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Genetic Testing: Scientific Background for Policymakers

Description: This report discusses bills addressing genetic discrimination in health insurance and employment; personalized medicine; the patenting of genetic material; and the oversight of clinical laboratory tests (in vitro diagnostics), including genetic tests.
Date: February 20, 2014
Creator: Sarata, Amanda K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping Our Genes—Genome Projects: How Big? How Fast?

Description: Scientific and technical journals in biology and medicine have extensively covered a debate about whether and how to determine the function and order of human genes on human chromosomes and when to determine the sequence of molecular building blocks that comprise DNA in those chromosomes. This report surveys the points made so far in the debate that involves science, technology, and politics, focusing on those that most directly influence the policy options facing the U.S. Congress.
Date: April 1988
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Population Genetic Structure of Quadrula aurea (Bivalvia: Unionidae), A Threatened Freshwater Mussel in Central Texas

Description: The anthropogenic alteration of riverine ecosystems has led to declines in the abundance and diversity of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) worldwide. Central Texas is home to a diverse freshwater mussel fauna including three candidates for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Surveys conducted over the last few decades suggest many of the endemic freshwater mussel species in Texas exist in small isolated populations that may be vulnerable to the deleterious effects of genetic diversity loss. Microsatellite primers from two closely related species were used to identify a set of genetic markers that functioned in the Golden Orb (Quadrula aurea). Microsatellite markers were then applied to document the population genetic structure of Q. aurea within and among three connected river drainages in southeastern Texas. Gene flow within existing Q. aurea populations appears high indicating little potential for genetic issues stemming from isolation and inbreeding. Two weakly divergent admixed populations were identified occupying the San Antonio and Guadalupe/San Marcos rivers. Population genetic structure was related to river basin affiliation, but results for environmental factors were unresolved. Current effective population size estimates are large for the Guadalupe/San Marcos drainage and moderately large for the San Antonio drainage and there is no clear genetic evidence of contemporary population declines. Transport in the glochidial phase by a highly mobile host fish, the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), may provide a mechanism for maintaining connectivity among spatially discrete mussel beds and deserves further study. Information on the occurrence and habitat associations of Q. aurea and two other threatened freshwater mussel species was documented. Quantification of the population genetic structure for Q. aurea provides important information needed for the management of this species, a baseline for understanding future changes, and insight into the factors that shape the population genetic structure of other threatened unionids in Texas.
Date: May 2018
Creator: Mabe, Jeffrey A
Partner: UNT Libraries

Population Genetics, Karyology, and Morphology of Certain Species of the Peromyscus Truei Group

Description: The systematic relationship of two species of the Peromyscus truei group (P. truei and P. difficilis) was analysed through the application of starch gel electrophoresis, numerical taxonomy, and chromosomal techiques. Of 20 loci examined, 11 were monomorphic in all populations, two exhibited variation in only two populations, and seven loci were polymorphic in two or more populations. The mean number of polymorphic loci per population was 0.186, the mean number of polymorphic loci per individual was 0.024, and the proportion of loci heterozygous per individual was 2.4%. Chromosomal forms of P. truei, P. t. gentilis (FN 54) and P. t. truei (FN 62), and P. difficilis, P. d. petricola (FN 56) and P. d. nasutus (FN 58), were consistent for their karyotypes throughout their geographic ranges. No chromosomal hybrids were detected. Numerical analysis of morphological characters and similarity values based on allelic frequencies utilizing Roger's coefficient (S) demonstrated a distinct seperation of karyotypic forms of P. truei (S = 0.902) and P. difficilis (S = 0.924) and were below the mean value of S for conspecifics (S = 0.950). All data indicates that each chromosomal form of the P. truei group examined represents four distinct species. The oldest available name for chromosomal forms of P. true with a fundamental number of 62 is Peromyscus truei Shufeldt (1885) and the oldest available name for chromosomal forms with a fundamental number of 54 is Peromyscus gratus Merriam (1898). The oldest available name for chromosomal forms of P. difficils with a fundamental number of 58 is PeromYSCus nasutus Allen (1891) and the oldest available name for chromosomal forms with a fundamental number of 56 is Peromyscus difficilis Allen (1891).
Date: May 1976
Creator: Hart, Billy Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries

Responses to Diets High in Phenylalanine Compounds as Genetic Parameters in Mice

Description: The induction of phenylketonuria in mice through the use of excess dietary phenylalanine is an area in which limited research has been done. This study intends to pursue further work in this area, more specifically, to study the effects of excess dietary phenylalanine and the phenylalanine analogue A.P.B.A. (2-amino-3-phenyl butanoic acid) (7) on brain serotonin and brain norepinephrine. In addition, the effects of these two compounds on the incidence of audiogenic seizures will be explored.
Date: June 1966
Creator: Boughey, Frederick W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A laboratory course in experimental genetics for the biology major.

Description: This manual has been designed for a class of twenty- four students concurrently enrolled in the lecture course. The laboratory aids in the learning process and fosters an interest in the science of genetics. This manual and the experiments contained within are both informative and fun. The manual correlates with and expands upon the genetics course. Each investigation, with the exception of the Drosophila melanogaster project, can be completed in a 3-4 hour timeframe. This manual provides a “hands on” experience of theories simply discussed in the lecture course. This manual is intended to be a one-source manual where each investigation is designed to include an adequate introduction. Special attention has been given for each investigation with both the student and instructor in mind.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Lux, Melissa McNeil
Partner: UNT Libraries

Genetic Interest Assessment

Description: Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.
Date: May 2013
Creator: Doughney, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Genetic Differentiation of the Geomys Pocket Gopher Complex of Texas

Description: Genetic variation was analyzed for populations of seven taxa comprising four cytotypes of the Geomys bursarius chromosome complex, including G. b. major, G. b. knoxjonesi, and the Edwards Plateau taxa, G. b. llanensis and G. b. texensis. Genetic relationships of the Edwards Plateau gophers with other taxa and between themselves were examined. Genetic similarity, number of fixed allelic differences, and ectoparasite distribution indicate the Edwards Plateau gophers are a distinct gene pool. Isolation of the Edwards Plateau taxa precludes contact zone analysis. However, genetic differentiation is typical of that between other species of Geomys, and the Edwards Plateau taxa should be recognized as G. texensis. Distributions of allelic frequencies indicate little justification in retaining the subspecific status of the Edwards Plateau forms.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Block, Scott B. (Scott Bishop)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Syllabus Outline for Genetics Lecture and Laboratory

Description: This work is intended to be used as a teaching tool in conjunction with the text cited. It is written in outline format, highlighting the major concepts of each pertinent chapter. In this format, the concepts can be expanded upon at the discretion of the instructor. This work is to be used as a guide for lecture. The basic concepts contained in the outline are in such a format as to be able to work in more information regarding the subject matter if needed. The instructor can work from this outline as a starting point. Major topics in the chapters are highlighted, making lecture notes for the instructor easier to do.
Date: December 1999
Creator: Preston, E. Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Microsatellite-based genetic profiling for the management of wild and captive flamingo populations.

Description: Flamingo species generate tremendous interest whether they are small captive groups or wild populations numbering in the thousands. Genetic pedigrees are invaluable for maintaining maximum genetic diversity in captive, as well as wild, populations. However, presently there is a general lack of genetic data for flamingo populations. Microsatellites are loci composed of 2-6 base pair tandem repeats, scattered throughout higher eukaryotic genomes, often exhibiting high levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity. These loci are thus important genetic markers for identity, parentage and population studies. Here, six microsatellite loci were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched Caribbean flamingo partial genomic library. Two are compound complex repeats and four are perfect trinucleotide repeats. Each locus was amplified from Caribbean, African greater, Chilean and lesser flamingo genomic DNAs. Heterozygosity frequencies were calculated for Caribbean (range 0.12-0.90) and African greater flamingos (range 0.23-0.94) loci. All six microsatellite loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses did not suggest linkage for any pair of two greater flamingo subspecies (African and Caribbean) loci. At least five of the loci also exhibit polymorphism in Chilean and lesser flamingos, but due to small sample numbers, relevant allele/heterozygosity frequency calculations could not be estimated. Nucleotide sequence comparisons of the amplicons derived from the four flamingo groups reveal a high level of sequence conservation at all loci. Although small sample numbers again limit the data for lesser flamingos and to some degree for the Chilean birds, the sequences of the two greater flamingo subspecies were identical and the number of nonconserved nucleotides appears to be higher for lesser/greater comparisons than for Chilean/greater comparisons. This is consistent with Chilean flamingos being a different species within the same genus as the greater flamingos, while lesser flamingos belong to a separate genus. Parentage analyses on suggested African greater flamingo family groups from ...
Date: December 2005
Creator: Kapil, Richa
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Use of Genetics for the Management of a Recovering Population: Temporal Assessment of Migratory Peregrine Falcons in North America

Description: Article on the use of genetics for the management of a recovering population and a temporal assessment of migratory peregrine falcons in North America.
Date: November 18, 2010
Creator: Johnson, Jeff A.; Talbot, Sandra Looman; Sage, George K.; Burnham, Kurt K.; Brown, Joseph W.; Maechtle, Tom L. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Genetics Lecture and Laboratory Syllabus for a Junior-Level Course

Description: The following is a complete syllabus for a college level genetics course. The syllabus contains lecture outlines and notes for each chapter, along with a list of transparencies needed. The quizzes and exams are prepared and placed at the beginning of the syllabus. The beginning of the course will consist of a lecture to introduce the students to the basics of genetics, followed by many applications of genetics. The process of cell division will be mastered by the students, as well as Mendelian genetics, quantitative genetics, chromosome mapping, and inheritance. The replication, synthesis, and organization of DNA are also discussed within the lectures. The final topics that will be covered using this syllabus are genetics of cancer and immunology and population genetics. These topics are essential for a detailed genetics course. The syllabus is written in great detail, and will require a full semester to be completed. The book used in association with this syllabus is Essentials of Genetics by William S. Klug and Michael R. Cummings.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Harper, Kasey
Partner: UNT Libraries

Characterization of cDNA and Genomic Clones for a Palmitoyl-acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase and an Osmotin-Like PR5 Protein in Gossypium Hirsutum.

Description: Putative cotton cDNA clones and cognate genomic clones for a palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (PATE) and an osmotin-like pathogenesis-related 5 (PR5) protein have been isolated and characterized. PATE is a class B fatty acid thioesterase with specificity for saturated long-chain fatty acids such as palmitate, and is implicated as a key enzyme to be targeted for regulation of fatty acid synthesis in order to alter cotton seed oil profiles. A nearly full-length 1.7-kb cDNA clone was isolated using a hybridization probe derived from an Arabidopsis PATE cDNA clone designated TE 3-2. A 17-kb genomic segment encompassing the PATE gene was also isolated, which has six exons and five introns with high sequence identity with other FatB cDNA/gene sequences. The deduced PATE preprotein amino acid sequence of 413 residues has putative signal sequences for targeting to the chloroplast stroma. PR5 proteins called osmotins are made in response to fungal pathogen stress or osmotic stress (water deprivation or salt exposure). Osmotins may actually form pores in fungal membranes, leading to osmotic rupture and destruction of the fungal cells. A cotton osmotin-like PR5 cDNA insert of 1,052 base-pairs was isolated and shown to encode a preprotein of 242 amino acids and is predicted to be secreted to the extracellular matrix as a neutral isoform. The deduced amino acid sequence has 16 cysteine residues that are highly conserved in osmotin-like proteins and are important in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure seen in thaumatin, zeamatin, and PR5-d. The intronless cognate cotton genomic clone has two putative ethylene response elements (GCC boxes) found in other PR5 gene promoter regions, as well as several tentative promoter/enhancer elements possibly involved in spatial/temporal gene expression.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: May 2002
Creator: Yoder, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cloning: Where Do We Go From Here?

Description: News in February 1997 that scientists in Scotland had succeeded in cloning an adult sheep ignited a worldwide debate. Of concern are the ethical and social implications of the potential application of cloning to produce human beings. In response to concerns about the potential application of cloning to produce humans, actions were taken by the Administration and Congress.
Date: April 23, 1998
Creator: Stith-Coleman, Irene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural Analysis of the Genes Encoding the Oxalocrotonate Branch of the Pseudomonas putida TOL Plasmid pDKI meta-cleavage Pathway and the Expression of the xy1G Gene Product in Escherichia coli

Description: Three overlapping DNA fragments from the lower operon of Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid pDK1, covering the xy1IH genes and downstream flanking region, were cloned into pUC19. They include a 2.8 kbp XhoI fragment, a 2.7 kbp PstI fragment and a 2.0 kbp EcoRI-HindIII fragment. They were subjected to DNA sequence analysis. The xy1I (4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase) and xy1H (4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase) genes were found to possess coding regions of 792 and 189 nucleotides, respectively. A possible transcriptional terminator resembling E. coli rho-independent terminators was identified downstream of the translational stop of xy1H. An additional stem and loop structure was found in the intergenic region between xy1I and xy1H. The individual ORF's of the oxalocrotonate branch (xy1G, xy1I and xy1H) have been cloned into pUC18/19. The expression of the xy1G gene in E. coli was successfully assayed spectrophotometrically.
Date: December 1992
Creator: Luo, Xuebin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Report of the First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research, September 25-26, 2000

Description: The First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 25-26, 2000. The consultation was convened by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Approximately 120 individuals participated in the consultation, half from a broad range of communities and populations, and half from government. The participants shared their views and concerns about population- and community-based genetic research, expanding the focus of the meeting from the collection and use of blood or other tissue samples for genetic research to broader issues and concerns about the conduct of genetic research in general with populations and communities.
Date: May 22, 2002
Creator: Greenberg, Judith H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in Isolated and Open Populations of Southern Flying Squirrels

Description: Three populations of Southern flying squirrels were studied in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas to assess the impact of population subdivision-due to island formation--on the population genetics of Glaucomys volans. One island, one mainland, and one open population were investigated. A 367 nucleotide hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced in individuals from each population. Individuals and populations were compared to assess relatedness. Higher sequence diversity was detected in the open and island populations. One island individual shared characters with both the island and mainland populations. Results support the hypothesis that the mainland population may have reduced gene flow. Also, the island population may have been originally founded by at least two maternal lineages.
Access: This item is restricted to UNT Community Members. Login required if off-campus.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Cook, Melaney Birdsong
Partner: UNT Libraries

Looking for Darwin's footprints in the microbial world

Description: As we observe the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birthday, microbiologists interested in the application of Darwin's ideas to the microscopic world have a lot to celebrate: an emerging picture of the (mostly microbial) Tree of Life at ever-increasing resolution, an understanding of horizontal gene transfer as a driving force in the evolution of microbes, and thousands of complete genome sequences to help formulate and refine our theories. At the same time, quantitative models of the microevolutionary processes shaping microbial populations remain just out of reach, a point that is perhaps most dramatically illustrated by the lack of consensus on how (or even whether) to define bacterial species. We summarize progress and prospects in bacterial population genetics, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of positive Darwinian selection in microbial genomes.
Date: March 30, 2009
Creator: Shapiro, B. Jesse; David, Lawrence A.; Friedman, Jonathan & Alm, Eric J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department