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Correlation of physical properties with molecular structure for dicyclic hydrocarbons : I -2-n-alkylbiphenyl, 1,1-diphenylalkane,a,w-diphenylalkane; 1,1-dicyclohexylalkane, and a,w-dicyclohexylalkane series

Description: Report presenting a study of the correlation between molecular structure and physical properties of high-density hydrocarbons, including the net heat of combustion, melting point, boiling point, density, and kinematic viscosity. They are evaluated for their use as a fuel, especially in planes that are required to have smaller fuel tanks.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Wise, Paul H.; Serijan, Kasper T. & Goodman, Irving A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of combustion reactivity of ethyldecaborane fuels with typical hydrocarbon fuels on basis of spray flammability limits of fuel-rich mists and calculated lean-limit flame temperatures for fuel vapor-air systems

Description: From Summary: "The spray flammability limits of various high-energy fuels and hydrocarbon fuels were determined experimentally in an apparatus which measured the minimum percent of oxygen by volume that would permit the ignition of a particular fuel. The fluids investigated were ethyldecaboranes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and esters."
Date: February 27, 1957
Creator: Wise, Paul H. & Lipschitz, Abraham
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary analysis of three cycles for nuclear propulsion of aircraft

Description: A preliminary study was made of the feasibility of three cycles for nuclear propulsion of aircraft: a direct-air-turbojet, a binary liquid-metal turbojet, and a helium compressor jet. All three cycles appeared feasible for flight at a Mach number of 0.9 and altitudes up to 50,000 feet; the liquid-metal cycle appeared feasible for flight at a Mach number of 1.5. The air and helium cycles resulted in heavier aircraft than did the liquid-metal cycle, particularly at a Mach number of 1.5. The relative advantage of the liquid-metal cycle became greater as the flight speed and altitude increased, and as the reactor wall temperature decreased.
Date: October 13, 1950
Creator: Humble, L V; Wachtl, W W & Doyle, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of Fuel-Air Ratio by Analysis of the Oxidized Exhaust Gas

Description: An investigation was made to determine a method of measuring fuel-air ratio that could be used for test purposes in flight and for checking conventional equipment in the laboratory. Two single-cylinder test engines equipped with typical commercial engine cylinders were used. The fuel-air ratio of the mixture delivered to the engines was determined by direct measurement of the quantity of air and of fuel supplied and also by analysis of the oxidized exhaust gas and of the normal exhaust gas. Five fuels were used: gasoline that complied with Army-Navy Fuel Specification, No. AN-VV-F-781 and four mixtures of this gasoline with toluene, benzene, and xylene. The method of determining the fuel-air ratio described in this report involves the measurement of the carbon-dioxide content of the oxidized exhaust gas and the use of graphs or the presented equation. This method is considered useful in aircraft, in the field, or in the laboratory for a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.047 to 0.124.
Date: October 1, 1943
Creator: Memm, J. Lawrence, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

Description: An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.
Date: August 12, 1945
Creator: Heinicke, Orville H. & Vandeman, Jack E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Uses of Peat for Fuel and Other Purposes

Description: From Introduction: "The bulletin sets forth the results of an investigation that was undertaken to determine whether peat, a fuel widely used in some countries, could be made serviceable in the United States, where, through labor and economic conditions differ from those in peat-using countries, there are opportunities for the introduction of a fuel selling at prices that should make the mining and shipment of peat to near-by markets profitable."
Date: 1911
Creator: Davis, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Features of Producer-Gas Power-Plant Development in Europe

Description: From Introduction: "Because the limited time available would not permit a careful inspection, much less a detailed study of all the plants visited, the writer has not aimed in this bulletin to present a comprehensive review of producer-gas power-plant development in Europe, or even to give such conclusions as might be drawn from what he saw, but has simply described some interesting features of European practice that attract the attention of even a casual observer."
Date: 1911
Creator: Fernald, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Blow-Out Velocities of Solutions of Hydrocarbons and Boron Hydride - Hydrocarbon Reaction Products in a 1 7/8-Inch-Diameter Combustor

Description: Blow-out velocities were determined for JP-4 solutions containing: (1) 10 % ethylene - decaborane reaction product, (2) 10% and 20% acetylene - diborane reaction product, and (3) 5.5%, 15.7%, and 30.7% methylacetylene - diborane reaction product. These were compared with blow-out velocities for JP-4, propylene oxide, and neohexane and previously reported data for JP-4 solutions of pentaborane. For those reaction products investigated, the blow-out velocities at a fixed equivalence ratio were higher for those materials containing higher boron concentrations; that is, blow-out velocity increased in the following order: (1) methylacetylene - diborane, (2) acetylene - diborane, and (3) ethylene - decaborane reaction products.
Date: October 24, 1957
Creator: Morris, James F. & Lord, Albert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rocket Power Plants Based on Nitric Acid and their Specific Propulsive Weights

Description: Two fields are reserved for the application of rocket power plants. The first field is determined by the fact that the rocket power plant is the only type of power plant that can produce thrust without dependence upon environment. For this field,the rocket is therefore the only possible power plant and the limit of what may be done is determined by the status of the technical development of these power plants at the given moment. The second field is that in which the rocket power plant proves itself the most suitable as a high-power drive in free competition with other types of power plants. The exposition will be devoted to the demarcation of this field and its division among the various types of rocket power plants.
Date: May 1, 1947
Creator: Zborowski, Helmut
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

Description: Chemical reactions can demonstrably occur in a fuel-air mixture compressed in the working cylinder of an Otto-cycle (spark ignition) internal-combustion engine even before the charge is ignited by the flame proceeding from the sparking plug. These are the so-called "prelinminary reactions" ("pre-flame" combustion or oxidation), and an exact knowledge of their characteristic development is of great importance for a correct appreciation of the phenomena of engine-knock (detonation), and consequently for its avoidance. Such reactions can be studied either in a working engine cylinder or in a combustion bomb. The first method necessitates a complicated experimental technique, while the second has the disadvantage of enabling only a single reaction to be studied at one time. Consequently, a new series of experiments was inaugurated, conducted in a motored (externally-driven) experimental engine of mixture-compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and measurable thermometrically.
Date: June 1, 1943
Creator: Muehlner, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets

Description: The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels. The values are substantially lower for heavier atoms, and increase with the square of the combustion pressure. The half-life of the burnup in the fastest reactions may drop to values as low as those for chemical fuels so that, despite the high temperature, the radiated energy can remain smaller than the energy produced, particularly if an inefficiently radiating (i.e., easily completely ionized reacting material like hydrogen), is used. On the other hand, the fraction of completely ionized particles in the gases undergoing nuclear combustion must not exceed a certain upper limit because the densities (approximately 10(exp -10) grams per cubic centimeter)) lie in the range of high vacua and only for the previously mentioned fraction of nonionized particles can mean free paths be retained small enough so that the chamber diameters of several dozen meters will suffice. Under these conditions it appears that continuously maintained stable nuclear reactions at practical pressures and dimensions are fundamentally possible and their application can be visualized as energy sources for power plants and propulsion units.
Date: April 1, 1957
Creator: Saenger, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Method of Estimating the Knock Rating of Hydrocarbon Fuel Blends

Description: The usefulness of the knock ratings of pure hydrocarbon compounds would be increased if some reliable method of calculating the knock ratings of fuel blends was known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a method of predicting the knock ratings of fuel blends.
Date: January 1, 1943
Creator: Sanders, Newell D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

Description: In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Nelson, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRE Mark II Fuel Handling Machine

Description: Abstract: The Sodium Reactor Experiment Mark II Fuel Handling Machine has been modified to ensure fuel and gas containment during core III operation. A new fuel control system has been designed for the fuel handling machine.
Date: April 20, 1965
Creator: Dietz, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of end- and radial-burning solid fuels in ram jets mounted in a free jet at Mach numbers of 2.0, 2.2, and 2.3

Description: Report presenting testing of two types of solid fuels in a 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine mounted in a free supersonic jet at several Mach numbers. Results regarding radial-burning fuel, end-burning fuel, and a comparison of the two are provided. Unlike in previous testing, no fuel breakup was noted due to recently developed molding techniques.
Date: November 25, 1952
Creator: Bartlett, Walter A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

Description: This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79.9% was achieved with a stressed algae sample containing 40% algae oil. The effort concluded that producing biodiesel directly from the algae biomass could be an efficient, ...
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Sun, Xiaolei & Rink, Nancy T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

Description: This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the ...
Date: December 10, 1996
Creator: Baker, S. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel" standard

Description: Safe Pu management is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. Presidential Policy Directive 13 and analyses by scientific, technical, and international policy organizations brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and implement long-term disposition paths for surplus Pu. The principal goal is to render surplus Pu as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as Pu in spent reactor fuel. In the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons- Usable Fissile Materials (1997), DOE announced pursuit of two disposition technologies: (1) irradiation of Pu as MOX fuel in existing reactors and (2) immobilization of Pu into solid forms containing fission products as a radiation barrier. DOE chose an immobilization approach that includes �use of the can-in-canister option.. . for a portion of the surplus, non-pit Pu material.� In the can-in-canister approach, cans of glass or ceramic forms containing Pu are encapsulated within canisters of HLW glass. In support of the selection process, a technical evaluation of retrievability and recoverability of Pu from glass and ceramic forms by a host nation and by rogue nations or subnational groups was completed. The evaluation involved determining processes and flowsheets for Pu recovery, comparing these processes against criteria and metrics established by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program and then comparing the recovery processes against each other and against SNF processes.
Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Gray, W. L. & McKibben, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford`s progress toward dry interim storage of K basin`s spent fuel

Description: This paper highlights the progress made toward removing the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) approximately 2, 100 metric tons of metallic spent nuclear fuel from two outdated K Basins on the banks of the Columbia River and placing it in safe, economic interim dry storage beginning in December 1997. A new way of doing business at the Hanford Site and within DOE is being used to achieve the fast-track schedule, , cost savings, and public cooperation needed for success. In February 1994, the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project was formed to solve serious safety and environmental problems associated with corroding metallic spent fuel stored in 1950`s vintage, leak-prone, water- filled concrete basins located within 365 meters (400 yards) of the last remaining unspoiled section of the Columbia River. Working together, the integrated project team focused on quickly getting the fuel out of the basins and into safe, dry storage. The team involved the public, government, regulators, and other stakeholders and forged a common understanding. The DOE transferred authority to the field to shorten approval times, and Site contractors reengineered processes to improve efficiency. Within nine months of creating the project, a plan was recommended to the DOE. It was approved on February 14, 1995. Further refinement, during the following six months, shortened the schedule even more and reduced costs by $350 million. The SNF Project is on a fast track. The K Basins Environmental Impact Statement was completed in only 11 months for only $1.3 million. Fuel and sludge samples were obtained from both basins and were sent to the laboratory for characterization and testing. The partially constructed Canister Storage Building (CSB), selected as the fuel storage facility, was redesigned, and construction was restarted saving over $17 million and cutting a year off the project schedule. With fuel removal beginning ...
Date: May 9, 1996
Creator: Culley, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude Performance of AN-F-58 Fuels in British Rolls-Royce Nene Single Combustor

Description: An investigation was conducted with a single combustor from a British Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine to determine the altitude performance characteristics of AN-F-58 fuels. Three fuel blends conforming to AN-F-58 specifications were prepared in order to determine the influence of fuel boiling temperatures and aromatic content on combustion efficiencies and altitude operational limits. The performance of the three AN-F-58 fuels was compared in the range of altitudes from sea level to 65,000 feet, engine speeds from 40- to 100- percent normal rated, and flight Mach numbers of 0.0 and 0.6. Similar information was obtained for AN-F-32 fuel at a flight Mach number of 0.0.
Date: July 8, 1949
Creator: Cook, William P. & Koch, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developments in enzyme immobilization and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy with downstream renewable energy applications

Description: This dissertation focuses on techniques for (1) increasing ethanol yields from saccharification and fermentation of cellulose using immobilized cellulase, and (2) the characterization and classification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, and quantification of useful parameters such as the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomer content using 1064 nm dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.
Date: August 27, 2012
Creator: Lupoi, Jason
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department