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Geomorphology of the North Flank of the Uinta Mountains

Description: From introduction: The geologic record of the Tertiary period in the Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming consists, in a broad way, of two quite different parts. The history of the first part, lasting through the Eocene epoch and perhaps on into the early Oligocene, was recorded in a thick series of sedimentary rocks of fluviatile and lacustrine origin. The history of the second part was recorded chiefly by successive stages of stream planation and stream trenching, but also in part by fluviatile sedimentation and, in certain localities, by glacial deposits. The first part of the record is virtually continuous, though its interpretation is by no means simple and obvious. The second part of the record is distinctly fragmentary, and the evidence the fragments provide is difficult to evaluate and to integrate.
Date: 1936
Creator: Bradley, Wilmot H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LiDAR Data for Characterizing Linear and Planar Geomorphic Markers in Tectonic Geomorphology

Description: This paper provides a brief review of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data for characterizing linear and planar geomorphic markers in tectonic geomorphology, including traces of active faults and surface deformation caused by earthquakes. Challenges and opportunities of LiDAR for the study of tectonic geomorphology and coseismic deformation are also discussed.
Date: November 28, 2014
Creator: Dong, Pinliang
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Engineering Geology and Geomorphology of Streambank Erosion, Report 3: The Application of Waterborne Geophysical Techniques in Fluvial Environments

Description: Partial abstract: "The development of waterborne geophysical systems and techniques has provided the geotechnical community with an array of data acquisition tools that can be applied to the fluvial environment. The major purpose of the study described in this report is to evaluate the performance, application, and capability of selected waterborne acoustic profiling systems for streambank erosion studies in fluvial environments. Additional objectives of the study reported herin were to present types of available survey ssytems and related support equipment and to describe techniques for using the systems and equipment."
Date: February 1982
Creator: May, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

Description: The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.
Date: February 26, 2001
Creator: Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SMALL-VOLUME BASALTIC VOLCANOES: ERUPTIVE PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES, AND POST-ERUPTIVE GEOMORPHIC EVOLUTION IN CRATER FLAT (PLEISTOCENE), SOUTHERN NEVADA

Description: Five Pleistocene basaltic volcanoes in Crater Flat (southern Nevada) demonstrate the complexity of eruption processes associated with small-volume basalts and the effects of initial emplacement characteristics on post-eruptive geomorphic evolution of the volcanic surfaces. The volcanoes record eruptive processes in their pyroclastic facies ranging from ''classical'' Strombolian mechanisms to, potentially, violent Strombolian mechanisms. Cone growth was accompanied, and sometimes disrupted, by effusion of lavas from the bases of cones. Pyroclastic cones were built upon a gently southward-sloping surface and were prone to failure of their down-slope (southern) flanks. Early lavas flowed primarily southward and, at Red and Black Cone volcanoes, carried abundant rafts of cone material on the tops of the flows. These resulting early lava fields eventually built platforms such that later flows erupted from the eastern (at Red Cone) and northern (at Black Cone) bases of the cones. Three major surface features--scoria cones, lava fields with abundant rafts of pyroclastic material, and lava fields with little or no pyroclastic material--experienced different post-eruptive surficial processes. Contrary to previous interpretations, we argue that the Pleistocene Crater Flat volcanoes are monogenetic, each having formed in a single eruptive episode lasting months to a few years, and with all eruptive products having emanated from the area of the volcanoes main cones rather than from scattered vents. Geochemical variations within the volcanoes must be interpreted within a monogenetic framework, which implies preservation of magma source heterogeneities through ascent and eruption of the magmas.
Date: April 4, 2006
Creator: Valentine, G.A.; Perry, F.V.; Krier, D.; Keating, G.N.; Kelley, R.E. & Cogbill, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creating a Geologic Play Book for Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration

Description: Preliminary isopach and facies maps, combined with a literature review, were used to develop a sequence of basin geometry, architecture and facies development during Cambrian and Ordovician time. The main architectural features--basins, sub basins and platforms--were identified and mapped as their positions shifted with time. This is significant because a better understanding of the control of basin geometry and architecture on the distribution of key facies and on subsequent reservoir development in Ordovician carbonates within the Trenton and Black River is essential for future exploration planning. Good exploration potential is thought to exist along the entire platform margin, where clean grainstones were deposited in skeletal shoals from Indiana thorough Ohio and Ontario into Pennsylvania. The best reservoir facies for the development of hydrothermal dolomites appears to be these clean carbonates. This conclusion is supported by observations taken in existing fields in Indiana, Ontario, Ohio and New York. In contrast, Trenton-Black River production in Kentucky and West Virginia has been from fractured, but non-dolomitized, limestone reservoirs. Facies maps indicate that these limestones were deposited under conditions that led to a higher argillaceous content than the cleaner limestones deposited in higher-energy environments along platform margins. However, even in the broad area of argillaceous limestones, clean limestone buildups have been observed in eastern outcrops and, if present and dolomitized in the subsurface, may provide additional exploration targets. Structure and isopach maps developed as part of the structural and seismic study supported the basin architecture and geometry conclusions, and from them some structural control on the location of architectural features may be inferred. This portion of the study eventually will lead to a determination of the timing relative to fracturing, dolomitization and hydrocarbon charging of reservoirs in the Trenton and Black River carbonates. The focus of this effort will shift in the next few ...
Date: September 30, 2005
Creator: Patchen, Douglas G.; Smith, Taury; Riley, Ron; Baranoski, Mark; Harris, David; Hickman, John et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep Structure Of Long Valley, California, Based On Deep Reflections From Earthquakes

Description: Knowledge of the deep structure of Long Valley comes primarily from seismic studies. Most of these efforts have focused on delimiting the top of the inferred magma chamber. We present evidence for the location of the bottom of the low velocity layer (LVL). Two other studies have provided similar information. Steeples and Iyer (1976) inferred from teleseismic P-wave delays that low-velocity material extends from 7 km depth to 25 to 40 km, depending on the velocities assumed. Luetgert and Mooney (1985) have examined seismic refraction data from earthquake sources and have identified a reflection that appears to be from the lower boundary of a magma chamber. They detected the reflection with a linear array of single component stations, and assuming it traveled in a vertical plane, matched the travel time and apparent velocity (6.3 km/sec) to deduce that it was a P-P reflection from within a LVL. We recorded a similar phase with a 2-dimensional array of three-component stations, and carried out a similar analysis, but utilized additional information about the travel path, particle motions and amplitudes to constrain our interpretation. Our data comes from a passive seismic refraction experiment conducted during August 1982. Fourteen portable seismograph stations were deployed in a network with approximately 5 km station spacing in the Mono Craters region north of Long Valley (Figure 1). The network recorded earthquakes located south of Long Valley and in the south moat. Three components of motion were recorded at all sites. The data represent one of the few times that three-component data has been collected for raypaths through a magma chamber in the Long Valley area.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Zucca, J. J. & Kasameyer, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kalahari Transect: Research on Global Change and Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

Description: The Kalahari Transect is proposed as one of IGBPs Transects (see Koch et al. 1995 [IGBP Report 36]). It is located so as to span the gradient between the arid subtropics and the moist tropics in southern Africa, a zone potentially susceptible to changes in the global precipitation pattern. Its focus is the relationships between the structure and function of ecosystems and their large-scale biophysical and human drivers (climate, atmosphere and land use). The Kalahari Transect spans a strong climatic gradient in southern Africa, from the arid south to the humid north, while remaining on a single broad soil type, the deep sands of the Kalahari basin. The vegetation ranges over the length of the transect from shrubland through savannas and woodlands to closed evergreen tropical forest, with land uses ranging from migratory wildlife systems, through pastoralism, subsistence cropping to forestry. The objectives of the Kalahari Transect activity are to: build an active network of regional and international researchers around the issue of ecosystem structure and function in savanna woodlands undergoing climatic and land use change; quantify the current and future role of southern African savanna woodlands in the global carbon, water and trace gas budgets and the degree of dependence of these budgets on climate and land use change; develop a predictive understanding of future changes in southern African savannas and woodlands on sandy soils, including their capacity to deliver forage, timber and other products. A five year project is proposed, commencing in 1997. The project revolves around four themes: vegetation structure, composition and dynamics; biogeochemistry, trace gas emissions and productivity; resource use and management and water and energy balance. These themes define the minimum set of processes necessary for understanding of the Kalahari system.
Date: 1997
Creator: Scholes, R.J. & Parsons, D.A.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

[Climate implications of terrestrial paleoclimate]. Quaternary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute annual report, fiscal year 1994/1995

Description: The objective of this study is to collect terrestrial climate indicators for paleoclimate synthesis. The paleobiotic and geomorphic records are being examined for the local and regional impact of past climates to assess Yucca Mountain`s suitability as a high-level nuclear waste repository. In particular these data are being used to provide estimates of the timing, duration and extremes of past periods of moister climate for use in hydrological models of local and regional recharge that are being formulated by USGS and other hydrologists for the Yucca Mountain area. The project includes botanical, faunal, and geomorphic components that will be integrated to accomplish this goal. To this end personnel at the Quaternary Sciences Center of the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada are conducting the following activities: Analyses of packrat middens; Analysis of pollen samples; and Determination of vegetation climate relationships.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Wigand, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geomorphic responses as indicators of paleoclimate and climatic change

Description: There is little doubt that climate is an important parameter affecting the shape of the Earth`s surface. However absolute observance to the principles of climatic geomorphology leads us away from the study of processes because the analyses passes directly from climate to landscape form. An alternative approach is to examine the effects of climate change on the nature of the processes operating in the near surface environment. Utilizing this methodology, the climate-process relations take on greater significance, and lead to an understanding of the response(s) of geomorphic systems to shifts in climatic regime. Given that geomorphic systems respond to changes in climate regime, it should also be true that delineation of the changes in the types, rates, and magnitudes of geomorphic processes will provide insights into the timing and nature of past shifts in climate, particularly effective moisture. It is this approach that has been utilized herein. Specifically, geomorphic responses in eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial systems that have resulted in erosional and depositional events have been documented for several sites in Nevada (Figure 1), and used to infer the timing and character of climatic change in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The results and conclusions of the specific studies are provided.
Date: July 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tectonic Setting and Characteristics of Natural Fractures in Mesaverde and Dakota Reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

Description: A set of vertical extension fractures, striking N-S to NNE-SSW but with local variations, is present in both the outcrop and subsurface in both Mesaverde and Dakota sandstones. Additional sets of conjugate shear fractures have been recognized in outcrops of Dakota strata and may be present in the subsurface. However, the deformation bands prevalent locally in outcrops in parts of the basin as yet have no documented subsurface equivalent. The immature Mesaverde sandstones typically contain relatively long, irregular extension fractures, whereas the quartzitic Dakota sandstones contain short, sub-parallel, closely spaced, extension fractures, and locally conjugate shear planes as well. Outcrops typically display secondary cross fractures which are rare in the subsurface, although oblique fractures associated with local structures such as the Hogback monocline may be present in similar subsurface structures. Spacings of the bed-normal extension fractures are approximately equal to or less than the thicknesses of the beds in which they formed, in both outcrop and subsurface. Fracture intensities increase in association with faults, where there is a gradation from intense fracturing into fault breccia. Bioturbation and minimal cementation locally inhibited fracture development in both formations, and the vertical limits of fracture growth are typically at bedding/lithology contrasts. Fracture mineralizations have been largely dissolved or replaced in outcrops, but local examples of preserved mineralization show that the quartz and calcite common to subsurface fractures were originally present in outcrop fractures. North-south trending compressive stresses created by southward indentation of the San Juan dome area (where Precambrian rocks are exposed at an elevation of 14,000 ft) and northward indentation of the Zuni uplift, controlled Laramide-age fracturing. Contemporaneous right-lateral transpressive wrench motion due to northeastward translation of the basin was both concentrated at the basin margins (Nacimiento uplift and Hogback monocline on east and west edges respectively) and distributed across the strata ...
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Lorenz, John C. & Cooper, Scott P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

Description: The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report on preliminary assessment of variations of regional phases and discriminants with distance

Description: An improved understanding of the variability of regional seismic phases with distance is needed to improve the performance and transportability of regional seismic discriminants. Observations of large variations in regional phase amplitudes, over relatively short distances, are not uncommon. For example, large variations in Pn amplitudes of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) were observed along lines to the west (e.g., Keller et al., 1994), and northwest (e.g., McCormack et al., 1994). Numerous studies, in a number of areas, have also observed large variations in Sn and Lg over relatively short distances (e.g., Kadinsky-Cade et al., 1981; Ni and Barazangi, 1983). An improved understanding of these variations has been gained from numerous empirical observations (e.g., Chavez and Priestley, 1984; Zhang et al., 1994) and theoretical studies (e.g., Campillo, 1990, Kennett, 1993). We are developing a number of techniques and procedures for characterizing such features on a region specific basis.
Date: June 5, 1995
Creator: Goldstein, P. & Schultz, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

Description: Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Tullis, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

Description: The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Wells, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

Description: Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Graf, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1992-93 Results of geomorphological and field studies Volcanic Studies Program, Yucca Mountain Project

Description: Field mapping and stratigraphic studies were completed of the Black Tank volcanic center, which represents the southwestern most eruptive center in the Cima volcanic field of California. The results of this mapping are presented. Contacts between volcanic units and geomorphic features were field checked, incorporating data from eight field trenches as well as several exposures along Black Tank Wash. Within each of the eight trenches, logs were measured and stratigraphic sections were described. These data indicate that three, temporally separate volcanic eruptions occurred at the Black Tank center. The field evidence for significant time breaks between each stratigraphic unit is the presence of soil and pavement-bounded unconformities.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Wells, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Features and dimensions of the Hayward Fault Zone in the Strawberry and Blackberry Creek Area, Berkeley, California

Description: This report presents an examination of the geometry of the Hayward fault adjacent to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and University of California campuses in central Berkeley. The fault crosses inside the eastern border of the UC campus. Most subtle geomorphic (landform) expressions of the fault have been removed by development and by the natural processes of landsliding and erosion. Some clear expressions of the fault remain however, and these are key to mapping the main trace through the campus area. In addition, original geomorphic evidence of the fault`s location was recovered from large scale mapping of the site dating from 1873 to 1897. Before construction obscured and removed natural landforms, the fault was expressed by a linear, northwest-tending zone of fault-related geomorphic features. There existed well-defined and subtle stream offsets and beheaded channels, fault scarps, and a prominent ``shutter ridge``. To improve our confidence in fault locations interpreted from landforms, we referred to clear fault exposures revealed in trenching, revealed during the construction of the Foothill Housing Complex, and revealed along the length of the Lawson Adit mining tunnel. Also utilized were the locations of offset cultural features. At several locations across the study area, distress features in buildings and streets have been used to precisely locate the fault. Recent published mapping of the fault (Lienkaemper, 1992) was principally used for reference to evidence of the fault`s location to the northwest and southeast of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Williams, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeologic Features of the Alluvial Deposits in the Greybull River Valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

Description: Abstract: The alluvial aquifer along the Greybull River consists principally of the Greybull terrace deposits and the flood-plain alluvium but also includes the Burlington terrace deposits and the flood-plain alluvium but also includes the Burlington terrace deposits east of Burlington, the McKinnie terrace, and the younger, generally undissected alluvial-fan deposits. Well-log data and 18 surface-resistivity measurements at four localities indicate that the thickness of the alluvial aquifer is as much as 60 feet thick only near Burlington and Otto. The most favorable area for development of ground water from the alluvial aquifer is near Burlington and Otto where relatively large amounts of water can be obtained from the Greybull terrace deposits and the flood-plain alluvium. Elsewhere, the deposits of the alluvial aquifer yield only small amounts of water to wells.
Date: 1979
Creator: Cooley, Maurice E. & Head, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

Description: The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Gorsline, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Relative Abundance of Desert Tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within Ecological Landform Units

Description: Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km) (552 miles [mi]). These ELUs covered 528 km{sup 2} (204 mi{sup 2}). Two-hundred and eighty-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29 percent had a low abundance, and 1 percent had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km{sup 2} (514 mi{sup 2}) of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49 percent is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18 percent has a low or moderate abundance, 12 percent is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21 percent still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20 percent.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Roy Woodward, Kurt R. Rautenstrauch, Derek B. Hall, and W. Kent Ostler
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atwater Valley Deep-Towed Sidescan Sonar Imagery and Bathymetric Survey

Description: The purpose of this project was to conduct detailed surface mapping of one of the areas drilled by the Joint Industry Project with ChevronTexaco to understand gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. The gently sloping, mostly flat floor of the Mississippi Canyon is interrupted by mounds and depressions that presumably reflect the complex geology and geohydrology related to turbidite deposition and pervasive salt tectonism. The seafloor mounds we mapped in this study occur in approximately 1300 water depth along the floor of the Mississippi Canyon in lease block areas Atwater Valley 13 and 14. High resolution sidescan sonar (100 kHz and 500 kHz) backscatter imagery, and chirp sub-bottom profiler data were collected using the DT1 deep-towed oceanographic mapping instrument, concentrating on the region directly adjacent to and surrounding two mounds identified as, mounds D and F, and in the region directly adjacent to and surrounding the mounds. The backscatter data have been mosaiced and normalized to provide information on the shape and extent of the mounds, the possible lateral extent of fauna, such as mussel and clam fields on the mounds, possible seep related flows and the occurrence of carbonate material. The extent of a mudflow can be mapped on the southeastern side of mound F. The backscatter data show extremely high-resolution detail about the shape, relief, and morphology of the mounds. This information, coupled with porewater chemistry , DTAGS and heatflow data form a coherent picture of possible mechanics for fluid venting and flora/fauna of the seeps in this region.
Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Gardner, Joan M.; Czarnecki, Mike; Hagen, Rick; Nishimura, Clyde; Wood, Warren; Vaughn, Chad et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department