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Preparation and physical properties of metal slurry fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the physical properties of slurries and the use of a metal-soap additive to prepare stable slurries of commercial magnesium, aluminum, and boron powders in a MIL-F-5624 grade JP-3 base fuel. Results regarding the slurry density, apparent viscosity, apparent surface tension, stability, and fuel-flow characteristics are provided.
Date: March 18, 1952
Creator: Gibbs, James B. & Cook, Preston N., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation of JP-5 fuel sprays in air streams

Description: Report presenting a continuous sampling-probe technique used to determine the percentage of JP-5 fuel spray evaporated under conditions common in ramjet engines. Fuel was injected contraststream from a multiple-orifice injector and sampling data were obtained at several distances downstream of the injector. An expression is generated for a description of this phenomenon.
Date: February 21, 1956
Creator: Foster, Hampton H. & Ingebo, Robert D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline

Description: Among the fuels which will operate at compression ratios up to at least 8.0 without preignition or "pinking" is hecter fuel, whence a careful determination of its performance is of importance. For the test data presented in this report the hecter fuel used was a mixture of 30 per cent benzol and 70 per cent cyclohexane, having a low freezing point, and distilling from first drop to 90 per cent at nearly a constant temperature, about 20 degrees c. below the average distillation temperature ("mean volatility") of the x gasoline (export grade). The results of these experiments show that the power developed by hecter fuel is the same as that developed by export aviation gasoline at about 1,800 r.p.m. at all altitudes. At lower speeds differences in the power developed by the fuels become evident. Comparisons at ground level were omitted to avoid any possibility of damaging the engine by operating with open throttle on gasoline at so high a compression. The fuel consumption per unit power based on weight, not volume, averaged more than 10 per cent greater with hecter than with x gasoline. The thermal efficiency of the engine when using hecter is less than when using gasoline, particularly at higher speeds. A generalization of the difference for all altitudes and speeds being 8 per cent. A general deduction from these facts is that more hecter is exhausted unburnt. Hecter can withstand high compression pressures and temperature without preignition. (author).
Date: January 29, 1920
Creator: Dickinson, H. C.; Gage, V. R. & Sparrow, S. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and calculated histories of vaporizing fuel drops

Description: Report presenting the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the vaporization of fuel droplets in heated air under atmospheric pressure. An experimental investigation of the temperature and mass histories of single droplets was made, a comparison of the experimental results was conducted with calculated temperature and mass histories, and the time taken by a droplet vaporizing to for a mixture of fuel vapor and air of combustible strength is calculated.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Priem, R. J.; Borman, G. L.; El Wakil, M. M.; Uyehara, O. A. & Myers, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

Description: From Summary: "Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number."
Date: August 1939
Creator: Moore, Charles S. & Foster, Hampton H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some factors affecting the reproducibility of penetration and the cut-off of oil sprays for fuel-injection engines

Description: This investigation was undertaken at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in connection with a general research on fuel-injection for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the factors controlling the reproducibility of spray penetration and secondary discharges after cut-off. The development of single sprays from automatic injection valves was recorded by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. The effect of two types of injection valves, injection-valve tube length, initial pressure in the injection-valve tube, speed of the injection control mechanism, and time of spray cut-off, on the reproducibility of spray penetration, and on secondary discharges were investigated. It was found that neither type of injection valve materially affected spray reproducibility. The initial pressure in the injection-valve tube controlled the reproducibility of spray penetrations. An increase in the initial pressure or in the length of the injection-valve tube slightly increased the spray penetration within the limits of this investigation. The speed of the injection-control mechanism did not affect the penetration. Analysis of the results indicates that secondary discharges were caused in this apparatus by pressure waves initiated by the rapid opening of the cut-off valve. The secondary discharges were eliminated in this investigation by increasing the length of the injection-valve tube. (author).
Date: 1928
Creator: Beardsley, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Winter Fuels Markets

Description: This report analyzes the key factors affecting the various winter fuels markets, including consumption, production, reserves, and storage volumes.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954

Description: Report presenting a review of NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954. Slurry fuels are defined as suspensions of metals in hydrocarbons, which may offer more flight range or thrust than can be obtained with conventional hydrocarbons. Magnesium is the primary metal of interest at this time for high thrust and boron for long-range flight.
Date: April 21, 1955
Creator: Olson, Walter T. & Breitwieser, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary discussion of fuel temperatures attained in supersonic aircraft

Description: Report presenting an exploration of fuel temperatures, which includes variables such as the aircraft speed, flight time, flight altitude, materials of construction, location of fuel tanks relative to aircraft skin and hot engine parts, and other factors. The results illustrate that it is impossible to predict quantitatively the fuel temperatures that will be attained in aircraft without detailed design information on each machine.
Date: March 15, 1955
Creator: Gibbons, Louis C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A study of injection processes for 15-percent fluorine - 85-percent oxygen and heptane in a 200-pound-thrust rocket engine

Description: Characteristic exhaust velocity over a range of mixture ratios and variations in gas velocity with distance from the injector were measured for six injectors. Comparisons of injector performance showed the gains obtained from oxidant atomization, fuel atomization, and propellant mixing. The results are compared with oxygen and heptane performance and show the effect, which is qualitatively small, of spontaneous propellant ignition on the relation between injection processes and engine performance.
Date: January 15, 1957
Creator: Heidmann, M. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of nozzle design and operating conditions on the atomization and distribution of fuel sprays

Description: The atomization and distribution characteristics of fuel sprays from automatic injection valves for compression-ignition engines were determined by catching the fuel drops on smoked-glass plates, and then measuring and counting the impressions made in the lampblack. The experiments were made in an air-tight chamber in which the air density was raised to values corresponding to engine conditions.
Date: February 19, 1932
Creator: Lee, Dana W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Injection principles for liquid oxygen and heptane using two-element injectors

Description: Report presenting a study of injection principles for liquid oxygen and heptane made with two-element injectors, as the previous study only included single-element injectors. Eight injectors, produced by two spray orientations of each of the four injection processes, were investigated. Results regarding atomization after mixing, atomization before mixing, atomization without mixing, fuel atomization without mixing, and overall comparisons of the injectors are provided.
Date: June 26, 1956
Creator: Heidmann, Marcus F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

Description: The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.
Date: May 1937
Creator: Lee, Dana W. & Marsh, E. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays

Description: A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.
Date: December 15, 1932
Creator: Lee, Dana W. & Spencer, Robert C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays

Description: Photomicrographs were taken of fuel sprays injected into air at various densities for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the stages in the atomization of the fuel. The photomicrographs were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. The results indicate that the theory advanced by Dr. R. A. Castleman, Jr., on the atomization of fuel in carburetors may also be applied to the atomization of fuel sprays of the solid-injection type. The fuel leaves the nozzle as a solid column, is ruffled and then torn into small, irregular ligaments by the action of the air. These ligaments are then quickly broken up into drops by the surface tension of the fuel. The photomicrographs also show that the dispersion of a fuel spray at a given distance from the nozzle increases with an increase in the jet velocity or an increase in the air density. The first portions of fuel sprays injected from an automatic injection valve into air at atmospheric density have a much greater dispersion than the later portions, but this difference decreases rapidly as the air density is increased.
Date: July 1932
Creator: Lee, Dana W. & Spencer, Robert C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature ignition-delay characteristics of several rocket fuels with mixed acid in modified open-cup-type apparatus

Description: Summaries of low-temperature self-ignition data of various rocket fuels with mixed acid (nitric plus sulfuric) are presented. Several fuels are shown to have shorter ignition-delay intervals and less variation in delay intervals at moderate and sub-zero temperatures than crude N-ethylaniline (monoethylaniline),a rocket fuel in current use.
Date: October 17, 1950
Creator: Miller, Riley O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A theoretical investigation of the heating-up period of injected fuel droplets vaporizing in air

Description: Report presenting an investigation of fuel injection into a combustion chamber, including theoretical and experimental results regarding the unsteady-state portion of the total vaporization time of single fuel droplets injected into air.
Date: May 1954
Creator: El Wakil, M. M.; Uyehara, O. A. & Myers, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The knock-limited performance of fuel blends containing aromatics 4: data for m-diethylbenzene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene and sec-butylbenzene together with a summarization of data for 12 aromatic hydrocarbons

Description: Report presenting knock-limited performance data obtained with several small-scale engines for blends containing nine aromatic hydrocarbons blended individually in various concentrations with selected base fuels.
Date: April 1945
Creator: Meyer, Carl L. & Branstetter, J. Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors in the design of centrifugal type injection valves for oil engines

Description: This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.
Date: January 27, 1927
Creator: Joachim, W. F. & Beardsley, E. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary study of the preparation of slurry fuels from vaporized magnesium

Description: "Slurry fuels containing extremely small particles of magnesium were prepared by concentrating the dilute slurry product resulting from the shock-cooling of magnesium metal vapors with a liquid hydrocarbon spray. A complete description of the equipment and procedure used in preparing the fuel is given. Ninety-five percent by weight of the solid particles formed by this process passed through a 100-mesh screen. The particle-size distribution of the screened fraction of one run, as determined by sedimentation analysis, indicated that 73 percent by weight of the metal particles were finer than 2 microns in equivalent spherical diameter" (p. 1).
Date: February 4, 1954
Creator: Witzke, Walter R.; Prok, George M. & Walsh, Thomas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition and Flame Development in the Case of Diesel Fuel Injection

Description: "To investigate the process of ignition and combustion in the case of spray injection into heated air, a new form of apparatus is developed and the tests carried out with it described. Photographs of the spray before and after ignition are obtained at frequencies of 500 pictures per second. Pressures and temperatures are simultaneously recorded on oscillograms. Information on the initial conditions, ignition time lag, period of complete combustion, place where ignition starts, and general course of the combustion is obtained" (p. 1).
Date: March 1936
Creator: Holfelder, Otto
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition of Ammonia and Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen in 200-Pound-Thrust Rocket Engines at 160 Degrees F

Description: Memorandum presenting a study of the ignition of ammonia and mixed oxides of nitrogen at 160 degrees Fahrenheit made with and without fuel additives utilizing small-scale rocket engines of approximately 200 pounds thrust. All experiments were conducted at sea-level pressures except two at a range of pressure altitudes. Results regarding the use of lithium as a catalyst, calcium as a catalyst, and no apparent catalyst are provided.
Date: May 13, 1954
Creator: Hennings, Glen; Ladanyi, Dezso J. & Enders, John H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department