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Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for dicyclic hydrocarbons : I -2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane,a,w-diphenylalkane; 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and a,w-dicyclohexylalkane series

Description: Report presenting a study of the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, including the net heat of combustion, melting point, boiling point, density, and kinematic viscosity. They are evaluated for their use as a fuel, especially in planes that are required to have smaller fuel tanks.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Wise, Paul H.; Serijan, Kasper T. & Goodman, Irving A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Combustion Reactivity of Ethyldecaborane Fuels With Typical Hydrocarbon Fuels on Basis of Spray Flammability Limits of Fuel-Rich Mists and Calculated Lean-Limit Flame Temperatures for Fuel Vapor-Air Systems

Description: From Summary: "The spray flammability limits of various high-energy fuels and hydrocarbon fuels were determined experimentally in an apparatus which measured the minimum percent of oxygen by volume that would permit the ignition of a particular fuel. The fluids investigated were ethyldecaboranes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and esters."
Date: February 27, 1957
Creator: Wise, Paul H. & Lipschitz, Abraham
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Uses of Peat for Fuel and Other Purposes

Description: From Introduction: "The bulletin sets forth the results of an investigation that was undertaken to determine whether peat, a fuel widely used in some countries, could be made serviceable in the United States, where, through labor and economic conditions differ from those in peat-using countries, there are opportunities for the introduction of a fuel selling at prices that should make the mining and shipment of peat to near-by markets profitable."
Date: 1911
Creator: Davis, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Features of Producer-Gas Power-Plant Development in Europe

Description: From Introduction: "Because the limited time available would not permit a careful inspection, much less a detailed study of all the plants visited, the writer has not aimed in this bulletin to present a comprehensive review of producer-gas power-plant development in Europe, or even to give such conclusions as might be drawn from what he saw, but has simply described some interesting features of European practice that attract the attention of even a casual observer."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernald, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: "An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas" (p. 73).
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Meem, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.
Date: August 12, 1945
Creator: Heinicke, Orville H. & Vandeman, Jack E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

Description: In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Nelson, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

Description: This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the ...
Date: December 10, 1996
Creator: Baker, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel" standard

Description: Safe Pu management is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. Presidential Policy Directive 13 and analyses by scientific, technical, and international policy organizations brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and implement long-term disposition paths for surplus Pu. The principal goal is to render surplus Pu as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as Pu in spent reactor fuel. In the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons- Usable Fissile Materials (1997), DOE announced pursuit of two disposition technologies: (1) irradiation of Pu as MOX fuel in existing reactors and (2) immobilization of Pu into solid forms containing fission products as a radiation barrier. DOE chose an immobilization approach that includes �use of the can-in-canister option.. . for a portion of the surplus, non-pit Pu material.� In the can-in-canister approach, cans of glass or ceramic forms containing Pu are encapsulated within canisters of HLW glass. In support of the selection process, a technical evaluation of retrievability and recoverability of Pu from glass and ceramic forms by a host nation and by rogue nations or subnational groups was completed. The evaluation involved determining processes and flowsheets for Pu recovery, comparing these processes against criteria and metrics established by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program and then comparing the recovery processes against each other and against SNF processes.
Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Gray, W. L. & McKibben, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford`s progress toward dry interim storage of K basin`s spent fuel

Description: This paper highlights the progress made toward removing the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) approximately 2, 100 metric tons of metallic spent nuclear fuel from two outdated K Basins on the banks of the Columbia River and placing it in safe, economic interim dry storage beginning in December 1997. A new way of doing business at the Hanford Site and within DOE is being used to achieve the fast-track schedule, , cost savings, and public cooperation needed for success. In February 1994, the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project was formed to solve serious safety and environmental problems associated with corroding metallic spent fuel stored in 1950`s vintage, leak-prone, water- filled concrete basins located within 365 meters (400 yards) of the last remaining unspoiled section of the Columbia River. Working together, the integrated project team focused on quickly getting the fuel out of the basins and into safe, dry storage. The team involved the public, government, regulators, and other stakeholders and forged a common understanding. The DOE transferred authority to the field to shorten approval times, and Site contractors reengineered processes to improve efficiency. Within nine months of creating the project, a plan was recommended to the DOE. It was approved on February 14, 1995. Further refinement, during the following six months, shortened the schedule even more and reduced costs by $350 million. The SNF Project is on a fast track. The K Basins Environmental Impact Statement was completed in only 11 months for only $1.3 million. Fuel and sludge samples were obtained from both basins and were sent to the laboratory for characterization and testing. The partially constructed Canister Storage Building (CSB), selected as the fuel storage facility, was redesigned, and construction was restarted saving over $17 million and cutting a year off the project schedule. With fuel removal beginning ...
Date: May 9, 1996
Creator: Culley, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

Description: This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79.9% was achieved with a stressed algae sample containing 40% algae oil. The effort concluded that producing biodiesel directly from the algae biomass could be an efficient, ...
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Sun, Xiaolei & Rink, Nancy T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of High-Octane Fuels in the Single-Cylinder Airplane Engine

Description: "One of the most important properties of aviation fuels for spark-ignition engines is their knock rating. The CFR engine tests of fuels of 87 octane and above does not always correspond entirely to the actual behavior of these fuels in the airplane engine. A method is therefore developed which, in contrast to the octane number determination, permits a testing of the fuel under various temperatures and fuel mixture conditions. The following reference fuels were employed: 1) Primary fuels; isooctane and n-heptane; 2) Secondary fuels; pure benzene and synthetic benzine" (p. 1).
Date: February 1940
Creator: Seeber, Fritz
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drop burning rates of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon fuels

Description: An investigation of the burning rates of single drops of 15 hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon fuels in quiescent air at room temperature and pressure. The drop burning rates were found to be proportional to drop diameter. The experimentally determined drop burning rates were in orderly agreement with those predicted by theoretical analysis, but the absolute values differed significantly.
Date: August 6, 1957
Creator: Smith, Arthur L. & Graves, Charles C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRE Mark II Fuel Handling Machine

Description: Abstract: The Sodium Reactor Experiment Mark II Fuel Handling Machine has been modified to ensure fuel and gas containment during core III operation. A new fuel control system has been designed for the fuel handling machine.
Date: April 20, 1965
Creator: Dietz, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Engine Conditions on the Lead Susceptibility of Paraffinic Fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation made on a supercharged CFR engine to determine a method for estimating lead susceptibilities of pure or blended paraffinic fuels. As a result of these studies, a chart consisting of a series of straight lines passing through the origin was developed to represent the lead susceptibilities of pure and blended paraffinic fuels in terms of knock-limited indicated mean effective pressures and octane numbers.
Date: October 1944
Creator: Barnett, Henry C. & Imming, Harry S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of End- and Radial-Burning Solid Fuels in Ram Jets Mounted in a Free Jet at Mach Numbers of 2.0, 2.2, and 2.3

Description: Report presenting testing of two types of solid fuels in a 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine mounted in a free supersonic jet at several Mach numbers. Results regarding radial-burning fuel, end-burning fuel, and a comparison of the two are provided. Unlike in previous testing, no fuel breakup was noted due to recently developed molding techniques.
Date: November 25, 1952
Creator: Bartlett, Walter A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude Performance of AN-F-58 Fuels in British Rolls-Royce Nene Single Combustor

Description: "An investigation was conducted with a single combustor from a British Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine to determine the altitude performance characteristics of AN-F-58 fuels. Three fuel blends conforming to AN-F-58 specifications were prepared in order to determine the influence of fuel boiling temperatures and aromatic content on combustion efficiencies and altitude operational limits. The performance of the three AN-F-58 fuels was compared in the range of altitudes from sea level to 65,000 feet, engine speeds from 40- to 100- percent normal rated, and flight Mach numbers of 0.0 and 0.6" (p. 1).
Date: July 8, 1949
Creator: Cook, William P. & Koch, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting, and Summary

Description: This report describes the characteristics of fossil fuels that make it necessary to use precise terminology, summarizes the major terms and their meanings, and provides a brief summary of the United States' endowment of fossil fuels and the relationship between the U.S. fossil fuel energy endowment and those of other nations.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Whitney, Gene; Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

Description: A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted �zinc chromite� catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375°C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H&sub2;/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Roberts, George W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

Description: This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Truex, M. J. & Wiemers, K. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

Description: Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.
Date: December 11, 1998
Creator: Lumetta, GJ; Rapko, BM; Liu, J; Temer, DJ & Hunt, RD
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department