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Ethylene Dibromide

Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Date: February 15, 1984
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ethylene Dibromide: Regulatory Background

Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Date: February 8, 1984
Creator: Aidala, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)

Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Date: January 31, 1985
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EDB and the Agriculture Community: A Background Discussion

Description: EDB is being removed from major agricultural uses because of concerns about possible adverse effects on human health. Regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system will have impacts on the agricultural community. Uses of EDB in agriculture, regulatory actions to remove EDB from the food system quickly, and possible impacts of those regulatory actions on domestic and international markets are discussed.
Date: March 19, 1984
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ethylene Dibromide: History, Health Effects, and Policy Questions

Description: Much attention has recently been focused on the chemical ethylene dibromide (EDB). This chemical has been widely used in leaded gasoline, and has also been used to treat grains, citrus and other crops. It has been found in foods and in groundwater. This paper examines the possible health effects of exposure to EDB, as well as its regulation. The possible health effects and regulation of various chemical and physical alternatives to EDB are also examined. This paper concludes with some policy considerations pertinent to EDB.
Date: May 3, 1984
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan : phase II investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

Description: From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of statewide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]) described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the Missouri risk-based corrective action default target level (MRBCA DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to ...
Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Phase I-Phase II interim report : expedited site characterization, Morrill, Kansas.

Description: The city of Morrill, Kansas, is located in Brown County, in the northeastern corner of the state. The town lies about 7 mi east of Sabetha and about 10 mi northwest of Hiawatha (Figure 1.1). The population of Morrill as of the 2000 census was approximately 277. The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility in the northwestern section of Morrill from 1950 until 1971. The property continued to be used for grain storage after 1971. Fourteen of the original 21 CCC/USDA circular bin structures remain today. Prior to 1986, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the grain storage industry to preserve grain. Contamination with carbon tetrachloride, also known as tetrachloromethane, was initially identified in groundwater at Morrill in October 1985 in public water supply well PWS5, during statewide testing of public water supply wells for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A preliminary assessment was completed by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in 1989 to obtain background information on the Morrill public water supply and to identify potential sources of the detected carbon tetrachloride contamination (KDHE 1989). Since 1991 the city of Morrill has obtained its water by pipeline from the municipal water supply of Sabetha. Water supplied through the Sabetha system comes from a surface reservoir. Former public wells in Morrill are no longer used for municipal supply. Wells PWS3, PWS4, and PWS5 were plugged in 1993. Wells PWS1 and PWS2 are no longer in active production, but they continue to be available for non-drinking purposes such as bulk hauling for agricultural uses, fire fighting, and road work (Hansen 2001). Because the KDHE found carbon tetrachloride in the groundwater at the former CCC/USDA facility at Morrill that could, in ...
Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : Phase III targeted investigation, Everest, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated these facilities from the early 1950s until the early 1970s, at a time when commercial fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and private industry for the preservation of grain in storage. In 1997 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and non-drinking water wells in the Everest area as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program. All of the sampled wells were outside the Everest city limits. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well, DW06; Figure 1.1) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Subsequent KDHE investigations suggested that the contamination in DW06 could be linked to the former use of grain fumigants at the CCC/USDA facility. For this reason, the CCC/USDA is conducting a phased environmental study to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at Everest and to identify potential remedial options. The studies are being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Two phases of investigation were completed previously; this report presents the findings of the targeted Phase III investigation at Everest.
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report: site reclassification investigation for Courtland, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated a grain storage facility in Courtland, Kansas. Prior to 1986, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the grain industry to preserve stored grain. In 1999, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) identified the former CCC/USDA operation as the likely source of carbon tetrachloride found in groundwater east of the former CCC/USDA facility in Courtland. Sampling by the KDHE in April 1998 had found carbon tetrachloride in the Garman residence lawn and garden well at a concentration of 2.1 {micro}g/L and in the Hoard residence lawn and garden well at a concentration of 0.5 {micro}g/L. Subsequent soil and groundwater sampling by the KDHE at the former CCC/USDA facility found no indication of a continuing source, and subsequent sampling of the affected wells showed generally declining contaminant levels. At the request of the KDHE and the CCC/USDA, Argonne National Laboratory prepared a Work Plan for Groundwater Sampling for Potential Site Reclassification, Courtland, Kansas (Argonne 2004). The objective of the proposed work was to conduct a single groundwater monitoring event and collect information necessary to update the status of the previously detected groundwater contamination, in support of an evaluation of appropriate actions for reclassification of the status of this site from active to resolved, under the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA). The reclassification would be in accordance with the KDHE's Reclassification Plan (Policy No. BERRS-024, online at http://www.kdhe.state.ks.us/pdf/ber/scp/reclass.pdf). The KDHE approved the Work Plan on August 8, 2005. Sampling was conducted on September 7, 2005.
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.; Dennis, C. B. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan: Phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

Description: From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of state-wide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]), approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride concentrations in the Morgan well have ranged from the initial value of 29 {micro}g/L in 1998, up to a maximum of 61 {micro}g/L in 1999, and back down to 22 {micro}g/L in 2005. The carbon tetrachloride concentration in the MoDOT well in 2000 (the only time it was sampled) was 321 {micro}g/L. The concentrations for the two wells are above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b). Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the health and environmental threats potentially posed by the contamination. ...
Date: October 12, 2007
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan: supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health ...
Date: December 15, 2008
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Phase II Report : QuickSite{reg_sign} investigation, Centralia, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated a grain storage facility approximately 1,100 ft north of Centralia from 1949 until 1971. Subsequently, a concrete mixing plant operated on the site (FSA 1997). None of the CCC/USDA structures remain, though belowgrade foundations related to structures associated with the concrete mixing operations are evident. Two additional grain storage facilities currently exist in and near Centralia: the Nemaha County Co-op, approximately 4,000 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, and a private grain storage facility near the Don Morris residence, 3,500 ft north of the former CCC/USDA facility (Figure 1.1). The property on which the former facility was located is currently owned by Jeanne Burdett Lacky of Seneca, Kansas. In August-September 1998 the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) conducted preliminary investigations at the former CCC/USDA facility, on the basis of the detection of carbon tetrachloride in the domestic well at the Don Morris residence (north of the former CCC/USDA facility). Prior to 1986, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the grain storage industry to preserve grain. The details of previous investigations in the area and a summary of the findings were reported previously (Argonne 2002a). Because the KDHE detected carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and soil at the former CCC/USDA facility at Centralia that might be related to historical use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at the facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an environmental site investigation to determine the source(s) and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the former facility near Centralia and to assess whether the contamination requires remedial action. The town of Centralia and all residents near the former CCC/USDA facility currently obtain their water from Rural Water District No.3. Therefore, local residents ...
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: LaFreniere, L. (Environmental Research)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of contaminant sources at Navarre, Kansas.

Description: The results of the 2006 investigation of contaminant sources at Navarre, Kansas, clearly demonstrate the following: {sm_bullet} Sources of carbon tetrachloride contamination were found on the Navarre Co-op property. These sources are the locations of the highest concentrations of carbon tetrachloride found in soil and groundwater at Navarre. The ongoing groundwater contamination at Navarre originates from these sources. {sm_bullet} The sources on the Co-op property are in locations where the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) never conducted grain storage operations. {sm_bullet} No definitive sources of carbon tetrachloride were identified on the portion of the current Co-op property formerly used by the CCC/USDA. {sm_bullet} The source areas on the Co-op property are consistent with the locations of the most intense Co-op operations, both historically and at present. The Co-op historically stored carbon tetrachloride for retail sale and used it as a grain fumigant in these locations. {sm_bullet} The distribution patterns of other contaminants (tetrachloroethene and nitrate) originating from sources on the Co-op property mimic the carbon tetrachloride plume. These other contaminants are not associated with CCC/USDA operations. {sm_bullet} The distribution of carbon tetrachloride at the Co-op source areas, particularly the absence of contamination in soils at depths less than 20 ft below ground level, is consistent with vertical migration into the subsurface through a conduit (well Co-op 2), with subsequent lateral migration through the subsurface. {sm_bullet} The groundwater flow direction, which is toward the west-northwest, is not consistent with migration of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater from the former CCC/USDA property to the source areas on the Co-op property. {sm_bullet} The absence of soil and groundwater contamination along surface drainage pathways on the former CCC/USDA property is not consistent with migration of carbon tetrachloride in surface water runoff from the former CCC/USDA property to the source areas ...
Date: November 5, 2007
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan : phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Montgomery City, Missouri.

Description: From September 1949 until September 1966, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) leased property at the southeastern end of Montgomery City, Missouri, for the operation of a grain storage facility. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In January 2000, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a soil sample (220 {micro}g/kg) and two soil gas samples (58 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and 550 {micro}g/m{sup 3}) collected at the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of a pre-CERCLIS site screening investigation (SSI) performed by TN & Associates, Inc., on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VII (MoDNR 2001). In June 2001, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) conducted further sampling of the soils and groundwater at the former CCC/USDA facility as part of a preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI). The MoDNR confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride (at a maximum identified concentration of 2,810 {micro}g/kg) and chloroform (maximum 82 {micro}g/kg) in the soils and also detected carbon tetrachloride and chloroform (42.2 {micro}g/L and 58.4 {micro}g/L, respectively) in a groundwater sample collected at the former facility (MoDNR 2001). The carbon tetrachloride levels identified in the soils and groundwater are above the default target level (DTL) values established by the MoDNR for this contaminant in soils of all types (79.6 {micro}g/kg) and in groundwater (5.0 {micro}g/L), as outlined in Missouri Risk-Based Corrective Action (MRBCA): Departmental Technical Guidance (MoDNR 2006a). The corresponding MRBCA DTL values for chloroform are 76.6 {micro}g/kg in soils of all types and 80 {micro}g/L in groundwater. Because the observed contamination at Montgomery City might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations ...
Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final phase I report and phase II work plan: QuickSite{reg_sign} investigation, Centralia, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly operated a grain storage facility approximately 1,100 ft north of Centralia (Figure 1.2). The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1949 until 1971. None of the CCC/USDA structures remain. Two additional grain storage facilities currently exist in and near Centralia: the Nemaha County Co-op, approximately 4,000 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, and a private grain storage facility near the Don Morris residence, 3,500 ft north of the former CCC/USDA facility. Prior to 1986, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the grain storage industry to preserve grain. In April 1998, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled the domestic well at the Don Morris residence near Centralia (Figure 1.2) as part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program, which was initiated to determine whether carbon tetrachloride was present in domestic wells located near former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride was detected in the Morris well at 19.3 mg/L and confirmed at 25.4 mg/L, both concentrations above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 mg/L for carbon tetrachloride in drinking water. On the basis of the detection of carbon tetrachloride in the Morris well, the KDHE in August-September 1998 conducted preliminary investigations at the former CCC/USDA facility. For the details of previous investigations in the area and a summary of their findings, see the QuickSite{reg_sign} Phase I Work Plan for Centralia (Argonne 2002a). Because the KDHE found carbon tetrachloride at the former CCC/USDA facility at Centralia that might, in part, be linked to historical use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at the facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an environmental site investigation at Centralia. However, the KDHE established in 1998 that the probable groundwater flow ...
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sitewide monitoring at Agra, Kansas, June 2009.

Description: In 1985, carbon tetrachloride was discovered in the groundwater at Agra, Kansas, during routine sampling of public water supply wells. Two of Agra's four public water supply wells contained low but detectable levels of carbon tetrachloride; the concentrations in wells PWS-3 and PWS-4 exceeded the maximum contaminant level. These wells were removed from service in 1986, although they remain available for uses other than drinking water. Other public wells, outside the area of contamination, supply drinking water for the city of Agra. In 1987-2005, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) and the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted investigations to delineate the contaminant plume and to identify source areas for the contamination - which results from the past use of grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride. Source areas were identified on the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility property and on the Producers Agricultural Marketing Association, Inc., property located to the south (Argonne 2006). The contaminant plume extends to the southeast, toward well PWS-3, from the identified source areas. Both the CCC/USDA and Pro-Ag Marketing are currently implementing KDHE-approved interim measures (IMs). To address the contamination identified on its former property, the CCC/USDA is implementing a source control IM consisting of large-diameter boreholes (LDBs) coupled with soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). Pro-Ag Marketing plans to use groundwater extraction to address the downgradient plume. The CCC/USDA and Pro-Ag completed installation of the two interim measures in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. The performance and assessments of the effectiveness of the IMs are being reported separately by the responsible entities. As part of the IM process, the KDHE (2008) requested the development of a joint sitewide groundwater monitoring plan to allow periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the separate IMs being implemented by ...
Date: January 14, 2010
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decommissioning of the remediation systems at Waverly, Nebraska, in 2011-2012.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility in Waverly, Nebraska, from 1952 to 1974. During this time, the grain fumigant '80/20' (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) was used to preserve stored grain. In 1982, sampling by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found carbon tetrachloride contamination in the town's groundwater. After an investigation of the contaminant distribution, the site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in 1986, and the CCC/USDA accepted responsibility for the contamination. An Interagency Compliance Agreement between the EPA and the CCC/USDA was finalized in May 1988 (EPA 1990). The EPA (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, contractor) started immediate cleanup efforts in 1987 with the installation of an air stripper, a soil vapor extraction system, a groundwater extraction well, and groundwater and soil gas monitoring wells (Woodward-Clyde 1986, 1988a,b). After the EPA issued its Record of Decision (ROD; EPA 1990), the CCC/USDA (Argonne National Laboratory, contractor) took over operation of the treatment systems. The CCC/USDA conducted a site investigation (Argonne 1991, 1992a,b), during which a carbon tetrachloride plume in groundwater was discovered northeast of the former facility. This plume was not being captured by the existing groundwater extraction system. The remediation system was modified in 1994 (Argonne 1993) with the installation of a second groundwater extraction well to contain the contamination further. Subsequently, a detailed evaluation of the system resulted in a recommendation to pump only the second well to conserve water in the aquifer (Argonne 1995). Sampling and analysis after implementation of this recommendation showed continued decreases in the extent and concentrations of the contamination with only one well pumping (Argonne 1999). The CCC/USDA issued quarterly monitoring reports from 1988 to 2009. Complete documentation of the CCC/USDA characterization and remediation efforts, including the quarterly monitoring reports, is on the compact ...
Date: June 29, 2012
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : Hanover environmental site investigation, 2009-2010.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected in two private lawn and garden wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Consequently, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations, under the direction of the KDHE, to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that might be associated with the former facility. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion (VI). Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Because carbon tetrachloride found in private wells and indoor air at Hanover might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that may be associated with the former facility. The results of the comprehensive investigation at Hanover indicate that no unacceptable risk to human health currently exists from exposure to surface and subsurface soils by either ingestion, ...
Date: June 7, 2011
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final work plan: investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In April 2007, the CCC/USDA collected near-surface soil samples at 1.8-2 ft BGL (below ground level) at 61 locations across the former CCC/USDA facility. All soil samples were analyzed by the rigorous gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analytical method (purge-and-trap method). No contamination was found in soil samples above the reporting limit of 10 {micro}g/kg. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Because carbon tetrachloride found in private wells and indoor air at the site might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is proposing to conduct an investigation to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination associated with the former facility. This investigation will be conducted in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. The investigation at Hanover will be performed, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, by ...
Date: November 19, 2008
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report : phase I investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

Description: From approximately 1949 until 1970, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility on federally owned property approximately 0.25 mi northwest of Savannah, Missouri (Figure 1.1). During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were commonly used by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In November 1998, carbon tetrachloride was detected in a private well (Morgan) roughly 50 ft south of the former CCC/USDA facility, as a result of state-wide screening of private wells near former CCC/USDA facilities, conducted in Missouri by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1999). The 1998 and subsequent investigations by the EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MoDNR) confirmed the presence of carbon tetrachloride in the Morgan well, as well as in a second well (on property currently owned and occupied by the Missouri Department of Transportation [MoDOT]), described as being approximately 400 ft east of the former CCC/USDA facility. The identified concentrations in these two wells were above the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) and the default target level (DTL) values of 5.0 {micro}g/L for carbon tetrachloride in water used for domestic purposes (EPA 1999; MoDNR 2000a,b, 2006). (The DTL is defined in Section 4.) Because the observed contamination in the Morgan and MoDOT wells might be linked to the past use of carbon tetrachloride-based fumigants at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an investigation to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at Savannah and (2) evaluate the potential risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment posed by the contamination. This work is being performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA ...
Date: August 5, 2010
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M. & Division, Environmental Science
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Phase II report : QuickSite(R) investigation, Everest, Kansas.

Description: The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated grain storage facilities at two different locations at Everest, Kansas (Figure 1.1). One facility (referred to in this report as the Everest facility) was at the western edge of the city of Everest. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1950 until the early 1970s. The second facility (referred to in this report as Everest East) was about 0.5 mi northeast of the town. The CCC/USDA operated this facility from 1954 until the early 1970s. While these two former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities were in operation, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the CCC/USDA and the private grain storage industry to preserve grain. In 1997, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) sampled several domestic drinking water and nondrinking water wells in the Everest area. The KDHE sampling was part of the CCC/USDA Private Well Sampling Program, which was initiated to determine whether carbon tetrachloride was present in domestic wells near former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Kansas. All of the sampled domestic drinking water wells were located outside the Everest city boundaries. As a result of this sampling, carbon tetrachloride contamination was identified at a single domestic drinking water well (the Nigh well; DW06) approximately 3/8 mi northwest of the former Everest CCC/USDA grain storage facility. The CCC/USDA subsequently connected the Nigh residence to the Everest municipal water system. As a result of the detection of carbon tetrachloride in this well, the KDHE conducted preliminary investigations to further evaluate the existence of contamination and its potential effect on public health and the environment. The KDHE concluded that carbon tetrachloride in groundwater at Everest might, in part, be linked to historical use of carbon tetrachloride-based grain fumigants at the former ...
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: LaFreniere, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of free-air CO sub 2 enrichment (FACE) technology to a forest canopy: A simulation study

Description: Forest ecosystems constitute an important part of the planet's land cover. Understanding their exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere is crucial in projecting future net atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases. It is also important that experimental studies of these processes be performed under conditions which are as realistic as possible, particularly with respect to photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. New technology and experimental protocols now exist which can facilitate studying an undisturbed forest canopy under long-term enriched CO{sub 2} conditions. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program of the International Council of Scientific Unions has established a subprogram on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). This program is driven by two major concerns: to be able to predict the effects of global change on the structure and function of ecosystems, and to predict how these changes will control both atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate, through various feedback pathways. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a system for exposing field-grown plants to controlled elevated concentrations of atmospheric gases, without use of confining chambers that alter important atmospheric exchange processes. This system, called FACE for Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment. This paper focuses on the fluid mechanics of free-air fumigation and uses a numerical simulation model based on superposed gaussian plumes to project how the present ground-based system could be used to fumigate an elevated forest canopy.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & Alexander, Y. (Israel Inst. for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department