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Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.
Date: May 17, 1999
Creator: Blunt, Martin J. & Orr, Franklin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This report describes research into gas injection processes in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative permeability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and water flooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale ow. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. To this end, measurements of three-phase relative pemeability have been made and compared with predictions from pore scale modeling. At the field scale, streamline-based simulation has been extended to compositional displacements, providing a rapid method to predict oil recovery from gas injection.
Date: April 30, 1998
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr. & Blunt, Martin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This project performs research in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative perme- ability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and waterfl ooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale oil. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. In this report we provide a detailed description of our measurements of three-phase relative permeability.
Date: March 31, 1998
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr & Blunt, Martin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1998 - September 1998 under the third year of a three-year Department of Energy (DOE) grant on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The research is divided into four main areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three-phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three-phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator.
Date: December 20, 1999
Creator: Blunt, Martin J. & Orr, Jr., Franklin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Hackberry Tertiary Project

Description: The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.
Date: January 14, 1999
Creator: Gillham, Travis H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

Description: The cooperative agreement for this project was finalized and signed during April 2000. The official project start date was April 11, 2000. Initial reporting requirements, including the completion of a Project Management Plan, Milestone Plan and Log, and a Hazardous Substance Plan, were completed and submitted to the DOE in early May 2000. Work on the project tasks was initiated in May 2000. During the course of this budget period, efforts will focus on enhancing reservoir characterization work that had been in progress prior to the start of this grant project, incorporation of this information into an existing 3-D full-field compositional model, and utilization of a ''window area'' of the model (representing a selected pilot area) to evaluate the impacts of horizontal laterals on recovery in the miscible nitrogen flood. The ''window area'' model will also be used to design the most effective configuration and placement of the lateral sections. The following is a summary of progress made between April 11, 2000 and June 30, 2000.
Date: July 31, 2000
Creator: Muhic, Teresa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO{sub 2} concentrations in open top chambers

Description: Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO{sub 2} and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P{sub s} rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Ball, J. Timothy; Ross, Peter D.; Picone, John B.; Eichelmann, Hillar Y. & Ross, Gregory N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This report was an integrated study of the physics and chemistry affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involved theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. Specifically, advances were made on streamline-based simulation, analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements, and modeling and experimental measures of three-phase flow.
Date: March 26, 2001
Creator: Blunt, M.J. & Orr, F.M. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A note on the evaporation of a stagnant liquid

Description: The main objective of this report was the understanding of the effect of higher pressures on the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. Experimental evidence (Le Romancer et al.) suggests that high-pressure gas injection results under certain conditions in a decrease of the rate of the interface motion, a result that may be due to gas dissolution and diffusion in the liquid phase. To explore this possibility, it was considered in this paper a simple 1-D model of this process as illustrated schematically in a figure. A liquid A, originally occupying a semi-infinite medium, is subject to evaporation and diffusion in a flowing gas B, the composition of which at the top of the medium (at z = 0) remains constant. Due to the possible high pressure in the gas, component B may solubilize and counter-diffuse in the liquid phase.
Date: March 6, 2000
Creator: Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C. & Stubos, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Annual report, September 3, 1997--September 2, 1998

Description: The following report is the Project Management Plan for the fifth year of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is one of four mid-term projects selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form an additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.
Date: September 10, 1997
Creator: Gillham, T.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996 - September 1997 under the first year of a three-year Department of Energy grant on the Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four main areas; (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each stage of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.
Date: May 26, 1999
Creator: Blunt, Michael J. & Orr, Franklin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

West Hackberry Tertiary Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. The target reservoir for the project is the Camerina C-1,2,3 sand located on the West Flank of West Hackberry Field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process can economically recover oil in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomic. The first quarter of 1996 was outstanding both in terms of volume of air injected and low cost operations. More air was injected during this quarter than in any preceding quarter. The compressors experienced much improved run time with minimal repairs. Low operating costs resulted from no repairs required for injection or production wells. A discussion of the following topics are contained herein: (1) performance summary for the injection and production wells, (2) air compressor operations, (3) updated bottom hole pressure data, (4) technology transfer activities and (5) plans for the upcoming quarter.
Date: April 10, 1996
Creator: Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B. & Turek, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells

Description: The work on modeling hydraulically fractured horizontal wells has moved forward. A literature review on the subject was done and some of the existing models have been coded and applied to example problems for evaluation purposes. Previous work on the elects of heterogeneities on the performance of horizontal wells was continued by conducting a sensitivity study on various parameters that were kept constant in the earlier study. For example, we have studied the elect of gas cap and aquifer size, well location, fluid viscosity, etc. The experimental work on using horizontal wells as injectors and producers in a gas injection gravity drainage process continued. New and repeat experiments were conducted. Work on streamline grids was advanced by considering example problems with highly distorted grids which cannot be directly used for flow simulation. Grid smoothing and domain mapping techniques were investigated to handle such situations. A technique was developed for the computation o f well index with consideration to wellbore pressure drop. A recently developed reservoir/wellbore coupling model was used for this purpose.
Date: November 8, 1999
Creator: Arbabi, Sepehr; Aziz, Khalid; Hewett, Thomas A. & Smith, Marilyn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

Description: Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.
Date: August 20, 2000
Creator: Mather, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.
Date: June 30, 2001
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. In this report we present an application of compositional streamline simulation in modeling enhanced condensate recovery via gas injection. These processes are inherently compositional and detailed compositional fluid descriptions must be use to represent the flow behavior accurately. Compositional streamline simulation results are compared to those of conventional finite-difference (FD) simulation for evaluation of gas injection schemes in condensate reservoirs. We present and compare streamline and FD results for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) examples, to show that the compositional streamline method is a way to obtain efficiently estimates of reasonable accuracy for condensate recovery by gas injection.
Date: December 31, 2002
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of More-Efficient Gas Flooding Applicable to Shallow Reservoirs

Description: The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N{sub 2} gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application. Regarding Task 1, several very important results were achieved this period for subtask 1.2. In particular, we successfully developed a robust Windows-based code to calculate MMP and MME for fluid characterizations that consist of any number of pseudocomponents. We also were successful in developing a new technique to quantify the displacement mechanism of a gas flood--that is, to determine the fraction of a displacement that is vaporizing or condensing. These new technologies will be very important to develop new correlations and to determine important parameters for the design of gas injection floods. Regarding Task 2, several results were achieved: (1) A detailed study of the accuracy of foam simulation validates the model with fits to analytical fractional-flow solutions. It shows that there is no way to represent surfactant-concentration effects on foam without some numerical artifacts. (2) New results on capillary crossflow with foam show that this is much less detrimental than earlier studies had argued. (3) It was shown that the extremely useful model of Stone ...
Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Rossen, William R.; Johns, Russell T. & Pope, Gary A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR--EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

Description: Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project continues. The drilling of new horizontal well EBU 63-2H, scheduled for this reporting period, was delayed due to a lack of rig availability. This well was spud near the end of the reporting period. EBU 59-1 was converted to injection service, and injection capacity at the plant was increased from 19 MMscf/d to 22 MMscf/d. Although other factors have temporarily limited the field's ability to fully utilize the increased capacity, injection in the pilot area has been increased over 2 MMscf/d since the start of the project. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area has been reduced with the projects implemented to date. Prior to pilot development, nitrogen production was 56% of nitrogen injected. Currently, nitrogen production is only 26% of injection. Pilot area oil production has increased 90 bpd or 30%, with 160 bpd from new wells offset by a loss of 70 bpd from wells converted to injection.
Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Sinner, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic Studies of Improved Foam EOR Processes

Description: The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 1 and 3. Research on Task 1 focused on selecting and characterizing a surfactant/polymer formulation for initial experiments. The two (high-quality and low-quality) strong-foam regimes were identified from steady-state coreflood data for the formulation without polymer, for comparison with behavior with polymer. This formulation showed unconventional behavior in the low-quality regime in that pressure gradient decreases at increasing liquid injection rate. Such behavior was not seen in most previous studies of foam, but it is consistent with dense-CO{sub 2} foam data recently obtained in our laboratory. We are considering the significance of the unconventional trend in the data and proceeding with initial experiments with polymer. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation at limited pressure gradient in sandpacks. In these experiments liquid injection rate and pressure drop across the core are held fixed, and gas injection rate responds to creation and properties of foam. Initial experiments included three permeabilities (1.2, 3.6 and 5 darcy), three surfactant concentrations (0.12, 1.2 and 2.4 wt%) and two liquid injection rates (1.29 and 2.76 ft/day). Separating experimental artifacts from physical phenomena in these experiments is difficult and an ongoing process.
Date: March 31, 2003
Creator: Rossen, William R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR--EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

Description: Implementation of the work program of Budget Period 2 of the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') DOE Project is progressing and nearing completion. EBU 63-2H has been drilled, completed, and brought on line. This is the second of three horizontal wells planned for this Budget Period, but based on the costs and performances to date of all new wells, could be the last. It will take some time to evaluate their impact on sweep and ultimate recovery. In addition to the drilling of new wells, the project also includes conversions of five wells from producers to injectors. Three wells were previously converted, and a fourth, EBU 37-3H, was prepared for conversion at the end of this reporting period. The fifth will require an expensive workover and will be re-evaluated. Project response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Gas injection into the pilot area has increased from 4.0 MMscf/d prior to development to an average 7.3 MMscf/d in this reporting period, while gas production has actually decreased from 4.1 MMscf/d to 3.9 MMscf/d. The nitrogen content of produced gas has dropped from 58% to 52%. This has reduced the nitrogen recycle within the pilot area from 60% to 27%. Meanwhile, pilot area oil production has increased, from 300 bpd prior to development to over 600 bpd in September 2003. The pilot area oil rate will fall off as EBU 63-2H, which began producing new formation oil on September 6, declines to a stable rate.
Date: November 5, 2003
Creator: Sinner, Joe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The application of the analytical theory for gas injection processes, including the effects of volume change on mixing, has up to now been limited to fully self-sharpening systems, systems where all solution segments that connect the key tie lines present in the displacement are shock fronts. In the following report, we describe the extension of the analytical theory to include systems with rarefactions (continuous composition and saturation variations) between key tie lines. With the completion of this analysis, a completely general procedure has been developed for finding solutions for problems in which a multicomponent gas displaces a multicomponent oil.
Date: December 31, 2001
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: In this report we present an approach for accurate and consistent implementation of gravity effects in compositional streamline simulation. The approach is based on an operator-splitting technique, successfully applied in streamline simulation of black-oil models. The method is demonstrated to conserve mass. Its application adds only marginally to the overall CPU requirement. We provide a detailed description of the approach to incorporate gravity effects and demonstrate the efficiency of compositional streamline simulation, even for cases where gravity segregation plays an important role in the overall process performance. The new approach is demonstrated to be in excellent agreement with commercial FD simulators for prediction of flows in 2D vertical and multi-well 3D geometries. Finally, we outline the work required to extend the compositional streamline approach to handle three-phase flow modeling, also including gravity.
Date: December 31, 2003
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This final report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996--May 2000 under a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The advances from the research include: new tools for streamline-based simulation including the effects of gravity, changing well conditions, and compositional displacements; analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements which can speed-up gas injection simulation still further; and modeling and experiments that delineate the physics that is unique to three-phase flow.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Blunt, Martin J. & Jr, Franklin M. Orr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

Description: This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. A three-dimensional streamline simulator, developed at Stanford University, has been modified in order to use analytical one-dimensional dispersion-free solutions to multicomponent gas injection processes. The use of analytical one-dimensional solutions in combination with streamline simulation is demonstrated to speedup compositional simulations of miscible gas injection processes by orders of magnitude compared to a conventional finite difference simulator. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional examples are reported to demonstrate the potential of this technology. Finally, the assumptions of the approach and possible extensions to include the effects of gravity are discussed.
Date: March 31, 2002
Creator: Franklin M. Orr, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department