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Identification and temporal behavior of radical intermediates formed during the combustion and pyrolysis of gaseous fuels: Kinetic pathways to soot formation. Final performance report, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1997

Description: The authors have developed software in-house to automate the processing of peak heights recorded from the shock tube: time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF) experiments in a format suitable for the modeling programs and have performed numerous ab initio calculations to provide energy barrier values and thermodynamic data for several key reactions in various reaction mechanisms. Each of the studies described here has contributed to the understanding of the detailed kinetics of the reactions of acyclic fuels, the thermal decompositions of aromatic ring compounds, the shock tube techniques dedicated to combustion science problems, and the role of theoretical chemistry in providing essential thermodynamic and kinetics information necessary for constructing plausible reaction mechanisms. The knowledge derived from these investigations is applicable not only to the area of pre-particle soot formation chemistry, but also to various incineration and coal pyrolysis problems.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Kern, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Description: The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the experimental combustion ...
Date: July 18, 2002
Creator: Tuthill, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

Description: Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Smith, Clifford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment

Description: A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr. & Laquer, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inferring network flows from incomplete information with application to natural gas flows. [State-to-state natural gas flows in 1974-77]

Description: A method is detailed for estimating flows along arcs (edges or links) of a network, such as a transportation network, when the total outflow and total inflow at each node (vertex) are known. It proves the optimality of a greedy method of choosing flows for independent estimation so as to determine the other flows, and does so by exploiting an underlying matroid structure. The resulting problem is formulated both as a linear program and a multi-commodity flow problem, and sensitivity analysis is performed. The technique is applied to the estimation of US state-to-state natural gas flows in the years 1974 to 1977, and numerical results are presented; 1974 and 1975 results are checked against actual data. The potential application of the same technique to the estimation of disaggregate data (of any kind), when aggregate and some disaggregate data are known, is pointed out.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Hooker, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced gas turbines: The choice for low-cost, environmentally superior electric power generation

Description: In July 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated an ambitious 8-year program to advance state-of-the-art gas turbine technology for land-based electric power generation. The program, known as the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Program, is a joint government/industry program with the objective to demonstrate advanced industrial and utility gas turbine systems by the year 2000. The goals of the ATS Program are to develop gas turbine systems capable of providing low-cost electric power, while maintaining environmental superiority over competing power generation options. A progress report on the ATS Program pertaining to program status at DOE will be presented and reviewed in this paper. The technical challenges, advanced critical technology requirements, and systems designs meeting the goals of the program will be described and discussed.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Zeh, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

Description: Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Osif, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plan for obtaining data required for retrofitting burners to industrial fuel gas. Part I. Technical plan for combustion system data (Deliverable No. 44)

Description: At the outset of Contract No. ET-77-C-01-2582, it was recognized that most but not all natural gas customers could use the product of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant. It was further recognized that, for some of the processes, retrofit information and performance data would have to be developed to make the change possible. Consequently, the program work plan includes Task IX-7, Distribution and Utilization Characteristics of Gas Output. The purposes of this task are: (a) to determine which industrial customers and processes can use the output gas, (b) to identify the required information and performance data necessary for the change, (c) to develop the information and data not available from other sources, and (d) to provide assistance to burner manufactures and current MLGW customers preparing to use the output gas. The total scope of Task IX-7 and the level of effort required are a function of both the type and number of customers. This could not be determined prior to initiation of the contract; consequently, Task IX-7 was proposed as a two-part effort. Under the current contract, a preliminary evaluation of potential MLGW customers and their processes was funded and completed as the first step. This evaluation determined which customers and processes could use the output of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant. It also identified what information and performance data were needed to achieve the changeover.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Horizontal drilling in shallow reservoirs

Description: The objectives of this joint horizontal drilling effort by the US DOE and Belden Blake in the complex, low permeability Clinton Sandstone will focus on the following objectives: (1) apply horizontal drilling technology in hard, abrasive, and tight Clinton Sandstone; (2) evaluate effects of multiple hydraulic fracturing in a low permeability horizontal wellbore; (3) assess economic viability of horizontal drilling in the Clinton and similar tight gas sands.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Murray, W.F. Jr.; Schrider, L.A.; Haynes, C.D. & Mazza, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

Description: The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: April 1, 1989
Creator: Huntington, H.G. & Schuler, G.E. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

Description: In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Armstrong, P.R. & Conover, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ratio of produced gas to produced water from DOE's EDNA Delcambre No. 1 geopressured-geothermal aquifer gas well test

Description: A paper presented by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) at the Third Geopressured-Geothermal Energy Conference hypothesized that the high ratio of produced gas to produced water from the No. 1 sand in the Edna Delcambre No. 1 well was due to free gas trapped in pores by imbibition over geological time. This hypothesis was examined in relation to preliminary test data which reported only average gas to water ratios over the roughly 2-day steps in flow rate. Subsequent public release of detailed test data revealed substantial departures from the previously reported computer simulation results. Also, data now in the public domain reveal the existence of a gas cap on the aquifier tested. This paper describes IGT's efforts to match the observed gas/water production with computer simulation. Two models for the occurrence and production of gas in excess of that dissolved in the brine have been used. One model considers the gas to be dispersed in pores by imbibition, and the other model considers the gas as a nearby free gas cap above the aquifier. The studies revealed that the dispersed gas model characteristically gave the wrong shape to plots of gas production on the gas/water ratio plots such that no reasonable match to the flow data could be achieved. The free gas cap model gave a characteristically better shape to the production plots and could provide an approximate fit to the data of the edge of the free gas cap is only about 400 feet from the well.Because the geological structure maps indicate the free gas cap to be several thousand feet away and the computer simulation results match the distance to the nearby Delcambre Nos. 4 and 4A wells, it appears that the source of the excess free gas in the test of the No. 1 sand may ...
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Rogers, L. A. & Randolph, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion

Description: Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Wolowodiuk, W. & Robertson, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Morgantown low-Btu gasifier simulation program

Description: This project's overall purpose is to develop a Morgantown low-Btu gasifier system simulation program. The gasifier system consists of a moving bed gasifier and a gas clean-up system, and the present report concerns steady-state simulation of the gasifier. Since the gasifier output controls the performance of the gas clean-up system, it is necessary to investigate the effects of steam/coal and oxygen/coal ratios and of feed temperature on the gasifier output. Simulation of the gasifier performance, therefore, was undertaken to gain quantitative understanding of these effects. This gasifier simulation program will be coupled with a gas clean-up system simulation program now under development. Simulation of the entire gasifier system will serve as a guideline in planning experiments to enable its optimum overall operation.
Date: October 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test and evaluate the TRI-GAS low-Btu coal gasification process. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

Description: Four tests were conducted in the TRI-GAS PEDU. Test No. 3S-55 was prematurely shut down because of failure of the steam boiler. Steay-state operation was not achieved. Following repairs to the steam boiler Test No. 3S-56 was conducted. This test was also terminated prematurely, due to failure of the power controller for the steam boiler. Repairs were again made. In Test No. 3S-57, bed temperatures in Stages 2 and 3 were lower than required for gasification, although some reaction occurred at the top of the reactors where the temperatures exceeded 1600 F. The test was concluded somewhat prematurely due to plugging of the coal-feed line. PEDU Test No. 3S-58, an integrated three-stage test, was conducted in June. The heating value of the product gas was about 100 Btu per cu ft even though failure of the reactor heaters prevented the Stage 2 temperature from exceeding 1550 F.
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic fracture design optimization

Description: This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Lee, Tae-Soo & Advani, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Volume 1. Executive Summary and Task Reports. Annual progress report

Description: The first portion of the report, from the Executive Summary (page 1) through the Schedule of Milestones (page 10), gives a general overview which highlights our progress and problems for the second year. The Task report portion of the text, written by individual task investigators, is designed primarily for scientists interested in technical details of the second year's work. The second portion of the report consists of appendices of data compiled by the principal investigators.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Shumaker, R.C.; de Wys, J.N. & Dixon, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient foam flow in porous media with CAT Scanner

Description: Transient behavior is likely to dominate over most of the duration of a foam injection field project. Due to the lack of date, little is presently known about transient foam flow behavior. Foam flow does not follow established models such as the Buckley-Leverett theory, and no general predictive model has been derived. Therefore, both experimental data and a foam flow theory are needed. In this work, foam was injected at a constant mass rate into one-dimensional sandpacks of 1-in diameter and 24-in or 48-in length that had initially been saturate with distilled water. The system was placed in a cat Scanner. Data, obtained at room temperature and low pressure at various times, include both the pressure and saturation distributions. Pressure profiles showed that the pressure gradient is much greater behind the foam front than ahead of it. Moreover, the pressure gradients keep changing as the foam advances in the sandpack. This behavior differs from Buckley-Leverett theory. The CT scan results demonstrated gas channeling near the front, but eventually the foam block all these channels and sweeps the entire cross section after many pore volumes of injection. Three series of experiments were run: (1) surfactant adsorption measurements; (2) gas displacements of surfactant-laden solutions and (3) foam displacements. The first two series of experiments were made to provide the necessary parameters required to match the foam displacements. To this end, it was necessary to smooth the saturation history data, using a Langmuir-type formula. A theory was proposed based on the principles of the fractional flow curve construction method. This foam theory treats the foam as composed of infinitesimal slugs of gas of varying viscosities. The foam front has the lowest viscosity and foam at the injection end has the highest.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Liu, Dianbin & Brigham, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Battelle Agglomerating Ash Burner Process for the production of medium Btu gas

Description: The Battelle Agglomerating Ash Burner Process is in an early developmental stage. As a means for determining the magnitude of the incentive for expenditure of further development effort on this process, conceptual process design and associated cost estimates were prepared on the basis of anticipated, but unproven, process and equipment performance. On the basis of the postulated performance, the estimated cost for the product gas, assuming private financing, is $2.82/MM Btu. It is concluded that the process merits further development.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Chang, T.Y. & West, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LNG annotated bibliography

Description: This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G. & Pelto, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an assessment methodology for geopressured zones of the upper Gulf Coast based on a study of abnormally pressured gas fields in South Texas. Progress report, 1 December 1975--29 February 1976. [300/sup 0/F isothermal surface at 10,500 to 14,000 ft]

Description: Twenty-four separate gas fields producing from geopressured sands have been identified in the South Texas area that includes Hidalgo, Cameron, Willacy and the lower half of Kenedy Counties. Of these, twenty are in Hidalgo County. Geological study and detailed investigation of reservoir parameters in each of the fields have been accomplished. Two areas in particular are discussed in some detail in this paper: the Vicksburg Trend on the west, represented by McAllen Ranch Field, and the south central Frio-Vicksburg delta, including the McAllen-Pharr-Edinburg area. The depth of the geopressured zone in the study area ranges from 7,000 feet in western Hidalgo County to 12,000 feet in the central Cameron County. Temperature data within the fields, corrected to equilibrium values, yields a 300/sup 0/F isogeothermal surface at depths of 10,500 feet to 14,000 feet over the study area. The most critical reservoir parameter was found to be the effective permeability in all the fields in the region. Permeability values ranged from 0.03 md to 8.0 md, with average values over all the fields near 1.0 md. A permeability profile of McAllen-Pharr shows permeability there to be an inverse function of depth, with effective permeability values from 16 md above the geopressured zone to 0.03 md at 14,000 feet. The permeability reduction amounts to approximately one order of magnitude for each 2,000 feet of depth.
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Swanson, R. K.; Oetking, O.; Osoba, J. S. & Hagens, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

Description: The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% ...
Date: June 30, 2010
Creator: Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Hollon, Brian & Mansour, Adel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

Description: Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and ...
Date: June 30, 2007
Creator: Chapman, Kirby S. & Patil, Amar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department