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NACA research on slurry fuels

Description: An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.
Date: 1958
Creator: Pinns, M. L.; Olson, W. T.; Barnett, H. C. & Breitwieser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude chamber evaluation of an aircraft liquid hydrogen fuel system used with a turbojet engine

Description: From Introduction: "The objective of this report are (1) to describe the complete fuel system, (2) to discuss the procedure used for transitions between JP-4 fuel and hydrogen, and (3) to present and discuss engine performance obtained with both fuels, and (4) to review the reliability of the fuel system."
Date: August 19, 1957
Creator: Braithwaite, Willis M.; Fenn, David B. & Algranti, Joseph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flexible Petrol Pipe

Description: Report presenting an examination of flexible piping and some of the difficulties involved in creating satisfactory flexible pipe. The joint used to assist in the flexibility of the pipe is illustrated and described.
Date: July 1921
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of flight-type liquid-hydrogen heat exchanger

Description: Report presenting a liquid-hydrogen fuel system developed to operate one of the turbojet engines in a twin-engine light bomber at an altitude of 50,000 feet and Mach number 0.75. A ram-air heat exchanger was used to vaporize liquid hydrogen. Results regarding calculated heat-exchanger performance, experimental heat-exchanger performance, and reliability are provided.
Date: August 19, 1957
Creator: Fenn, David B.; Braithwaite, Willis M. & Ordin, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of fuel control for aircraft hydrogen fuel system

Description: Report presenting the system analysis, design, and performance of a control system for an experimental flight-type hydrogen fuel system. The system was designed to explore some problems associated using hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Results regarding the steady-state response, transient response, and performance in engine-speed loop for the system are provided.
Date: August 19, 1957
Creator: Otto, Edward W.; Hiller, Kirby W. & Ross, Phil S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of flight-type liquid-hydrogen heat exchanger

Description: Report presenting an investigation of a liquid-hydrogen fuel system developed to operate one of the turbojet engines in a twin-engine light bomber at an altitude of 50,000 feet and Mach number 0.75. The heat exchanger was evaluated in an altitude test chamber in conjunction with the complete aircraft fuel system. Results regarding calculated heat-exchanger performance, experimental heat-exchanger performance, and reliability are provided.
Date: August 19, 1957
Creator: Fenn, David B.; Braithwaite, Willis M. & Ordin, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of throttle-type fuel controls for engine dynamic studies

Description: Report presenting the results of an analytical and experimental investigation of the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of three types of throttle-controlled fuel systems. The three systems tested are a throttle with regulated upstream pressure, a throttle plus bypass differential-pressure regulator, and a throttle plus reducing-valve differential-pressure regulator with regulated supply pressure. Results regarding the effect of output pressure on the controlled flow, response of output flow to step changes in throttle area, and response of output flow to a sinusoidal variation in throttle area are provided.
Date: April 1955
Creator: Otto, Edward W.; Gold, Harold & Hiller, Kirby W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Fuel Cells R & D Review. Final Report, Purchase Order No. 062014

Description: The aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD & D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD & D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.
Date: September 1994
Creator: Michael, Philip D. & Maguire, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

Description: The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.
Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Johnson, D. Ray & Diamond, Sidney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials: Recent Progress and Future Plans

Description: The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program provides enabling materials technology for the U.S. DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program is based on an industry assessment and the technology roadmap for the OHVT. A five-year program plan was published in 2000. Major efforts in the program are materials for diesel engine fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, and air handling. Additional efforts include diesel engine valve-train materials, structural components, and thermal management. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications. Selected technical issues and planned and ongoing projects as well as brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.
Date: May 14, 2001
Creator: Johnson, D. Ray & Diamond, Sidney
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Air: Is It An Option?

Description: Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases we investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. We conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of the extraction from air.
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Lackner, Klaus; Ziock, Hans-Joachim & Grimes, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

Description: Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.
Date: July 1, 2005
Creator: Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA) & Dietz, Jeff (The Lubrizol Corp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U-Mo Plate Blister Anneal Interim Report

Description: Blister thresholds in fuel elements have been a longstanding performance parameter for fuel elements of all types. This behavior has yet to be fully defined for the RERTR U-Mo fuel types. Blister anneal studies that began in 2007 have been expanded to include plates from more recent RERTR experiments. Preliminary data presented in this report encompasses the early generations of the U-Mo fuel systems and the most recent but still developing fuel system. Included is an overview of relevant dispersion fuel systems for the purposes of comparison.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Rice, Francine J.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Robinson, Adam B.; Jr., Dennis D. Keiser; Jue, Jan-Fong; Perez, Danielle M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

Description: This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the single wall fired unit were ...
Date: April 30, 2003
Creator: Cremer, Marc; Marie, Kirsi St. & Wang, Dave
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

Description: Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Seiff, Hank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-Time Control of Diesel Combustion Quality

Description: Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques devel-oped from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical tech-niques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion insta-bilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation of this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of ad-vanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion sys-tems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experi-mental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL.
Date: June 30, 2010
Creator: Wagner, R.M. & Sisken, K (Detroit Diesel Corp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of electric vehicle production and operating costs

Description: This report presents an analysis of the initial cost of electric vehicles (EVs). The manufacturing and retail cost structure of mature conventional vehicles produced at high volume is analyzed first, and the contributions by various cost categories to vehicle price are estimated. The costs are then allocated to such vehicle component groups as body, chassis, and powertrain. The similarities and differences among various component systems are reviewed. In electric vehicles, an electric drive replaces the conventional powertrain, and a battery pack replaces the fuel system. Three types of traction motors are reviewed, and their cost in high-volume production is analyzed. Various components of the motor and controller package are analyzed, and their representative costs are summarized. Four types of EV batteries are reviewed, and their costs are presented. Various alternatives for the low-, medium-, and high-volume production of EVs are evaluated, and some sample costs are presented. A methodology that estimates initial and operating costs on the basis of this analysis is presented. The methodology also estimates the average lifetime cost of owning and operating an electric vehicle.
Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: Cuenca, R. M.; Gaines, L. L. & Vyas, A. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems : Final Report, Contract No. 22822402

Description: This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure hydrogen fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles.
Date: August 1994
Creator: James, Brian D.; Baum, George N. & Kuhn, Ira F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology Development Goals for Automotive Fuel Cell Power Systems

Description: Directed Technologies, Inc. has previously submitted a detailed technical assessment and concept design for a mid-size, five-passenger fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), under contract to Argonne National Laboratory. As a supplement to that contract, DTI has reviewed the literature and conducted a preliminary evaluation of two energy carriers for the FCEV: hydrogen and methanol. This report compares the estimated fuel efficiency, cost of producing and delivering the fuel, and the resultant life cycle costs of the FCEV when fueled directly by hydrogen and when fueled by methanol with on-board reforming to produce the required hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell. This work will be supplemented and expanded under the Ford contract with the Department of Energy to develop the FCEV and its fuel infrastructure.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Thomas, C. E. & James, Brian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The use of direct injection diesel engines in US heavy duty pickup truck applications is becoming increasingly popular with over 250,000 produced in 2002. The high torque density and greatly improved fuel consumption offer distinct advantages to the end user. 2007 and 2010 emissions legislation will present another set of technical and product cost challenges to this type of powertrain. The introduction of efficient aftertreatment systems is mandatory to the success of these engines but optimization of engine-out emissions is also a critical element. Much has been written on the improvements in modern fuel systems which offer great flexibility for the direct introduction of fuel into the cylinder. This paper presents complementary technologies which allow improved air/fuel mixing processes by the additional flexibility of variable in-cylinder charge motion. This approach is particularly applicable to pick-up truck engines, which require high BMEP levels across a wide engine speed range to offer the driveability demanded by the consumer. Design solutions for 2 valve and 4 valve engines are presented along with the potential emissions and fuel consumption benefits.
Date: August 24, 2003
Creator: Maier, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inspection of compressed natural gas cylinders on school buses

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring compressed natural gas (CNF)-powered school bus demonstrations in various locations around the country. Early in 1994, two non-DOE-sponsored CNG pickup trucks equipped with composite-reinforced-aluminum fuel cylinders experienced cylinder ruptures during refueling. As reported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI): ...analysis of the cylinder ruptures on the pickup trucks revealed that they were due to acid-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the overwrap. The overwrap that GRI refers to is a resin-impregnated fiber that is wrapped around the outside of the gas cylinder for added strength. Because ensuring the safety of the CNG vehicles it sponsors is of paramount concern to DOE, the Department, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), conducted inspections of DOE-sponsored vehicles nationwide. The work had three objectives: inspection, documentation, and education. First, inspectors visited sites where CNG-powered school buses sponsored by DOE are based, and inspected the CNG cylinders for damage. Second, information learned during the inspections was collected for DOE. Third, the inspections found that the education and awareness of site personnel, in terms of cylinder damage detection, needed to be increased.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department