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H{sub2}S Abatement at The Geysers

Description: This paper discusses the efforts by the inter-departmental task forces which have been formed by PG and E to improve and expedite the development, design, installation, and modifications to hydrogen sulfide abatement and abatement-related systems for The Geysers power plants.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Ziomek, N.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report, Tasks 1, 3, and 4

Description: New York State`s geothermal energy potential was evaluated based on a new resource assessment performed by the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY-Buffalo) and currently commercial technologies, many of which have become available since New York`s potential was last evaluated. General background on geothermal energy and technologies was provided. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economics of using geothermal energy to generate electricity in upstate New York. A conventional rankine cycle, binary power system was selected for the economic evaluation, based on SUNY-Buffalo`s resource assessment. Binary power systems are the most technologically suitable for upstate New York`s resources and have the added advantage of being environmentally attractive. Many of the potential environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy are not an issue in binary systems because the geothermal fluids are contained in a closed-loop and used solely to heat a working fluid that is then used to generate the electricity Three power plant sizes were selected based on geologic data supplied by SUNY-Buffalo. The hypothetical power plants were designed as 5 MW modular units and sized at 5 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW. The life-cycle cost analysis suggested that geothermal electricity in upstate New York, using currently commercial technology, will probably cost between 14 and 18 cents per kilowatt-hour.
Date: July 25, 1996
Creator: Manger, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal progress monitor. Report No. 16

Description: This issue, the 16th since 1980, illustrates the potential of the liquid-dominated geothermal resource. Achievement of this potential by publicly held companies, who are required to publish financial statements, has involved the use of high-quality resources and the best available technologies or, in some instances, their own innovative modifications of existing technologies as well as a high degree of technical and management expertise. This issue also documents some effects of the new climate of utility deregulation and competition among independent power producers on the geothermal industry. The continuing importance attached to geothermal heat pumps as a preferred space conditioning technology by a number of disparate interests is illustrated by a number of articles. Magma Power Co. reported record gains in both 1993 revenues and earnings over 1992; California Energy has acquired Magma, creating the largest geothermal energy producer in the world. Owing to stagnation in USA, it was decided to focus on international markets. After the introduction, the issue has sections on: Federal beat, industry scene, financing, technology development, direct use technology, state and local, international, technology transfer, and directory.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HGP-A Wellhead Generator, Proof-Of-Feasibility Project 3 MW Wellhead Generator, Start-Up Training and Operating Manual

Description: The start-up manual is an information aid to initially familiarize plant operators with the plant operation and later be used as a reference manual while operating the plant. This start-up manual is supplemented by the Plant Data Manual which contains a detailed description of the philosophy of operation and equipment characteristics. The sequencing herein presents the necessary operating procedures which must be followed in order that a smooth start-up is obtained. The sequence includes, first conditioning the well and stabilizing the steam/water separations, and then bringing the operating machinery on line. The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams and Electrical Drawings are included under Section 12.0 and are frequently referred to in the text. Information for ''trouble-shooting'' is provided in the maintenance and operations manuals on all the equipment.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California

Description: The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.
Date: April 1, 1989
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noi'i o Puna: Geothermal Research in Hawaii

Description: Noi'i 0 Puna - The Puna Research Center (PRC), located on the grounds of the HGP-A power plant site in Puna, Hawaii, was dedicated on August 24, 1985. Research projects, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), State, County, utility, and the private sector have been initiated in the areas of geothermal reservoir engineering, silica utilization, and corrosion of materials. An international geothermal applications workshop was held in Hilo, Hawaii the day before the dedication to discuss common problems and methods of solution by cooperative research. The three main categories addressed were process chemistry design, reservoir engineering, and agriculture/aquaculture applications. The workshop identified how PRC might be used for these research purposes. The advantages provided by PRC include the availability of non-proprietary information, an operational power plant with adjacent laboratory, proximity of private wells, the Fellows in Renewable Energy Engineering program, and strong support from the State, County, and utility. A second workshop is in the planning stages to follow through on the recommendations and will be held in the Orient next year. The Community Geothermal Technology Program, featuring projects conducted by individuals and companies in the local community, has been funded and will actively initiate projects this month. This program received matching funds from the USDOE, County of Hawaii and the private sector.
Date: January 21, 1986
Creator: Seki, Arthur; Chen, Bill; Takahashi, Patrick & Woodruff, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design of axial flow hydrocarbon turbine/generator set for geothermal applications

Description: This report outlines the design of a 65 MW (e) gross turbine generator set in which a hydrocarbon gas mixture is used as the motive fluid. The turbine generator set is part of a geothermal binary cycle electric power plant proposed for the Heber site in the Imperial Valley, California. Aerodynamic design considerations and estimated unit performance for three hydrocarbon gas mixtures are presented. Real gas properties and equations of state are reviewed as they affect the turbine design and the thermodynamic cycle. The mechanical designs for the casing, rotor dynamics, shaft sealing and unit construction are detailed. Support systems such as the lube and seal supply system, turbine controls, etc., are reviewed. An extensive hydrocarbon turbine general specification is also included.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Barnes, B.; Samurin, N.A. & Shields, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of slim holes for geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment: A preliminary report on Japanese experience

Description: The publicly available Japanese data on the use of slim holes in geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment are reviewed in this report. Slim holes have been used for (1) obtaining core for geological studies, (2) delineating the stratigraphic structure, (3) characterizing reservoir fluid state (pressure, temperature, etc.), and (4) defining the permeability structure for reservoir assessment. Examples of these uses of slim hole data are presented from the Hohi Geothermal Area and the Sumikawa Geothermal Field. Discharge data from slim holes and production wells from the Oguni Geothermal Field indicate that it may be possible to infer the discharge rate of production wells based on slim hole measurements. The Japanese experience suggests that slim holes can provide useful data for cost-effective geothermal reservoir assessment. Therefore, plans for a full scale evaluation of Japanese slim hole data are outlined.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Garg, S. K. & Combs, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy in the Usa: Moving Toward Practical Use

Description: The technology for extracting geothermal energy from the vast hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource has been under development by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for about 25 years. In 1992--1993, an extensive flow-testing program was conducted at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico HDR Test Facility. During two segments of this test energy was produced at a rate of 4 thermal megawatts on a continuous basis for periods of 112 and 65 days, respectively. Surface and logging measurements showed no decline in the temperature of the water produced from the HDR reservoir during the flow testing. In fact, tracer evidence indicated that the circulating water was continually gaining access to additional hot rock as the testing proceeded. Water consumption was low and all other test data were positive. The encouraging results of the flow testing at Fenton Hill provided the incentive for the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) to solicit the interest of private industry in a jointly funded program to construct and operate a facility that would produce and sell energy derived from HDR resources. A number of organizations responded positively. On the basis of the interest expressed in these responses, the USDOE subsequently authorized the issuance of a formal solicitation to initiate the project.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Duchane, David V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1993

Description: This report consists of brief summaries of the activities of the Geo-Heat Center during the report period. Technical assistance was given to requests from 20 states in the following applications: space and district heating; geothermal heat pumps; greenhouses; aquaculture; industrial plants; electric power; resource/well; equipment; and resort/spa. Research and development activities progressed on (1) compilation of data on low-temperature resources and (2) evaluation of groundwater vs. ground-coupled heat pumps. Also summarized are technology transfer activities and geothermal progress monitoring activities.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energia geotermica at the present time: Geothermal Today (Spanish version); La energia geotermica en la actualidad

Description: This outreach publication highlights federal program milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. This is a special 8-page Spanish supplement for the audience at the Geothermal Resources Council/Geothermal Energy Association Annual Meeting and Industry Exhibit, Morelia, Mexico.
Date: September 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department