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Geothermal Energy--Heat from the Earth: Idaho

Description: General use fact sheet about geothermal energy in Idaho. Idaho holds enormous resources - among the largest in the United States - of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped.
Date: November 5, 2001
Creator: Boddy, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast

Description: The work focused on the occurrences of geopressures in Appalachia and selected California basins. In the former region, where geopressures have been observed, the pressure gradients for the most part were only slightly above normal as in the case of the Oriskany formation of Devonian age; this unit was also characterized by extremely high salinity. The one notable exception was in the Rome trough of West Virginia where Cambrian beds at depths below 10,000 feet display very high geopressures, approaching the lithostatic gradient, and the waters are only moderately saline. Though the geothermal gradient throughout Appalachian is relatively low, even in the Rome trough, the pressure, temperature and salinity values in this area indicate that the methane content of the Cambrian formation waters is in the range of 30 to 35 SCF/barrel. The two California areas researched included the contiguous Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. In the first, geopressures have been principally encountered in the Forbes formation of Cretaceous age, often at very shallow depths. Further waters are invariably characterized by very low salinity, far below the salinity of normal sea water, while the geothermal gradient in apparently higher in geopressured than in normally pressured zones. In the San Joaquin Valley, geopressures are particularly noteworthy in at least two formations of Miocene age at depths generally greater than those of the Forbes. The formation waters are likewise low in salinity; however, the geothemal gradient, especially in the geopressured zones on the west side of the valley, can be extremely high, up to twice as much as the normal temperature gradient. In view of these conditions, it is estimated that in the western San Joaquin Valley the methane content of geopressured formation waters will range from 30 to 40 SCF/barrel while in the Sacramento Valley, the methane content is estimated to ...
Date: March 5, 1981
Creator: Strongin, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reinjection and injection of fluids in geothermal operations (state of the art)

Description: A summary of the problems (encountered as well as anticipated) associated with reinjection of heat-depleted brines and injection of other fluids such as imported brines and gases is presented. Covered are only injection and reinjection problems which are related to the exploitation of liquid-dominated resources by flash-cycle power plants. Suggestions (proven as well as probable) which may offer solutions to many of the identified problems are also covered. In addition, some ideas that should or could be implemented in planning of implementing and/or executing any new geothermal injection operation are described.
Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Vetter, O.J. & Kandarpa, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology development for high-salinity geothermal resources

Description: An impulse turbine for Total Flow utilization of geothermal fluids was tested. Performance measurements verify the calculational model. The research goal of 70% engine efficiency remains credible. Addition of acid to the brine prevents scaling and precipitation at moderate costs. Corrosion and erosion of turbine materials for the Total Flow Process are not severe. (JB)
Date: August 5, 1977
Creator: Lundberg, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategies for steam handling and H/sub 2/S abatement at geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California

Description: Strict limitations on the emission of H/sub 2/S from new geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California have been imposed by Lake and Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control Districts. Lake County, under new source review rules, has stipulated that specific technologies shall be utilized to limit H/sub 2/S emissions to 5 lb/h as a condition for determination of compliance. The status of these technologies as well as other ongoing technology development efforts to conserve steam and abate H/sub 2/S are evaluated. Although projections indicate that it may be possible to meet the 5 lb/h limit, there is no firm assurance of achievement at this time because of the unproven, full-scale performance status of some key technologies specified by the air pollution control districts.
Date: August 5, 1981
Creator: Morris, W.F. & Stephens, F.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites

Description: At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.
Date: November 5, 1979
Creator: Owen, L.B. & Quong, R. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of clean water test sites for prototype turbomachinery. [Two-phase impulse expander]

Description: Expanded development of total-flow expander technology in order to obtain efficient energy extraction from the liquid flow component of the geothermal well flow, in addition to steam enthalpy conversion, has been undertaken by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). The flow conditions necessary for this type of complete system performance characterization are beyond the capabilities of the test facility utilized in the preliminary tests at the LLL hot-water test facility. As an alternative to increasing the existing facility to meet the expanded test requirements, test facilities in the industrial California community are being surveyed to assess their capability in supporting future tests of the LLL expander. Biphase Engines, Inc. of Santa Monica, California was contracted by LLL to perform this survey. The goal of the Biphase Engines survey is to identify organizations with, first, an interest in supporting the LLL turbine test program and, second, to review their test capabilities with respect to the turbine test requirements. The results of the survey are described in the following sections which includes a listing of all organizations contacted. The responses to all inquiries are given. The affirmative responses to the test-support requirement are detailed with a description of the test facility, range of operating conditions, facility modifications and auxiliary equipment required and costs thereof, and testing schedule costs. (JGB)
Date: January 5, 1978
Creator: Cerini, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-related impacts of geothermal energy production in California's Imperial Valley

Description: To successfully develop the geothermal resources of the Imperial Valley, adequate supplies of cooling water must be obtained. The primary sources of water include waste waters from agricultural lands, condensate from flashed-steam facilities, and irrigation water. The major advantages and disadvantages of these supplies are examined and then the consequences of adopting six sets of water policies to support three scenarios of geothermal energy production are assessed. The assessment includes analyses of potential constraints to development as a result of restrictive water policies. It also includes predictions of changes in the Salton Sea's elevation and salinity caused by the consumption of agricultural drain water for cooling.
Date: July 5, 1979
Creator: Layton, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 1974 program plan for geothermal project

Description: The Program Plan specifies the basic plan for the utilization of FY-74 funds allocated by the AEC Division of Applied Technology and contributions from other participants for the development of geothermal energy in southern Idaho. Funding priorities are dictated by the Construction Data Package submission deadline and the October 1, 1974, site selection. Tasks not funded during FY-74 will be pursued during FY-75. (auth)
Date: February 5, 1974
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cultural noise in EM prospecting for geothermal resources. Final report

Description: Numerical analysis tools are used to characterize the fields reradiated by cultural scatterers like powerlines, pipelines and fences. These fields are then compared to the returns expected from deeply buried targets and suggestions are made for methods to identify and remove cultural noise from survey data.
Date: February 5, 1981
Creator: Merewether, D.E.; Cox, R.W. & Pate, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of environmental control technologies for geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California

Description: Control technologies to manage environmental impacts from geothermal developments in California's Imperial Valley from development to 1985 are discussed. Included are descriptions of methods for managing land subsidence by fluid injection; for preventing undesirable induced seismicity or mitigating the effects of seismic events; for managing liquid wastes through pretreatment or subsurface injection; for controlling H/sub 2/S by dispersal, reinjection, and chemical treatment of effluents; and for minimizing the impact of noise from power plants by setting up buffer zones and exclusion areas.
Date: October 5, 1978
Creator: Snoeberger, D.F. & Hill, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling a two-phase geothermal brine flow for chemical analysis

Description: An experiment designed primarily to define the problems associated with sampling the two-phase flow in a pipeline of geothermal brine is described. Analyses reported for 26 samples include chemical composition, oxidation potential, pH, density, and total solids. Changes in brine composition as the well operated during a four-week period are evaluated. The apparatus and techniques used for sampling are described and evaluated. (auth)
Date: December 5, 1975
Creator: Hill, J. H. & Morris, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow-regime characterization for horizontal two-phase steam flow

Description: A relatively simple model, using Baker parameters, is described and applied to flow-regime data generated by high speed photography of two-phase steam flow. The experiments were conducted at the Geothermal Test Facility (GTF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Although results depend somewhat on the personal judgment and interpretation of the observer, the model was found to give a reasonable prediction of the flow regime for the flow ranges available in 1- and 2-in.-diam pipes.
Date: October 5, 1976
Creator: Calder, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

Description: Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were ...
Date: November 5, 1982
Creator: Lange, Arthur L. & Avramenko, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parcperdue Geopressure--Geothermal Project: Appendix B

Description: The reservoir models used to perform the drawdown and buildup pressure analyses consist of analytic forms in lieu of the finite difference or numeric simulator types. Analytic models are derived from solutions of the diffusion equation which relate a pressure response with time and distance in the reservoir for a specified flow system. Solutions of the diffusion equation are obtained through mathematical methods such as Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, Neuman's product techniques and Green's functions. Before an analytic solution is derived, the diffusivity equation is expressed in terms of dimensionless potential (m{sub D}), dimensionless distance (r{sub D}) and dimensionless time (t{sub D}). For the cylindrical coordinate case, the diffusivity equation in dimensionless form for a geopressured system is given.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Sweezy, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendix E

Description: The mechanical and transport properties and characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW-DOE L.R. SWEEZY NO. 1 TEST WELL at the Parcperdue Geopressure/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocities (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Most important results are that the compaction coefficients are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those generally accepted for the reservoir sand in the Gulf Coast area and that the creep behavior is significant. Geologic characterization includes lithological description, SEM micrographs and mercury intrusion tests to obtain pore distributions. Petrographic analysis shows that approximately half of the total sand interval has excellent reservoir potential and that most of the effective porosity in the Cib Jeff Sand is formed by secondary porosity development.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Sweezy, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendices (C--M)

Description: Twelve flow tests were made on the L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well. Short-term tests, Flow Test No.1 through Flow Test No.4 were designed to estimate formation properties and were conducted for drawdown periods measured in hours. Intermediate-term tests, Flow Test No.5 through Flow Test No.8, were for a few days and were designed to test for reservoir boundaries. Long-term tests, Flow Test No.9 through Flow Test No.12, were designed for drawdown periods of about 60 days in order to examine the depletion behavior of the reservoir.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Sweezy, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task Report Computer Program Documentation (for DEGEOWEL Well Design Program)

Description: A model has been developed that allows the design of geothermal production wells. This design problem is quite complex because of the many physical and chemical phenomena that take place in the well bore, each of which has a significant influence on the well performance with respect to total flow rate of brine and steam, pressure loss up the well, or wellhead pressure available for the power producing system, scaling and plugging of the well due to chemical precipitates. The accuracy of the design predictions were determined by comparing them with new well test data developed as part of this project. The general theory behind two-phase flow phenomena and the theory that describes the operation of the model ere described in previous reports (1, 2). This report provides a final version of the computer code, called DEGEOWEL that accomplishes the calculations according to the model. This final version incorporates the preferred correlations developed under this project for determining the flow regime, holdup and frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow. [DJE-2005]
Date: August 5, 1982
Creator: Coury, Glenn & Mickley, Michael C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management-By-Objectives Plan FY 1991

Description: This administrative report is of historical interest. It covers research on Hydrothermal, Geopressured Geothermal, Hot Dry Rock systems, and the Long Valley Experimental (occasioned originally by the Magma Energy Program). (DJE 2005)
Date: June 5, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

Description: This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005]
Date: January 5, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The pressure dilation of a deep, jointed region of the earth

Description: A series of pressurization tests of a 3.5-km deep body of jointed crystalline rock has shown that both the pressure deformation (i.e., dilation) of the region and the boundary permeation are nonlinear functions of the effective stress. This is because the apertures for both the joints and microcracks are strong functions of the effective normal stress acting to close them. For a surface pressure increase from zero to 7.5 MPa, the fluid storage in the natural joints and microcracks in this 0.3 km{sup 3} volume of rock increased by 1470 m{sup 3}. The corresponding increase in fluid storage between 7.5 and 15 MPa was 1090 m{sup 3}. However, even at a surface pressure level of 15 MPa, the permeation loss rate from this large volume of rock is only 0.3 l/s after six months of pressure maintenance. Using transient nonlinear numerical modeling, it is shown that the pressure-dependent fracture permeability model of Gangi, and the fracture porosity equivalent, adequately represent the measured permeability and porosity data obtained to date from this continuing series of pressurization experiments.
Date: March 5, 1990
Creator: Brown, D.W. & Robinson, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department