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Distinguishing Sedimentary Depositional Environments on Mars Using In-Situ Luminescence Measurements and Neural Network Analysis.

Description: Although not recognized as a true geologic period on Mars, the term 'Martian Quaternary' emerged at the 2001 LPSC. The phrase helps focus attention on the fact that Mars does indeed exhibit dynamic surface processes andd geomorphic features active on time scales less than 10{sup 6} years. As on earth evolving landscapes can serve as important storehouses for paltoclimatic and paIeoenvironmental records. However, deciphering the 'Quaternary' history of Mars will require the development of 4 new set of tools that are uniquely suited to examining youthful sediments and geomorphic features.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Lepper, K. E. (Kenneth E.) & Whitley, V. H. (Von H.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

Description: The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly ...
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Lietzke, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast. Final report, Phase I

Description: As an extension of its efforts in the development of the geopressured resources of the Gulf Coast, the Division of Geothermal Energy of the US Department of Energy is interested in determining the extent and characteristics of geopressured occurrences in areas outside the Gulf Coast. The work undertaken involved a literature search of available information documenting such occurrences. Geopressured reservoirs have been reported from various types of sedimentary lithologies representing virtually all geologic ages and in a host of geologic environments, many of which are unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include many Rocky Mountain basins (Green River, Big Horn, Powder River, Wind River, Uinta, Piceance, Denver, San Juan), Mid-Continent basins (Delaware, Anadorko, Interior Salt, Williston, Appalachian), California basins (Sacramento, San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura, Coast Ranges), Alaskan onshore and offshore basins, Pacific Coast offshore basins, and other isolated occurrences, both onshore and offshore.
Date: September 30, 1980
Creator: Strongin, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ) beneath the US midcontinent

Description: A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hauser, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generalized structure map of top, middle, and basal tertiary markers with geothermal gradients, eastern north slope petroleum province, Alaska

Description: This map shows structure contours on several markers in the Tertiary rocks in the Prudhoe Bay area and the regional geothermal gradients. Contours of the geothermal gradient (Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, undated) apparently correlate with other geologic trends. The lower gradients coincide with the deepest part of the Colville basin, and the higher gradients with the thinner section of sediments deposited over the Barrow arch. The inflection of the isograds in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay may be due to an insulating effect from the hydrocarbon accumulation and(or) a slightly greater proportion of poorly conductive rocks. Heat flow in the area of Prudhoe Bay is essentially the same as other regions in the Arctic (Gold and Lachenbruch, 1973).
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Tailleur, I.L. & Engwicht, S.E. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Cameron Parish geopressured aquifer. Final report

Description: The Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal prospect is located in northern Cameron Parish, Louisiana in T.12 S., R. 7 W. and T. 12 S., R. 8 W. approximately 10 to 15 miles south of Lake Charles. The region is characterized by Cenozoic sand and clay deposits of geosynclinal thickness and differentially uplifted salt structures. The primary geopressured-geothermal aquifer is the Miogyp sand of the Camerina zone (Upper Frio formation of Oligocene-Miocene age). The main prospect is located in a basin on the north flank of the Hackberry-Big Lake-Sweet Lake salt ridge. Interpretation of 27 miles of seismic lines and 17 deep well logs localizes the prospect in a basin with northwesterly dip in a graben between east--west faults converging eastward. Aquifer depth ranges from 14,000 to 18,000 feet. Net sand thickness exceeds 400 feet with 22% porosity. Temperatures range from 280/sup 0/F. (corrected) at 14,000 feet to 350/sup 0/F. at 18,000 feet. Geopressures occur below 9,000 feet with mud weight equivalents in the sand from 12 to 13 pounds per gallon. Net sand volume of one cubic mile is estimated in the area mapped.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Durham, C.O. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary study of the uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the central San Juan Basin, New Mexico

Description: Three formations in the Tertiary of the San Juan Basin were investigated for their uranium favorability. They are the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, the Nacimiento Formation, and the San Jose Formation. The study comprised a literature survey and a basin analysis, which consisted of subsurface lithofacies, stratigraphic, and radiometric mapping. Field work in preparation for the subsurface analysis consisted of examination of outcrop and measured sections, surface radiometric traverses, and checking of reported surface radioactive anomalies. Interpretation of subsurface mapping provided the primary basis for favorability assessment. The sandstone trends depicted in lithofacies maps, and stratigraphic cross sections reflect large channel complexes and major fluvial systems originating in favorable source areas. Although surface radioactivity anomalies were found to be few, weak, and widespread, the San Juan Basin has abundant favorable host rocks. The subsurface anomalies, although weak, are widespread and sometimes persist throughout thickness intervals greater than 50 ft. Subsurface anomalies were mapped on a wide-spaced grid and are generalized. On the basis of apparent source, lithology, differential permeability, contents of carbonaceous detritus, and geometry, the Nacimiento Formation and the basal facies of the San Jose Formation in the north-central basin have the greatest potential. The Ojo Alamo Sandstone is less favorable, and the Nacimiento Formation in the southern part of the basin and the upper San Jose Formation are the least favorable of the units studied.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Vizcaino, H.P. & O'Neill, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithologic interpretation of the De Braga No. 2 and Richard Weishaupt No. 1 geothermal wells, Stillwater project, Churchill County, Nevada

Description: Lithologies penetrated throughout the upper 732 to 838 m (2400 to 2750 ft) within the Stillwater prospect area are terrigenous sediments of Pleistocene to Recent age. A sill of dacite to andesite composition with a thickness variable between 122 to 208 m (400 to 680 ft) is present below the terrigenous sediments. Between the base of the sill and the top of the Bunejug Formation are intercalated volcanic and sedimentary rocks. All formations overlying the Bunejug Formation are probably of Pleistocene age. The basalt and basaltic-andesite flows and ash below the depth of approximately 1128 m (3700 ft) are herein assigned to the Bunejug Formation (Morrison, 1964) of Pliocene and possibly early Pleistocene age. The Bunejug Formation is a thick sequence of basalt to andesite flows and hyaloclastite exposed in the mountains surrounding the south half of the Carson Desert. The De Braga No. 2 well bottomed in Bunejug volcanics at a depth of 2109 m (6920 ft). The Richard Weishaupt No. 1 well penetrated the entire Bunejug sequence and entered felsic volcanics and tuffaceous sediments, which possibly represent part of the Truckee Formation, at a depth of approximately 2412 m (7915 ft).
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Sibbett, B. S. & Blackett, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic and geophysical investigations of Climax stock intrusive, Nevada

Description: This document contains three parts of a survey of Climax stock intrusive, Nevada by the US Geological Survey. The first contains the results of a conventional survey of the site and an investigation of rock composition. The second contains the results of a gravity survey and the third contains the results of a magnetic aerial survey. Each of the three documents contains a separate abstract.
Date: December 31, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Lathrop Wells volcanic center: Status of field and geochronology studies

Description: The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. It has long been recognized as the youngest basalt center in the region. However, determination of the age and eruptive history of the center has proven problematic. The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of field and geochronology studies of the Lathrop Wells center. Our perspective is that it is critical to assess all possible methods for obtaining cross-checking data to resolve chronology and field problems. It is equally important to consider application of the range of chronology methods available in Quaternary geologic research. Such an approach seeks to increase the confidence in data interpretations through obtaining convergence among separate isotopic, radiogenic, and age-correlated methods. Finally, the assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of each dating method need to be carefully described to facilitate an impartial evaluation of results.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Crowe, B.; Morley, R.; Wells, S.; Geissman, J.; McDonald, E.; McFadden, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Lathrop Wells volcanic center: Status of field and geochronology studies

Description: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of field and geochronology studies of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Our perspective is that it is critical to assess all possible methods for obtaining cross-checking data to resolve chronology and field problems. It is equally important to consider application of the range of chronology methods available in Quaternary geologic research. Such an approach seeks to increase the confidence in data interpretations through obtaining convergence among separate isotopic, radiogenic, and age-correlated methods. Finally, the assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of each dating method need to be carefully described to facilitate an impartial evaluation of results. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part describes the status of continuing field studies for the volcanic center for this area south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The second part presents an overview of the preliminary results of ongoing chronology studies and their constraints on the age and stratigraphy of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Along with the chronology data, the assumptions, strengths, and limitations of each methods are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Crowe, B.; Morley, R.; Wells, S.; Geissman, J.; McDonald, E.; McFadden, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

Description: Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.
Date: May 1, 1988
Creator: Jackson, M.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary study of favorability for uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas basin, northeastern New Mexico

Description: Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The formation contains sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics that are considered favorable for uranium deposition. Field investigations consisted of section measuring, rock sampling, and ground radiometric reconnaissance. North-south and east-west cross sections of the basin were prepared from well logs and measured sections. Petrographic, chemical, and spectrographic analyses were conducted on selected samples. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic information were used to determine depositional environments. The most favorable potential host rocks include red to pink, coarse-grained, poorly sorted, feldspathic to arkosic lenticular sandstones with stacked sandstone thicknesses of more than 20 ft and sandstone-to-shale ratios between 1:1 and 2:1. The sandstone is interbedded with mudstone and contains carbonaceous debris and anomalous concentrations of uranium locally. Areas of maximum favorability are found in a braided-stream, alluvial-plain depositional environment in the north-central part of the Las Vegas basin. There, carbonaceous material is well preserved, probably due to rapid subsidence and burial. Furthermore, uranium favorability is highest in the lower half of the formation because carbonaceous wood and plant fragments, as well as known uranium deposits, are concentrated in this zone. Piedmont deposits in the north and east, and meander-belt, alluvial-plain deposits in the south, are not considered favorable because of the paucity of uranium deposits and a minimum of carbonaceous material.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: May, R.T.; Strand, J.R.; Reid, B.E. & Phillips, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uinta Arch Project: investigations of uranium potential in Precambrian X and older metasedimentary rocks in the Unita and Wasatch ranges, Utah and Colorado

Description: This study is part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to understand the geologic setting, amount, and availability of uranium resources within the boundaries of the United States. The systematic study of Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates and areas that may contain such conglomerates is an integral part of DOE's resource evaluation program, because deposits of world-wide importance occur in such terrains in Canada and South Africa, and because terrains similar to those producing uranium from quartz-pebble conglomerates exist elsewhere in the United States. Because of the ready availability of Tertiary sandstone and Colorado Plateau-type uranium deposits, large areas of Precambrian rocks in the US have not been fully assessed for uranium potential. Thus, the Uinta Arch Project was undertaken to assess the favorability of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks in northern Utah for deposits of uranium in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates. Rocks of interest to this study are the thick, clastic sequences within the Uinta Arch that are considered to be of Early Proterozoic age. The Uinta Arch area is known to contain rocks which generally fit the lithologic characteristics that are understood to limit the occurrence of Precambrian fossil placers. However, detailed geology of these rocks and their exact fit to the model described for uraniferous conglomerates was not known. The primary goal of the Uinta Arch Project was to determine how well these Precambrian rocks resemble known deposits and to describe the favorability of placer uranium deposits.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Graff, P.J.; Sears, J.W. & Holden, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quaternary investigation

Description: The primary purpose of the Quaternary investigation is to provide information on the location and age of Quaternary deposits for use in evaluating the presence or absence of neotectonic deformation or paleoliquefaction features within the Savannah River Site (SRS) region. The investigation will provide a basis for evaluating the potential for capable faults and associated deformation in the SRS vicinity. Particular attention will be paid to the Pen Branch fault.
Date: May 15, 1991
Creator: Stieve, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shale commercialization study

Description: Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Warner, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on the physical properties of geothermal reservoir rock. Annual report, September 1, 1977

Description: Measurements have been made of the electrical resistivity, the acoustic wave speed, density, and water content of six groups of rock samples taken from Cenozoic volcanic units. It has been found from these measurements that the correlations between physical properties are significantly different in the case of volcanic rocks than in the case of sandstones and limestones. For a given porosity and water content, the resistivity of a volcanic rock is several fold greater than that of a sandstone or limestone. Also, there is a weaker correlation between acoustic wave speed and porosity in volcanic rocks than in sandstones and limestones. The effect of temperature on the properties of these rocks appears to be predictable from fundamental considerations to temperatures as high as 100/sup 0/C.
Date: September 25, 1977
Creator: Keller, G.V.; Grose, L.T. & Pickett, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

Description: The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Burggraf, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric-aerosol loads

Description: The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10/sup 16/ g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10/sup 3/ of normal. We also infer from this result that the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al., is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids or comets than previously estimated.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gerstl, S.A.W. & Zardecki, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global temperature patterns 6000 years ago. Progress report

Description: Climatic patterns of the mid-Holocene (5000 to 7000 years B.P.) may be helpful in predicting some of the climatic changes during future climatic periods that are warmer than today. Research progress is reported on work done during the year to assemble data from pollen, marine plankton, and lake-levels required for producing northern hemisphere climatic maps for the mid-Holocene. (ACR)
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Webb III, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of climatic input for waste management site suitability criteria and state of progress

Description: Because groundwater movement can have important effects on buried nuclear wastes, hydrologists need to know if future climatic changes will influence the accuracy of groundwater flow calculations. Groundwater recharge (and therefore groundwater flow) depends on surface water balance. (Surface water balance equals precipitation less losses to evaporation, runoff, and storage.) To develop input data for modeling future climatic effects, we have made the following simplifying assumptions: (1) Climate (and therefore water balance) will behave in the future very much as it has in the past. (2) Groundwater recharge responds linearly to precipitation. (3) Future long-term climatic changes can be classified into groups or regimes that are similar to those of the past. Our current research is aimed at providing input data to the Waste Management Program's site suitability task. 16 figures, 1 table.
Date: May 3, 1978
Creator: Potter, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department