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Imaging Fluid Flow in Geothermal Wells Using Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensing

Description: The objective of Task 2 is to develop a numerical method for the efficient and accurate analysis of distributed thermal perturbation sensing (DTPS) data for (1) imaging flow profiles and (2) in situ determination of thermal conductivities and heat fluxes. Numerical forward and inverse modeling is employed to: (1) Examine heat and fluid flow processes near a geothermal well under heating and cooling conditions; (2) Demonstrate ability to interpret DTPS thermal profiles with acceptable estimation uncertainty using inverse modeling of synthetic temperature data; and (3) Develop template model and analysis procedure for the inversion of temperature data collected during a thermal perturbation test using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors. This status report summarizes initial model developments and analyses.
Date: December 10, 2010
Creator: Freifeld, B. & Finsterle, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

Description: This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to ...
Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Menart, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993

Description: The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Blackett, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug for Geothermal Well Casing Remediation

Description: Casing deformation in wells is a common problem in many geothermal fields. Casing remediation is necessary to keep wells in production and occasionally, to even enter the well for an approved plug and abandonment procedure. The costly alternative to casing remediation is to incur the expense of drilling a new well to maintain production or drilling a well to intersect a badly damaged well below the deformation for abandonment purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsor research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these remediation expenditures. Sandia, in cooperation with Halliburton Energy Services, has developed a low cost, commercially available, bridge-plug-type packer for use in geothermal well environments. This report documents the development and testing of this tool for use in casing remediation work.
Date: May 13, 1999
Creator: Knudsen, S.D.; Sattler, A.R. & Staller, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

Description: Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Henfling, J.A. & Normann, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A geothermal resource data base: New Mexico

Description: This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in New Mexico up to 1993. Economically important geothermal direct-use development in New Mexico and the widespread use of personal computers (PC) in recent years attest to the need for an easily used and accessible data base of geothermal data in a digital format suitable for the PC. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Witcher, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Session 17: Needs in Drilling Technology Research and Development

Description: This paper briefly discusses findings from a recent study of needs in drilling research and development that was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the Office of Energy Research of the Department of Energy. The purpose of the study was to identify areas in which research and development are necessary in order to meet future drilling requirements. The complete study will be documented in a soon-to-be-published final report.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Carson, Charles C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

C.D. Hopkins Et. Al. No. 2 Geothermal Well-of-Opportunity, Wayne County, Georgia; Operational Report

Description: On December 8, 1977, Gruy Federal, Inc. took over the C.D. Hopkins et al. No. 2 well, located near Jesup in Wayne County, Georgia, to be deepened and used for geothermal temperature-gradient measurements. The well was drilled from 4,009 to 4,341 feet, then diamond cored to 4,371 feet, 28 feet of core being obtained for analysis. After logging by the USGS District Groundwater Office in Atlanta, the well was terminated with 3 1/2 inch tubing to 4,386 feet. Scientists from Virginia Polytechnic Institute determined the bottom-hole temperature to be 60 C (140 F) at 1,331 meters (4,365 feet). Over the interval 47-1,331 meters (154-4,365 feet) the least-squares temperature gradient was 29.3 {+-} 0.14 C/km (1.61 {+-} 0.25 F/100 ft).
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Lohse, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of preliminary testing of Willis Hulin Well No. 1 (Draft)

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has both drilled and tested four deep research wells in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region as part of its program to define the magnitude and recoverability of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource. DOE also took over nine wells from industry (before being abandoned) and tested them for short periods to determine fluid properties. The Willis Hulin Well No. 1, located about 7.5 miles south of the town of Erath, Louisiana, is the first well taken over from industry for possible long-term testing. This well penetrates the deepest known Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal reservoir.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Riney, T. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California low-temperature geothermal resources update: 1993

Description: The US Department of Energy -- Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program to bring the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources up to date and to encourage development of the resources. The Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center (OIT/GHC) and the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) established subcontracts and coordinated the project with the state resource teams from the western states that participated in the program. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) entered into contract numbered 1092--023(R) with the OIT/GHC to provide the California data for the program. This report is submitted in fulfillment of that contract.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Youngs, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic history matching of geothermal field performance

Description: We have developed inverse modeling capabilities for the multiphase multicomponent numerical simulator TOUGH2 to facilitate automatic history matching, and parameter estimation based on data obtained during exploitation of Geothermal fields. The ITOUGH2 code allows one to estimate TOUGH2 input parameters based on any type of observation for which a corresponding TOUGH2 output can be calculated. Furthermore, a detailed residual and error analysis is performed, and the uncertainty of model predictions can be evaluated. This paper focuses on the solution of the inverse; problem, i.e. the determination of model-related parameters by automatically calibrating a conceptual model of the Geothermal system against data obtained during field operation. We first describe the modeling, approach used to simulate fluid and heat flow in fractured-porous media. The inverse problem is then formulated, followed by a brief discussion of the optimization algorithm. A sample problem is given to demonstrate the application of the method to Geothermal reservoir data.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Finsterle, S. & Pruess, K>
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critique of Drilling Research

Description: For a number of years the Department of Energy has been funding research to reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells. Generally that research has been effective and helped to make geothermal energy economically attractive to developers. With the increased competition for the electrical market, geothermal energy needs every advantage it can acquire to allow it to continue as a viable force in the marketplace. In drilling related research, there is essentially continuous dialogue between industry and the national laboratories. Therefore, the projects presented in the Program Review are focused on subjects that were previously recommended or approved by industry.
Date: March 24, 1992
Creator: Hamblin, Jerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature-gradient and heat-flow data, Panther Canyon, Nevada

Description: A series of six shallow temperature-gradient holes were drilled for Sunoco Energy Development Company in Panther Canyon, Pershing County, Nevada during the period March 24 through June 15, 1981. A proposed intermediate-depth gradient hole was spud but abandoned after encountering unresolvable drilling problems. The locations of these holes are shown on figure 1. This report summarizes the results of the Panther Canyon project.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Fisher, Marci A. & Gardner, Murray C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendices (C--M)

Description: Twelve flow tests were made on the L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well. Short-term tests, Flow Test No.1 through Flow Test No.4 were designed to estimate formation properties and were conducted for drawdown periods measured in hours. Intermediate-term tests, Flow Test No.5 through Flow Test No.8, were for a few days and were designed to test for reservoir boundaries. Long-term tests, Flow Test No.9 through Flow Test No.12, were designed for drawdown periods of about 60 days in order to examine the depletion behavior of the reservoir.
Date: October 5, 1981
Creator: Sweezy, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Italian Experience and Problems in Deep Geothermal Drilling

Description: Geothermal exploration at depth is being conducted in the Larderello area of Italy, in order to ascertain whether it is possible to extract geothermal fluids from the layers which underlie the reservoir now being exploited. The main operating problems are caused by the high thermality and the chemical corrosiveness of the fluids encountered; and by the practical problems involved in drilling without circulation to the surface in mainly hard but anhomogeneous fractured formations. The technology employed for deep geothermal well drilling plays an important role in this research. In deep geothermal well drilling it is essential that the equipment and the materials employed are suitable for use in areas which are characterized by high thermality and chemical corrosiveness. The results of the experiences gained in Italy concerning the materials and tools employed in deep geothermal exploration are presented. The various problems involved are described in detail and particular mention is made of drift control, fishing operations, cementation of the deep casing, control of the circulation fluid, and choice of the tubular materials.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Cigni, U.; Del Gaudio, P. & Fabbri, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Well Completions in Cerro Prieto

Description: Geothermal well completion criteria have evolved from 1964 to this date. The evolution started with the common techniques used in oil-well completion and gradually changed to accommodate the parameters directly related to the mineralogic characteristics of the geothermal fluids. While acceptable completions can now be achieved, research techniques and data collection should be improved to optimize the procedures.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Aguirre, B. D & Rivera, J. M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology and Thermal Regime of Bert Winn #1 geothermal Test, Franklin County, Idaho

Description: The conclusions of this report are: (1) Bert Winn No.1 did not encounter high-temperature zones of permeability, except possibly at 5,575 to 5,700 feet, where chloride conductivity indicates saline fluid entry, and where stabilized temperature may be 210-215 F. (2) Structurally, Bert Winn No.1 appears to have penetrated into the horst footwall block, penetrating progressively away from the horst-bounding faults believed to leak hot fluids. (3) Projections based on disequilibrium temperatures taken at 24 and 36 hours suggest a stabilized maximum temperature of about 260-265 F at 7,450. Maximum observed temperature was 243 F. (4) Geochemically, temperatures at depth should be over 300 F. On the basis of observed temperatures and gradients, 400 F might not be encountered until 12,000 feet at this site. (5) C.H. Stocks 1-A, about one mile northwest, appears to be hotter at comparable depths, and to be better located to penetrate the range-front fault set at drillable depth. (6) Bert Winn No.1 was sited principally on a geoelectrical anomaly in an area of high temperature gradients. With the remote exception of the saline interval at 5,575 to 5,700 feet, no evidence was seen in drilling and logging of any feature that could serve as the source of the geoelectrical anomaly.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: McIntyre, J.B. & Koenig, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department