials.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Bradley R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Sundaram, S. K.; McCloy, John S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CryoFree Final Report

Description: CryoFree, a gamma-ray spectrometer, has been built and successfully tested. This instrument is based on a planar germanium semiconductor detector and is optimized for high-resolution spectroscopy in the range of a 30 keV to a few hundred keV to detect U and Pu. The spectrometer is cooled with a mechanical cryocooler that obviates the need for liquid cryogen. Furthermore, the instrument is battery powered. The combination of mechanical cooling and battery operation allows high-resolution spectroscopy in a highly-portable field instrument. A description of the instrument along with its performance is given.
Date: November 7, 2006
Creator: Burks, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MARS Flight Engineering Status

Description: The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.
Date: April 6, 2010
Creator: Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C. & Willett, Jesse A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature carrier transport properties in isotopically controlled germanium

Description: Investigations of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors often require specimens with extremely homogeneous dopant distributions and precisely controlled net-carrier concentrations and compensation ratios. The previous difficulties in fabricating such samples are overcome as reported in this thesis by growing high-purity Ge single crystals of controlled {sup 75}Ge and {sup 70}Ge isotopic compositions, and doping these crystals by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios are precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [{sup 74}Ge]/[{sup 70}Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. This method also guarantees unprecedented doping uniformity. Using such samples the authors have conducted four types of electron (hole) transport studies probing the nature of (1) free carrier scattering by neutral impurities, (2) free carrier scattering by ionized impurities, (3) low temperature hopping conduction, and (4) free carrier transport in samples close to the metal-insulator transition.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Itoh, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opacity measurements: extending the range and filling in the gaps

Description: A series of experiments to explore Ge opacity at temperatures where the M-shell is almost filled will be discussed. Data are obtained at lower temperatures than previously explored and allow us to investigate the role of atomic structure calculations and their impact on opacity scalings. The experiment uses the Nova laser to irradiate a gold hohlraum within which a CH-tamped Ge sample is radiatively heated. A Nd backlight probes the sample 2 ns later to produce Ge spectral absorption features in the 1.2-1.5 keV energy range. Temperature is monitored by the use of an Al dopant and density is monitored by measuring the edge-on expansion of the sample. Temporal resolution of about 200 ps is obtained by using a short pulse backlight. Calculations in this photon energy region show significant changes in the spectral features.
Date: March 17, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Perry, T.S.; Bach, D.R.; Wilson, G.; Iglesias, G.A.; Laden, O.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HPGe compton suppression using pulse shape analysis

Description: We present a new technique for High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Compton suppression using pulse shape analysis (PSA). The novel aspect of our approach involves a complete unfolding of the charge pulse shape into a discrete sum of component y-ray interactions. Using the energy and position information obtained from such an unfolding, an algorithm is then applied which favorably rejects Compton escape events. The advantage of the current PSA approach, as compared with other recent approaches, is the potential to reject not only single-site escape events, but also multiple site escape events. Here we discuss the details of our algorithm, and present experimental results from a real-time implementation on a 5 cm X 5 cm HPGe. An experimental comparison with a standard BGO suppresser is shown. We also discuss the possible improvements to the current PSA approach that could be obtained if the HPGe could be highly segmented on the outer contact.
Date: April 15, 1998
Creator: Schmid, G.J.; Beckedahl, D.; Blair, J.J. & Kammeraad, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical properties of colloidal germanium nanocrystals

Description: Highly crystalline germanium (Ge) nanocrystals in the size range 2--10 nm were grown in inverse micelles and purified and size-separated by high pressure liquid chromatography with on-line optical and electrical diagnostics. The nanocrystals retain the diamond structure of bulk Ge down to at least 2.0 nm (containing about 150 Ge atoms). The background- and impurity-free extinction and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanocrystals revealed rich structure which was interpreted in terms of the bandstructure of Ge shifted to higher energies by quantum confinement. The shifts ranged from {minus}0.1 eV to over 1 eV for the various transitions. PL in the range 350--700 nm was observed from nanocrystals 2--5 nm in size. The 2.0 nm nanocrystals yielded the most intense PL (at 420 nm) which is believed to be intrinsic and attributed to direct recombination at {Gamma}. Excitation at high energy (250 nm) populates most of the conduction bands resulting in competing recombination channels and the observed broad PL spectra.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: WILCOXON,JESS P.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P. & SAMARA,GEORGE A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Epitaxial growth simulation employing a combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo approach

Description: The epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(OO1) is simulated by employing a hybrid approach based on molecular dynamics to describe the initial kinetic behavior of deposited adatoms and Monte Carlo displacements to account for subsequent equilibration. This method is well suited to describe initial nucleation and growth. Stillinger-Weber potentials are employed to describe interatomic interactions.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Grein, C.H.; Benedek, R. & Rubia, T. de la
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel SiGe Coherent Island Coarsening: Ostwald Ripening, Elastic Interactions, and Coalescence

Description: Real-time measurements of island coarsening during SiGe/Si (001) deposition reveal unusual kinetics. In particular, the mean island volume increases superlinearly with time, while the areal density of islands decreases at a faster-than-linear rate. Neither observation is consistent with standard considerations of Ostvvald ripening. We attribute our observed kinetics to the effect of elastic interactions in the densely growing island array. Island coalescence likely plays an important role as well.
Date: June 30, 1999
Creator: Chason, E.; Floro, J.A.; Freund, L.B.; Hwang, R.Q.; Lucadamo, G.A.; Sinclair, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High resolution XPS study of oxide layers grown on Ge substrates

Description: High resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze thin layers of germanium oxide grown on germanium substrates under various conditions. The results reveal the presence of high density of electron states located at the oxide/germanium interface that lead to the energy band bending. The surface of native oxide layers and that of thin oxide layer grown under dry oxygen correspond to GeO2 composition. Under Ar etching, lower oxidation states were revealed. Short in-situ heat treatment at T=400 degrees C under ultra high vacuum leads to the removal of the oxide layer. In addition, the analysis of the layer grown at T=380 degrees C under dry oxygen suggest that carbides form at the oxide/substrate interface.
Date: July 29, 2002
Creator: Tabet, N.; Faiz, M.; Hamdan, N.M. & Hussain, Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organogermanium Chemistry: Germacyclobutanes and digermane Additions to Acetylenes

Description: This dissertation comprises two main research projects. The first project, presented in Chapter 1, involves the synthesis and thermochemistry of germacyclobutanes (germetanes). Four new germetanes (spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane, dichlorogermetane, and germacyclobutane) have been synthesized using a modified di-Grignard synthesis. Diallylgermetane is shown to be a useful starting material for obtaining other germetanes, particularly the parent germetane, germacyclobutane. The gas-phase thermochemistries of spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane and germacyclobutane have been explored via pulsed stirred-flow reactor (SFR) studies, showing remarkable differences in decomposition, depending on the substitution at the germanium atom. The second project investigates the thermochemical, photochemical, and catalytic additions of several digermanes to acetylenes. The first examples of thermo- and photochemical additions of Ge-Ge bonds to C{triple_bond}C are demonstrated. Mechanistic investigations are described and comparisons are made to analogous disilane addition reactions, previously studied in their group.
Date: December 12, 2003
Creator: Chubb, Andrew Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report

Description: The project addressed the need for improved multijunction solar cells as identified within the Solar America Initiative program. The basic Ge/InGaAs/InGaP triple-junction structure that has led to record commercial efficiencies remains unoptimized due to excess current in the germanium component. Furthermore, its deployment cannot be scaled up to terawatt-level applications due to bottlenecks related to germanium’s cost and abundance. The purpose of the program was to explore new strategies developed at Arizona State University to deposit germanium films on much cheaper silicon substrates, largely eliminating the germanium bottleneck, and at the same time to develop new materials that should lead to an improvement in multijunction efficiencies. This included the ternary alloy SiGeSn, which can be inserted as a fourth junction in a Ge/SiGeSn/InGaAs/InGaP structure to compensate for the excess current in the bottom cell. Moreover, the possibility of depositing materials containing Sn on Si substrates created an opportunity for replacing the bottom Ge cell with a GeSn alloy, which, combined with new III-V alloys for the top cells, should enable 4-junction structures with perfectly optimized band gaps. The successes of the program, to be described below, has led to the developments of new strategies for the growth of high-quality germanium films on Si substrates and to a widespread recognition that SiGeSn is likely to play a significant role in future generations of high-efficiency devices, as demonstrated by new research and intellectual property efforts by major US industrial players.
Date: January 3, 2013
Creator: Kouvetakis, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

Description: Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; U., /Stanford et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

Description: Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Seabury, E.H.; Wharton, C.J.; Caffrey, A.J.; McCabe, J.B. & Siclen, C. DeW. Van
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department