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Aquaculture information package

Description: This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Boyd, T. & Rafferty, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

Description: The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.
Date: October 9, 1974
Creator: Lienau, Paul J. & Lund, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

Description: Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Lund, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

Description: Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Leaman, D. & Irwin, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

Description: This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1997

Description: This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-98 (October--December 1997). It describes 216 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps and material for high school debates, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, electric power and snow melting. Research activities include work on model construction specifications of lineshaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, a comprehensive aquaculture developer package and revisions to the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 4) which was devoted entirely to geothermal activities in South Dakota, dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

Description: The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: John, C.J.; Maciasz, G. & Harder, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 4: Bibliography (annotated only for all major reports)

Description: This bibliography contains US Department of Energy sponsored Geopressured-Geothermal reports published after 1984. Reports published prior to 1984 are documented in the Geopressured Geothermal bibliography Volumes 1, 2, and 3 that the Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin compiled in May 1985. It represents reports, papers and articles covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: John, C.J.; Maciasz, G. & Harder, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

Description: Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.
Date: June 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

Description: Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.
Date: December 4, 1995
Creator: Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R. & Schoenmackers, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiflash feed-and-bleed coupling for the evaporation and crystallization industry. Technical report, September 29-December 31, 1976

Description: A program is described to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using geothermal brine in place of steam from conventional sources for industrial multieffect evaporation and crystallization. A key aspect of the study is that the multiflash feed-and-bleed concept will be incorporated in the evaporation and crystallization processes to use the geothermal energy most effectively. The following are included: a listing of industries that show the most promise as potential geothermal brine users; a summary of available process information for these industries; a description of a multieffect heat and material balance-optimization computer program; geothermal brine source location data; and initial information about geothermal well and pipeline economics. Preliminary conclusions are discussed and work to be performed is outlined.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Basuino, D.J. & Doyle, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

Description: Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Lund, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and feasibility of forced geoheat recovery for low temperature applications. Final report, April 1, 1978-June 30, 1978

Description: Forced geoheat recovery (FGR) resources and production technology are reviewed. Utilization of geothermal fluids in the temperature range 15/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C for building heating and industrial purposes is covered. Results on the technoeconomic feasibility of FGR systems to supply energy for building heating are summarized. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Bodvarsson, G. & Reistad, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Well production casing Brady No. 5 well, Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. , Fernley, Nevada. Falure analysis report

Description: Failure of the casing of the Brady No. 5 resulted from severe external corrosion. The well is located in a mineral flat and it is proposed that during wet periods the exterior of the casing was exposed to aerated saturated chloride and/or sulfate salt solutions. These solutions appear to have completely destroyed the surface conductor and upper string casing and associated cements. The production casing then corroded until mechanical failure occurred.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Ellis, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Project. Final report

Description: The project was designed to take 95/sup 0/F water from an existing well and process it through a heat exchanger carrying supply water for our boiler make up and domestic hot water systems. The temperature of this water runs from 55/sup 0/F to 65/sup 0/F. In operation it was possible to raise the temperature of this water an average of approximately 12/sup 0/F. The amount of energy captured was recorded and it was found that one can capture approximately 199 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/Mo. Using current energy costs and a boiler efficiency factor of .8 a potential annual savings of approximately $11,104/year was calculated. The total cost of the project was $31,893.68. Using these figures a simple pay back period of 2.9 years was calculated.
Date: March 31, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Handbook to guide the measurement and monitoring of project effectiveness and impact

Description: This handbook demonstrates the application of a tool for measuring and monitoring the impact of a development project in the Department of Quezaltenango, Guatemala. That project itself presently is a demonstration. It explores the technical feasibility and the commercial possibilities of direct geothermal heat applications to the processing of agricultural produce - with the eventual purpose of expanding agricultural exports from Guatemala. The handbook focuses on an early stage of the geothermal initiative and guides preparations for future impact measurement and monitoring of geothermal projects. Primarily, guidance is for projects in agricultural applications of geothermal heat - and basically in Quezaltenango. But the exercise and the handbook are relevant in broad outline to other, industrial applications projects as well which may be based in other departments and have immediate impact across the whole country. This handbook attempts to prepare geothermal energy planners in Guatemala for that juncture when geothermal projects can be managed by objectives. It promotes and facilitates thinking about defining specific objectives for projects that result from the demonstration at Zunil (in Quezaltenango Department); and it prompts preparations for obtaining baseline measurements and for making rational projections on the achievements of future projects.
Date: September 15, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1993

Description: This report consists of brief summaries of the activities of the Geo-Heat Center during the report period. Technical assistance was given to requests from 20 states in the following applications: space and district heating; geothermal heat pumps; greenhouses; aquaculture; industrial plants; electric power; resource/well; equipment; and resort/spa. Research and development activities progressed on (1) compilation of data on low-temperature resources and (2) evaluation of groundwater vs. ground-coupled heat pumps. Also summarized are technology transfer activities and geothermal progress monitoring activities.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989

Description: The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.
Date: December 31, 1989
Creator: Takahashi, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat pumps coupled to geothermal resources can provide economical process heat

Description: Temperatures available from geothermal resources are frequently too low to serve the needs of many process industries. Heat pumps can be used to boost the temperatures by moderate amounts at an economical cost. A number of potential working fluids were examined for service from 150/sup 0/F to 400/sup 0/F. Steam and R-11 were found to be the best choices. Comparison cost estimates were made for different bottom temperatures and delivery temperatures for both steam and R-11 systems. The results show that electricity to drive the compressor, capital investment in the compressor and in the geothermal resource all make significant contributions to the cost of process heat delivered by the heat pump.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Neill, D.T. & Schmitt, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal enhancement of mineral processing in Nevada: Final report, April 25, 1985-June 30, 1986

Description: This report reviews mineral recovery techniques practiced at active mines throughout Nevada and determines those that may be enhanced by the application of geothermal heat energy from a nearby resource. Of the thirty-two active precious metal mines identified, ten have hot water on or near the property and could potentially benefit. A second purpose was to collect ore samples and geothermal fluids, determine if they are compatible in the hydrometallurgical process, and carry out laboratory tests to determine the effects of heating on recovery rates. In addition, interfering or counterproductive factors were also identified. The laboratory work consisted of measuring the effects of thermally enhancing two hydrometallurgical processes; cyanide heap-leaching of gold and silver ores and bacterial leaching of sulfide rich gold ores. Thermally enhanced cyanide heap-leaching of gold and silver ores produced increases in extraction ranging from 8 to 20% for gold and 17 to 40% for silver. The temperature required for these increases is 35/sup 0/C to 40/sup 0/C, well within the range of available geothermal resources.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T. & Hendrix, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

Description: Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M. & Simmons, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department