221 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Isolation, Identification and Cultivation of Four Phytopathogenic Fungi

Description: This investigation includes a morphological and cultural study of four rather common pathogenic fungi one of which attacks Zinnia elegans, one Lagerstroemia indica, one Ligustrum lodense and one Euonymus japonica. The problem includes, first, a determination of the genera of these four fungi as revealed by their morphology in natural habitat; second, a determination of the growth and cultural characteristics of these on Cornmeal, Potato, Bean, Prune and Carrot agars; third, a comparison of the growth and cultural characteristics of these in natural habitat with the same on the various agars used; and fourth, an evaluation of the five artificial culture media in so far as their usage is concerned in the growth and cultivation of these four species of fungi.
Date: 1951
Creator: Parks, Leroy W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Screening of Fungi for Metabolites Inhibitory to the Growth of Bloom-Forming Blue-Green Algae

Description: Since many approaches to dealing with algal blooms are inefficient, expensive, or harmful, it was concluded that a biologically-synthesized chemical agent, specifically inhibitory to pre-bloom algal cells, might prove helpful in controlling algal blooms. Fungi were chosen as the biological entities to investigate for such a chemical.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Hardcastle, Ronald V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

Description: Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.
Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor & Hibbett, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomics

Description: Fungi play important roles across the range of current and future biofuel production processes. From crop/feedstock health to plant biomass saccharification, enzyme production to bioprocesses for producing ethanol, higher alcohols or future hydrocarbon biofuels, fungi are involved. Research and development are underway to understand the underlying biological processes and improve them to make bioenergy production efficient on an industrial scale. Genomics is the foundation of the systems biology approach that is being used to accelerate the research and development efforts across the spectrum of topic areas that impact biofuels production. In this review, we discuss past, current and future advances made possible by genomic analyses of the fungi that impact plant/feedstock health, degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of sugars to ethanol, hydrocarbon biofuels and renewable chemicals.
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cullen, Daniel; Hibbett, David; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Jeffries, Thomas W.; Kubicek, Christian P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

Description: The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis
Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B. & Grigoriev, Igor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGES 9975-01818, 9975-01903 AND 9975-02287

Description: Three 9975 shipping packages were examined to investigate the non-conforming condition of an axial air gap greater than 1 inch. This condition typically indicates the presence of excess moisture in the fiberboard overpack, and may be accompanied by degradation in the fiberboard properties. The package with the largest axial air gap (9975-01818, with an air gap of 1.437 inches) was found to contain significant excess moisture, and the lower fiberboard assembly was covered with mold and was significantly degraded in strength. This condition is very similar to that observed previously in package 9975-01819. Both packages (-1818 and -1819) appear to contain a similar amount of excess moisture, which was previously estimated for 9975-01819 as {approx}2.5 liters. The condition of 9975-01818 was also evidenced by several rust spots along the bottom chime of the drum, although no significant rust was noted on the closure bolts. Packages 9975-01903 and 9975-02287 were also examined. The axial air gap in these two packages was less than in 9975-01818, but still exceeded 1 inch. These two packages contained elevated moisture levels, although not significantly higher than seen in other 'typical' packages. The fiberboard in these two packages was of sound integrity, and appeared generally consistent with undegraded material. A few small patches of mold on and near the bottom of the fiberboard in 9975-01903 appeared dormant. No mold was observed on package 9975-02287. The SPA will provide recommendations on possible follow-up activities with these three packages. This might include a demonstration in SRNL of whether removal of the caplugs from similar packages would facilitate removal of excess moisture. Future efforts should also include an assessment of using the 1 inch axial gap criterion as a valid indicator of fiberboard degradation.
Date: November 18, 2009
Creator: Daugherty, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large Gap Size Paired-end Library Construction for Second Generation Sequencing

Description: Fosmid or BAC end sequencing plays an important role in de novo assembly of large genomes like fungi and plants. However construction and Sanger sequencing of fosmid or BAC libraries are laborious and costly. The current 454 Paired-End (PE) Library and Illumina Jumping Library construction protocols are limited with the gap sizes of approximately 20 kb and 8 kb, respectively. In the attempt to understand the limitations of constructing PE libraries with greater than 30Kb gaps, we have purified 18, 28, 45, and 65Kb sheared DNA fragments from yeast and circularized the ends using the Cre-loxP approach described in the 454 PE Library protocol. With the increasing fragment sizes, we found a general trend of decreasing library quality in several areas. First, redundant reads and reads containing multiple loxP linkers increase when the average fragment size increases. Second, the contamination of short distance pairs (<10Kb) increases as the fragment size increases. Third, chimeric rate increases with the increasing fragment sizes. We have modified several steps to improve the quality of the long span PE libraries. The modification includes (1) the use of special PFGE program to reduce small fragment contamination; (2) the increase of DNA samples in the circularization step and prior to the PCR to reduce redundant reads; and (3) the decrease of fragment size in the double SPRI size selection to get a higher frequency of LoxP linker containing reads. With these modifications we have generated large gap size PE libraries with a much better quality.
Date: May 28, 2010
Creator: Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Froula, Jeff; Ewing, Aren; Foster, Brian & Cheng, Jan-Fang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sixteenth Quarterly Report Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

Description: Three phenomena which concern coal solubilization and depolymerization were studied during this reporting period. Previous investigations have shown that lignin peroxidases mediate the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecule. Because it appears to be a substrate, soluble coal macromolecule is also an inhibitor of veratryl alcohol oxidation, a reaction that is mediated by these enzymes. The mechanism of inhibition is complex in that oxidation (as assayed by decolorization) of soluble coal macromolecule requires the presence of veratryl alcohol and veratryl alcohol oxidation occurs only after a substantial lag period during which the soluble coal macromolecule is oxidized. In a previous quarterly report we proposed a reaction mechanism by which this may occur. During the present reporting period we showed that our proposed reaction mechanism is consistent with classical enzyme kinetic theory describing enzyme activity in the presence of a potent inhibitor (i.e., an inhibitor with a very low KI ). The oxidative decolorization and depolymerization of soluble coal macromolecule was also studied. Because wood rotting fungi produce hydrogen peroxide via a variety of reactions, we studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide on soluble coal macromolecule decolorization and depolymerization. Results showed that substantial decolorization occurred only at hydrogen peroxide concentrations that are clearly non-physiological (i.e., 50 mM or greater). It was noted, however, that when grown on solid lignocellulosic substrates, wood rotting fungi, overtime, cumulatively could produce amounts of hydrogen peroxide that might cause significant oxidative degradation of soluble coal macromolecule. Thirdly, we have shown that during oxalate mediated solubilization of low rank coal, a pH increase is observed. During this reporting period we have shown that the pH of solutions containing only sodium oxalate also undergo an increase in pH, but to a lesser extent than that observed in mixtures containing sodium oxalate and low rank coal. It is our hypothesis ...
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Bumpus, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bio-Treatment of Energetic Materials Using White-Rot Fungus

Description: The nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), is used by militaries around the world in high yield munitions and often in combination with hexahydro- 1,3,5-trirdtro- 1,3,5- triazine (RDX). Improper handling and disposal of manufacturing wastewater may lead to environmental contamination. In the past wastewater was collected in disposal lagoons where it evaporated, and deposited large amounts of explosives on the lagoon floor. Although lagoon disposal is no longer practiced, thousands of acres have been already contaminated. RDX and, to a lesser extent, HMX have leached through the soil subsurface and contaminated groundwater ( 1,2). Likewjse, burning of substandard material or demilitarization of out-of-date muriitions has also led to environmental contamination. The current stockpile of energetic materials at DOE sites requires resource recovery or disposition (RRD). A related challenge exists in the clean-up of the DOE sites where soil and ground water are contaminated with explosives. Current technologies such as incineration, molten salt process, supercritical water oxidation are expensive and have technical hurdles. Open burning and open detonation(OB/OD) is not encouraged by regulatory agencies for disposal of explosives. Hence, there is need for a safe . technology to degrade these contaminants. The fi.mgal process does not employ open burning or open detonation to destroy energetic materials. The fimgal process can be used by itself, or it can augment or support other technologies for the treatment of energetic materials. The proposed enzyme technology will not release any air pollutants and will meet the regulations of Clean Air Act amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Federal. Facilities Compliance Act. The goal for this project was to test the ability of white-rot fungus to degrade HMX. In our study, we investigated the biodegradation of HMX using white-rot fungus in liquid and solid cultures. The degradation of HMX was studied at 1, 10, 100 ...
Date: November 12, 1998
Creator: Shah, MM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Brown-Spot of Corn with Suggestions for Its Control

Description: "The purpose of this bulletin is to familiarize the farmer with the appearance, distribution, nature, and economic importance of the brown-spot of corn and to offer certain helpful suggestions for its control.... High temperature in combination with high humidity favors the development of the disease. For this reason the damage is greater in the South, where high temperatures prevail throughout the summer and the rainfall is rather heavy. The disease is caused by a minute fungus parasite.... Careful field sanitation, crop rotation, and seed selection aid in controlling the disease." -- p. 2
Date: 1920
Creator: Tisdale, W. H. (Wendell Holmes), 1892-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cabbage diseases.

Description: Describes the sources and characteristics of cabbage diseases, and methods of control.
Date: 1924
Creator: Harter, L. L. (Leonard Lee); Jones, L. R. (Lewis Ralph), 1864-1945. & Walker, J. C. (John Charles), 1893-
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Care and Improvement of the Wood Lot

Description: "Wood grown in the farm wood lot is a farm crop. That it is, however, is too often overlooked, because, unlike other farm crops, timber requires a small amount of labor and a long period of years to bring it to a marketable condition. If properly cared for, a wood lot will furnish material for market at intervals, and will afford a supply of timber, fuel, etc., for home use at all times. If neglected or abused, it is bound to deteriorate, and may eventually disappear altogether. The aim of this bulletin is to point out methods of caring for the wood lot and improving it so as to make it produce the largest and best crop of which is is capable." -- title page
Date: 1916
Creator: Tillotson, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chestnut Blight

Description: "Chestnut blight, caused by a fungus brought into this country from Asia before 1904, is responsible for the death of millions of acres of chestnut growth in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. The disease spread rapidly to nearly all parts of the range of the native chestnut, and the remaining stands of the southern Appalachians face certain destruction. The present known distribution, its symptoms, and the fungus that causes the disease are described. The blight fungus itself does not have any effect upon the strength of chestnut timber, and blight-killed trees can be utilized for poles, posts, cordwood, lumber, and extract wood. Search is being made for native and foreign chestnuts resistant to the disease in the hope of finding a tree suitable for replacing the rapidly disappearing stands. Seedlings of Asiatic chestnuts, which have considerable natural resistance even though not immune, are being tested in the United States." -- p. ii
Date: 1930
Creator: Gravatt, G. F. & Gill, L. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Inhibition of Fungal Contaminants in Cultures of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Description: The problem of conatmination in culture media for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been solved completely, and for this reason the work herein presented was carried out. In this work experiments were made testing the effect of actidione in inhibiting certain ones of the higher fungi.
Date: 1951
Creator: Wright, Noble M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

Description: We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.
Date: May 18, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood

Description: Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose. Enzymes will play an increased role in this conversion in that they potentially provide an alternative to costly and caustic high temperature and acid treatment. The increasing use of enzymes in biotechnology is facilitated by both continued improvements in enzyme technology but also in the discovery of new and novel enzymes. The present proposal is aimed at identifying the enzymes which are known to depolymerize woody biomass. Fundamental understanding of how nature gains access to cellulose and hemicellulose will impact all applications. Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has evolved different fungal mechanisms for enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. Most notable are the white-rot fungi (wrf) and the brown-rot fungi (brf). This proposed research aims at determining the complete transcriptome of three wrf and two brf to determine the enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation. The transcriptome work will be supported by enzyme characterization (and zymograms) and finally analysis of the lignin component to determine the mode of lignin modification. In this proposed research, we hypothesize that: 1) Determination of the complete transcriptome of closely related white and brown rot fungi will lead to knowledge of the relevant enzymes involved in wood degradation. 2) Knowledge of the extracellular transcriptome and the mechanism of wood decay can only be obtained if the products of the decay are known. As such, characterization of the lignin oxidation products will correlate the enzymes involved (obtained from the transcriptome) to the lignin oxidation products. ...
Date: March 14, 2009
Creator: Tien, Ming
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici

Description: Rust fungi are some of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. They are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissues and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Their lifestyle has slowed the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying host invasion and avoidance or suppression of plant innate immunity. We sequenced the 101 mega base pair genome of Melampsora larici-populina, the causal agent of poplar leaf rust, and the 89 mega base pair genome of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat and barley stem rust. We then compared the 16,841 predicted proteins of M. larici-populina to the 18,241 predicted proteins of P. graminis f. sp tritici. Genomic features related to their obligate biotrophic life-style include expanded lineage-specific gene families, a large repertoire of effector-like small secreted proteins (SSPs), impaired nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, and expanded families of amino-acid, oligopeptide and hexose membrane transporters. The dramatic upregulation of transcripts coding for SSPs, secreted hydrolytic enzymes, and transporters in planta suggests that they play a role in host infection and nutrient acquisition. Some of these genomic hallmarks are mirrored in the genomes of other microbial eukaryotes that have independently evolved to infect plants, indicating convergent adaptation to a biotrophic existence inside plant cells
Date: April 27, 2011
Creator: Duplessis, Sebastien; Cuomo, Christina A.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Aerts, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2009 Epigenetics Gordon Research Conference (August 9 - 14, 2009)

Description: Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in genome function that occur without a change in primary DNA sequence. The 2009 Gordon Conference in Epigenetics will feature discussion of various epigenetic phenomena, emerging understanding of their underlying mechanisms, and the growing appreciation that human, animal, and plant health all depend on proper epigenetic control. Special emphasis will be placed on genome-environment interactions particularly as they relate to human disease. Towards improving knowledge of molecular mechanisms, the conference will feature international leaders studying the roles of higher order chromatin structure, noncoding RNA, repeat elements, nuclear organization, and morphogenic evolution. Traditional and new model organisms are selected from plants, fungi, and metazoans.
Date: August 14, 2009
Creator: Lee, Jeanie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department