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Results from the one box kinetics-transport code

Description: Preliminary results are presented from calculations concerning the kinetics and transport of a single SST exhaust plume. Curves are shown that exhibit the effect of different transport rates on axis ozone concentration and total ozone destruction per unit plume length. (auth)
Date: September 26, 1973
Creator: Walton, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term safety issues associated with mixer pump operation

Description: In this report, we examine several long-term issues: the effect of pump operation on future gas release events (GREs), uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion. Heat load in excess of the design limit, uncontrolled chemical reactions, chronic toxic gas releases, foaming, and erosion and corrosion have been shown not to be safety concerns. The effect of pump operation on future GREs could not be quantified. The problem with evaluating the long-term effects of pump operation on GREs is a lack of knowledge and uncertainty. In particular, the phenomena governing gas retention, particle size distribution, and settling are not well understood, nor are the interactions among these factors understood. There is a possibility that changes in these factors could increase the size of future GREs. Bounding estimates of the potential increase in size of GREs are not possible because of a lack of engineering data. Proper management of the hazards can reduce, but not eliminate, the possibility of undesirable changes. Maintaining temperature within the historical limits can reduce the possibility of undesirable changes. A monitoring program to detect changes in the gas composition and crust thickness will help detect slowly occurring changes. Because pump operation has be shown to eliminate GREs, continued pump operation can eliminate the hazards associated with future GREs.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Kubic, W.L. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statement of work for services provided by the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility for Effluent Monitoring during Calendar Year 1996

Description: This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public from those emissions. This report complies with the reporting requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ``Protection of the Environment,`` Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (40 CFR 61 Subpart H) and Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 246-247).
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Gleckler, B. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation for 241-SX-102

Description: Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ``Wallet Report`` is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980.
Date: June 23, 1997
Creator: Brevick, C.H. & Gaddie, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

Description: The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

296-B-13 stack monitoring and sampling system: Annual system assessment report

Description: This report presents the details of the annual system assessment of the air pollution monitoring and sampling system for the 296-13 stack at the Hanford site. Topics discussed include; system description, system status, system aging, spare parts considerations, long term maintenance plan, trends, and items requiring action.
Date: May 16, 1995
Creator: Ridge, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic finite element modeling of waste rollover

Description: Stratification of the wastes in many Hanford storage tanks has resulted in sludge layers which are capable of retaining gases formed by chemical and/or radiolytic reactions. As the gas is produced, the mechanisms of gas storage evolve until the resulting buoyancy in the sludge leads to instability, at which point the sludge ``rolls over`` and a significant volume of gas is suddenly released. Because the releases may contain flammable gases, these episodes of release are potentially hazardous. Mitigation techniques are desirable for more controlled releases at more frequent intervals. To aid the mitigation efforts, a methodology for predicting of sludge rollover at specific times is desired. This methodology would then provide a rational basis for the development of a schedule for the mitigation procedures. In addition, a knowledge of the sensitivity of the sludge rollovers to various physical and chemical properties within the tanks would provide direction for efforts to reduce the frequency and severity of these events. In this report, the use of probabilistic finite element analyses for computing the probability of rollover and the sensitivity of rollover probability to various parameters is described.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Khaleel, M.A.; Cofer, W.F. & Al-fouqaha, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Products Characteristics and Management Practices

Description: Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of the task reported here. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of the DOE report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization. The information assembled will be valuable to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its upcoming decision on the waste status of FBC by-products and had to be submitted to EPA by April 1997. This effort facilitates interaction between DOE and industry regarding input to EPA. The effort of DOE FETC to provide this type of information to EPA is consistent with the recommendation in the DOE Report to Congress on ash barriers that a determination placing CCT by-products under RCRA Subtitle D for solid wastes is needed if these materials are to be utilized. Several DOE projects have already investigated utilization of these materials, so this is an opportunity to give this information the emphasis it deserves.
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Pfughoeft-Hassett, Debra F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-phase adsorbents for trapping radioactive iodine and iodine compounds

Description: This standard covers granular adsorbents (activated carbon, mineral base, polymer, etc.) for use in air and gas treatment systems. The absorbents are used in both thin-bed absorber cells and deep-bed systems. The standard includes document list, technical requirements, quality assurance requirements, and preparation for delivery. Test and sampling procedures are given. (DLC)
Date: October 1, 1973
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

Description: The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Ridge, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

Description: This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105.
Date: February 3, 1995
Creator: Homi, C. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Definition and means of maintaining the effluent stack monitors portion of the PFP safety envelope

Description: The Effluent Stack Monitors ensure that the release of alpha emitting radionuclides to the environment via the building exhaust stacks is continuously monitored and alarms are initiated if the release exceeds identified limits. This document defines the safety envelope for the Effluent Stack Monitors and identifies the operability requirements, components, and procedures which ensure this safety envelope is maintained.
Date: January 21, 1997
Creator: Sullivan, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

Description: Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Cooper, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

Description: Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C. & Gaddy, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TWRS hydrogen mitigation gas characterization system design and fabrication engineering task plan

Description: The flammable gas watch-list (FGWL) tanks, which have demonstrated a gas release event (GRE) exceeding 0.625% hydrogen by volume will require additional characterization. The purpose of this additional characterization is to accurately measure the flammable and hazardous gas compositions and resulting lower flammability limit (LFL) of the tank vapor space during baseline and GRE emissions. Data from this characterization will help determine methods to resolve the unreviewed safety questions for the FGWL tanks. This document details organization responsibilities and engineering requirements for the design and fabrication of two gas characterization systems used to monitor flammable gas watch-list tanks.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Straalsund, E.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department