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Determination of elastic stresses in gas-turbine disks

Description: A method is presented for the calculation of elastic stresses in symmetrical disks typical of those of a high-temperature gas turbine. The method is essentially a finite-difference solution of the equilibrium and compatibility equations for elastic stresses in a symmetrical disk. Account can be taken of point-to-point variations in disk thickness, in temperature, in elastic modulus, in coefficient of thermal expansion, in material density, and in Poisson's ratio. No numerical integration or trial-and-error procedures are involved and the computations can be performed in rapid and routine fashion by nontechnical computers with little engineering supervision. Checks on problems for which exact mathematical solutions are known indicate that the method yields results of high accuracy. Illustrative examples are presented to show the manner of treating solid disks, disks with central holes, and disks constructed either of a single material or two or more welded materials. The effect of shrink fitting is taken into account by a very simple device.
Date: 1947
Creator: Manson, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analytical method for evaluating factors affecting application of transpiration cooling to gas turbine blades

Description: From Introduction: "A survey of some of the advantages and problems associated with transpiration cooling of gas-turbine engines is given in reference 1, and its is shown therein that high pressure gradients around the periphery of gas-turbine blades require that the blade wall permeability be varied around the blade periphery in order for uniform cooling to be obtained over the entire blade surface. This fact is verified in experimental investigations of transpiration-cooled turbine blades mounted in a static cascade (references 2 and 3) where it is shown that although transpiration cooling results in extremely effective cooling in the midchord region of the blade, there are very large variations in the chordwise temperature distribution because of improper permeability variation."
Date: September 8, 1952
Creator: Esgar, Jack B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical investigation of flow and heat transfer in coolant passages of free-convection liquid-cooled turbines

Description: From Introduction: "An analytical investigation of the problems arising in connection with this cooling method was conducted at the NACA Lewis laboratory and is presented herein. This analysis investigates: (1) the smallest diameter hole that can be made without endangering the circulation of the liquid, and (2) methods of improving the circulation in a small-diameter hole."
Date: July 18, 1950
Creator: Eckert, E. R. G. & Jackson, Thomas W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A metallurgical investigation of a contour-forged disc of EME alloy

Description: Report presenting a study of the properties of EME alloy in the form of contour-forged discs for the rotors of gas turbines. The investigation was undertaken because the properties of promising alloys are dependent to a considerable extent on the conditions of fabrication and the size and shape of the rotor discs introduced fabrication procedures for which information was not available. Results regarding hardness surveys, short-time tensile properties, rupture test characteristics, time-deformation characteristics, creep strengths, stability characteristics, and data from tests in other laboratories are provided.
Date: November 1948
Creator: Reynolds, E. E.; Freeman, J. W. & White, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of the high-temperature properties of chromium-base alloys at 1350 F

Description: Report presenting data for alloys that can resist temperatures up to 1350 degrees Fahrenheit so that they can be used in gas turbines. The chromium-base alloys currently have certain severe limitations in their present state of development. However, considerable progress has been made in overcoming these difficulties and further improvement seems possible.
Date: May 1947
Creator: Freeman, J. W.; Reynolds, E. E. & White, A. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling of gas-turbines 7: effectiveness of air cooling of hollow turbine blades with inserts

Description: Report presenting an analytical investigation to determine primarily the reduction in cooling-air requirement and the increase in effective gas temperature for the same quantity of cooling air resulting from the use of an insert in the cooling-air passage of a hollow air-cooled turbine blade.
Date: October 20, 1947
Creator: Bressman, Joseph R. & Livingood, John N. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The application of high-temperature strain gauges to the measurements of vibratory stresses in gas-turbine buckets

Description: The feasibility of measuring the vibration in the buckets of a gas turbine under service conditions of speed and temperature was determined by use of a high temperature wire strain gauge cemented to a modified supercharger turbine bucket. A high-temperature wire strain gauge and the auxiliary mechanical and electrical equipment developed for the investigation are described.
Date: April 1947
Creator: Kemp, R. H.; Morgan, W. C. & Manson, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of blade cooling to gas turbines

Description: From Summary: "A review of the status of the knowledge on turbine-blade cooling and a description of pertinent NACA investigations are presented. The current limitations in performance of uncooled and cooled engines are briefly discussed. Finally, the knowledge available and investigations to increase the knowledge on heat transfer, cooling-flow, and performance characteristics of cooled turbines are discussed."
Date: May 31, 1950
Creator: Ellerbrock, Herman H., Jr. & Schafer, Louis J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling of gas turbines 9: cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

Description: From Summary: "The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged."
Date: October 13, 1948
Creator: Brown, W. Byron & Livingood, John N. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of blowdown turbine driven by exhaust gas of nine-cylinder radial engine

Description: An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.
Date: 1944
Creator: Turner, L. Richard & Desmon, Leland G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Stresses in Gas-turbine Disks Subjected to Plastic Flow and Creep

Description: From Summary: "A finite-difference method previously presented for computing elastic stresses in rotating disks is extended to include the computation of the disk stresses when plastic flow and creep are considered. A finite-difference method is employed to eliminate numerical integration and to permit nontechnical personnel to make the calculations with a minimum of engineering supervision. Illustrative examples are included to facilitated explanation of the procedure by carrying out the computations on a typical gas-turbine disk through a complete running cycle."
Date: 1948
Creator: Millenson, M. B. & Manson, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic data for the computation of the performance of exhaust-gas turbines

Description: From Summary: "Information published in chemical journals from 1933 to 1939 on the thermodynamic properties of the component gases of exhaust gases based on spectroscopic measurements were used as data for computing the ideal values of work, mass flow, nozzle velocity, power, and temperature change involved in the thermodynamic properties of a gas turbine. Curves from which this information can conveniently be obtained are given. An additional curve is included from which the heat flow may be calculated for nonadiabatic processes."
Date: October 1945
Creator: Pinkel, Benjamin & Turner, L. Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Research and Development for Advanced Microturbines Program on Advanced Integrated Microturbine System

Description: The Advanced Integrated Microturbine Systems (AIMS) project was kicked off in October of 2000 to develop the next generation microturbine system. The overall objective of the project was to develop a design for a 40% electrical efficiency microturbine system and demonstrate many of the enabling technologies. The project was initiated as a collaborative effort between several units of GE, Elliott Energy Systems, Turbo Genset, Oak Ridge National Lab and Kyocera. Since the inception of the project the partners have changed but the overall direction of the project has stayed consistent. The project began as a systems study to identify design options to achieve the ultimate goal of 40% electrical efficiency. Once the optimized analytical design was identified for the 40% system, it was determined that a 35% efficient machine would be capable of demonstrating many of the advanced technologies within the given budget and timeframe. The items that would not be experimentally demonstrated were fully produced ceramic parts. However, to understand the requirements of these ceramics, an effort was included in the project to experimentally evaluate candidate materials in representative conditions. The results from this effort would clearly identify the challenges and improvement required of these materials for the full design. Following the analytical effort, the project was dedicated to component development and testing. Each component and subsystem was designed with the overall system requirements in mind and each tested to the fullest extent possible prior to being integrated together. This method of component development and evaluation helps to minimize the technical risk of the project. Once all of the components were completed, they were assembled into the full system and experimentally evaluated.
Date: May 30, 2007
Creator: Bowman, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems

Description: Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ∼1425-1760°C (∼2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.H.; Yanar, M.; Helminiak, M.; Chyu, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 6.7.3 - Interfacial Mass Transport Effects in Composite Materials

Description: Advanced metal-matrix composites (MMCS) consisting of titanium-based alloys possess some unique mechanical, physical, and chemical characteristics that make them highly desirable for aircraft and gas turbine engines. Tailoring MMC properties is essential for advanced product design in materials processing. The main factors that affect materials processing and, further, the nature of a metal-ceramic interface, its structure, and morphological stability is liquid surface mass transport related to adhesional wetting (physical effect) and reactive wetting (chemical effect).' Surfaces and interfaces dominate many of the technologically important processes in composite materials such as liquid-solid sintering and joining. The objective of this work is threefold: 1) to get insight into the role of the nonstoichiometry of chemical composition in ceramic materials used as reinforcement components in MMC processing, 2) to extend previous energetic analysis of mass transport phenomena to wetting behavior between liquid metal and the quasi-solidlike skin resulting from the presolidification of liquid on nonstoichiometric solids on a scale of interatomic distance, and 3) to provide experimental verification of our concept.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Nowok, Jan W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical Possibilities of High-Altitude Flight with Exhaust-Gas Turbines in Connection with Spark Ignition Engines Comparative Thermodynamic and Flight Mechanical Investigations

Description: As a means of preparing for high-altitude flight with spark-ignition engines in conjunction with exhaust-gas turbosuperchargers, various methods of modifying the exhaust-gas temperatures, which are initially higher than a turbine can withstand are mathematically compared. The thermodynamic results first obtained are then examined with respect to the effect on flight speed, climbing speed, ceiling, economy, and cruising range. The results are so presented in a generalized form that they may be applied to every appropriate type of aircraft design and a comparison with the supercharged engine without exhaust-gas turbine can be made.
Date: April 1947
Creator: Weise, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

Description: This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Department of Energy`s advanced turbine systems program

Description: Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) are poised to capture the majority of new electric power generation capacity well into the next century. US Department of Energy (DOE) programs supporting the development of ATS technology will enable gas turbine manufacturers to provide ATS systems to the commercial marketplace at the turn of the next century. A progress report on the ATS Program will he presented in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and system configurations meeting the goals of the program will be discussed. Progress has been made in the are as of materials, heat transfer, aerodynamics, and combustion. Applied research conducted by universities, industry, and Government has resulted in advanced designs and power cycle configurations to develop an ATS which operates on natural gas, coal, and biomass fuels. Details on the ATS Program research, development, and technology validation and readiness activities will be presented. The future direction of the program and relationship to other Government programs will be discussed in this paper.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Layne, A.W. & Layne, P.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

Description: Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.
Date: August 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department