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Preparation and physical properties of metal slurry fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation of the physical properties of slurries and the use of a metal-soap additive to prepare stable slurries of commercial magnesium, aluminum, and boron powders in a MIL-F-5624 grade JP-3 base fuel. Results regarding the slurry density, apparent viscosity, apparent surface tension, stability, and fuel-flow characteristics are provided.
Date: March 18, 1952
Creator: Gibbs, James B. & Cook, Preston N., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954

Description: Report presenting a review of NACA research on slurry fuels through 1954. Slurry fuels are defined as suspensions of metals in hydrocarbons, which may offer more flight range or thrust than can be obtained with conventional hydrocarbons. Magnesium is the primary metal of interest at this time for high thrust and boron for long-range flight.
Date: April 21, 1955
Creator: Olson, Walter T. & Breitwieser, Roland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary study of the preparation of slurry fuels from vaporized magnesium

Description: "Slurry fuels containing extremely small particles of magnesium were prepared by concentrating the dilute slurry product resulting from the shock-cooling of magnesium metal vapors with a liquid hydrocarbon spray. A complete description of the equipment and procedure used in preparing the fuel is given. Ninety-five percent by weight of the solid particles formed by this process passed through a 100-mesh screen. The particle-size distribution of the screened fraction of one run, as determined by sedimentation analysis, indicated that 73 percent by weight of the metal particles were finer than 2 microns in equivalent spherical diameter" (p. 1).
Date: February 4, 1954
Creator: Witzke, Walter R.; Prok, George M. & Walsh, Thomas J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Dielectric Properties of Suspensions of Boron Powders in Mineral Oil

Description: Memorandum presenting measurements of the dielectric constant for suspensions of two types of boron powder in mineral oil as a function of concentration of boron particles, moisture content, temperature, and frequency of oscillation. Also investigated were the effects of boron-powder concentration and moisture content on the dielectric losses of mineral-oil suspensions of the two boron powders.
Date: August 18, 1955
Creator: Altshuller, Aubrey P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of surface-active additives on physical properties of slurries of vapor-process magnesium

Description: The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.
Date: November 3, 1955
Creator: Pinns, Murray L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Starting characteristics and combustion performance of magnesium slurry in 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine mounted in connected-pipe facility

Description: The starting characteristics and combustion performance of slurry type fuels, consisting of 50 percent magnesium powder in a hydrocarbon carrier, have been investigated in a flight-type, 6.5-inch-diameter ram-jet engine in a connected-pipe facility. Quick, dependable starting of the engine was obtained by the use of a disk which blocked part of the combustor area downstream of the flame holder. Acceptable performance was achieved with a short fuel-air mixing length by the development of a fuel-distribution control sleeve.
Date: January 28, 1954
Creator: Gibbs, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Run SM-3 covered 947.4 hours of which 669.2 hours were on slurry. Behavior of the system with slurry concentrations of 200 and 400 g Th/l were explored. Modifications made to the loop since the end of run SM-2 gave a flow of 360 gpm vs 230 gpm previously, and the blanket inlet nozzles were cut down from 2 in. ID to 1 1/2 in. sch 80 pipe, giving a velocity of 35 ft/sec out of the nozzles. The slurry was found to be suspended apparently uniformly in the blanket under the operating conditions and also with the flow reduced to 300 gpm by reducing the alternating current frequency. A further reduction to l97 gpm appeared to give conditions similar to run SM-2, with a much more marked concentration gradient in the blanket. The run was interrupted at 947.4 hr by a pump bearing failure. (auth)
Date: October 15, 1957
Creator: Parsly, L.F. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for simultaneous use of a single additive for coal flotation, dewatering and reconstitution

Description: A single dose of additive contributes to three consecutive fine coal unit operations, i.e., flotation, dewatering and reconstitution, whereby the fine coal is first combined with water in a predetermined proportion so as to formulate a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a heavy hydrocarbon-based emulsion in a second predetermined proportion and at a first predetermined mixing speed and for a predetermined period of time. The conditioned slurry is then cleaned by a froth flotation method to form a clean coal froth and then the froth is dewatered by vacuum filtration or a centrifugation process to form reconstituted products that are dried to dust-less clumps prior to combustion.
Date: November 9, 1993
Creator: Wen, Wu-Wey; Gray, M.L. & Champagne, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization. Quarterly technical progress report

Description: Atomization tests on simulated fluids are being performed. For each sample tested, {Delta}P{sub c} is being determined as described in the last quarterly report. The results will be reported when the coal slurry testing is completed for comparative purposes. The viscoelastic properties on the simulated fluids and coal water slurries are being determined using the Adelphi Stresstech Viscometer. A discussion of viscoelastic properties and their relationship to atomization is presented.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Dooher, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Quarterly technical progress report for the period of 1 April 1987--30 June 1987

Description: This report marks the fourth quarter of the third phase of the centrifugal slurry pump improvement program. The program was begun in 1982 to improve the operating life of centrifugal slurry pumps for coal liquefaction service. The first phase reviewed pilot plant experience with centrifugal slurry pumps and identified, with the help of a literature search, the critical design parameters and materials required for such improvement. The second phase encompassed extensive small-scale testing of several hydraulic design concepts and materials testing and selection - the results being incorporated in a prototype slurry pump design. This third phase of the work has included i) prototype slurry pump testing against a state-of-the-art coal liquefaction slurry pump, wherein substantial reduction of wear was obtained at 60% higher speed at the same head and flow rate therefore at 60% higher specific speed - and ii) an investigation as to whether still higher specific speed is possible. The prototype pump tested in (i) had a specific speed of 600. Another pump of this same design was re-fitted for investigation (ii) with a smaller impeller and associated liners so as to operate at a specific speed of 1000. Both the 600 and the 1000 impellers for this latter investigation (ii) were made of mild carbon steel to accelerate the testing time. The two pumps were run in series in the slurry test loop using AS {number_sign}110 sand ({approximately} 110 mesh) at a concentration of 30% by weight in water at 80{degrees}F. As previously reported, 24 hours of test time revealed a slightly lower overall wear rate for the 1000-specific-speed pump; however, excessive local wear occurred in the impeller eye area of that pump. This was attributed to too large a clearance between the pump-out vanes and the suction side of the volute liner. Wear elsewhere in ...
Date: December 31, 1987
Creator: Cooper, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 3, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: A new sonic airblast atomization system has been designed and constructed to use in atomizing CWS fuels with two to three orders of magnitude higher viscosity values than water. Preliminary studies show that the new system successfully atomizes a glycerol/water solution that is one hundred times more viscous than pure water. This system, together with a constant displacement feed pump, will allow the study of CWS atomization under various surface tension properties, different coal loadings and particle sizes, and different surfactants. 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Kihm, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the Granuflow Process to Pipeline-Transported Coal Slurry CRADA PC96-010, Final Report

Description: In light of the current difficulties in processing fine coal and the potential for a significant increase in fines due to more demanding quality specifications, the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has been involved in the reconstitution of the fine clean coal resulting from advanced fine coal cleaning technologies. FETC has invented and developed a new strategy that combines fine-coal dewatering and reconstitution into one step. The process reduces the moisture content of the clean coal, and alleviates handling problems related to dustiness, stickiness, flowability, and freezing. This process has been named the GranuFlow Process. Early work successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the process for laboratory-scale vacuum filtration dewatering using asphalt emulsion. Further tests focused on the application of the process to a screen-bowl centrifuge via batch mode tests at 300 lb/hr. These tests produced roughly the same results as the laboratory filtration tests did, and they included some testing using Orimulsion, a bitumen emulsion. The Orimulsion seemed to offer greater potential for moisture reduction and was less affected by colder slurry temperatures. Most recently, FETC has conducted several series of tests in its Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. These tests dramatically showed the visible difference in the dewatered product by applying the GranuFlow Process, turning it from a clumpy, wet, sticky material into a granular, dry free-flowing product. In addition, it verified previous results with improvements in moisture content, dustiness, stickiness, and freezing. Orimulsion showed a significant benefit over asphalt emulsion in moisture reduction at additions more than 5%. The overall goal of this project was to successfully apply FETC'S GranuFlow Process to improve coal slurry pipeline operations. Williams Technologies, Inc. (WTI), a leader in pipeline technology, has an interest in reducing the moisture content of the coal at the end of a coal slurry ...
Date: September 24, 1997
Creator: Killmeyer, Richard P. & Wen, Wu-Wey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of atomizers and burners for coal-water slurry combustion. Progress report, April 1--June 31, 1996

Description: In the period extending from March 30th to June 30th 1996 the following tasks were completed. The authors have successfully developed the falling droplet technique to measure the extensional viscosity of very dilute polymeric solutions. They have also determined that the polymeric materials used behaved as elastic solids even at very low concentrations of the order of 30 ppm. A published paper contains a complete description of the technique and is enclosed within this report. They have designed and built the air-assist effervescent atomizer. They have mounted the atomizer to the spray chamber. They have set up the phase Doppler to make droplet size and velocity measurements in the flow field of the air assist effervescent atomizer.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Mansour, A. & Chigier, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: The overall objective of this project is to perform experiments to understand the effect of coal beneficiation processes and high shear rheological properties on the atomization of coal-water slurries (CWS). In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays will be determined at various air-to CWS. A correlation between the high shear rheological properties, particle size distributions and the atomization will be made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on the atomization of CWS. The viscoelastic behavior of several concentrations of the slurries under study: Heavy Cleaned, Flotation Cleaned and Uncleaned samples were measured. The results obtained will be correlated with the atomization data. The effect of the viscoelastic property on the atomization is being investigated further, and the results will be reported in the final report.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Ohene, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A computational model for coal transport and combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

Description: In the period of September 1, 1994 to November 30, 1994, further progress was made in the analysis of granular materials in ducts and passages with bumpy walls. The analysis of gravity chute flows was completed. Additional results on flows of gas-solid mixtures in vertical ducts were obtained. The results were compared with the experimental data of Tsuji an co-worker and Miller and Gidaspow and good agreement was obtained. The computational model was used to study two-phase flows in a horizontal duct. Significant progress was made in the formulation of chemically active two-phase solid-fluid flows. The experimental study of mono-granular layer simple shear flow device was completed. Preparation of the final report was initiated.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Ahmadi, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel

Description: As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Masudi, Houshang & Samudrala, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dickinson Pure Air Combustion ERIP technical progress report number 4 [for the reporting period 7/98 through 9/98]

Description: Research was focused on work done to date and melding with current market conditions and demand. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the feasibility of EnerTech`s combustion technology to produce clean energy efficiently and cost effectively from coal and/or other char slurry fuels. From the data generated in this project, EnerTech will be able to conduct preliminary engineering design work for a process development unit. The design work included simulations that optimize process cycle efficiency, and includes analysis of process temperature, pressures, and mass/energy flows. The overall goal is to conduct the research necessary to launch a commercial process. Market surveys indicated that stand-alone systems would not find a near-term market; therefore, the company is concentrating on a configuration that includes a process that first generates a slurry char product.
Date: September 15, 1998
Creator: Klosky, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program ´┐ŻEngineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications,´┐Ż (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel ...
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wiang Haeng coal-water fuel preparation and gasification, Thailand - task 39

Description: In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700{degrees}C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals, will produce high levels of hydrogen, and be fairly reactive.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A. & Young, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The physics of coal liquid slurry atomization. Quarterly technical report, January 1995--March 1995

Description: In this reporting period, the major objective of the research was to develop a technique for measuring the extensional viscosity of coal-water slurries. The Extensional properties of the suspending solutions (water + additives) and the slurries (coal + water + additives) are determined using the breakup of droplets in the drip mode. Photographic visualization of the breakup of viscoelastic materials in the drip mode has shown that these materials exhibit completely different breakup patterns when contrasted to viscoinelastic materials. The ligaments were seen to undergo a very large stretching motion before they breakup, resulting in long threads of liquid attached to droplets. The diameter of the ligaments at breakup, as measured by the Greenfield digital spray analyzer, was of the order of 30 {mu}m. The drip mode of breakup was used to extract useful information on the extensional properties of CWS.
Date: September 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

Description: The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.
Date: May 12, 1995
Creator: Miller, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During the span of this grant, progress was made on construction and applications to coals and chars of two high frequency EMR systems particularly appropriate for such studies--48 GHz and 95 GHz electron magnetic resonance spectrometer, on new low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments to examine the interaction between water and the surfaces of suspended char particulates in slurries, and on a variety of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to measure characteristics of the water directly in contact with the surfaces and pore spaces of carbonaceous particulates.
Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Belford, R. Linn; Clarkson, Robert B.; Nilges, Mark J.; Odintsov, Boris M. & Smirnov, Alex I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

Description: The rheological behavior of coal-water slurries made with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal at four solids contents was investigated with the Haake viscometer after conditioning for 16 hours at 200C. The results show that the viscosity of the slurries increases as the solids content is increased. Slurries at high solid-liquid ratios not only exhibit significant yield stresses but also viscosities which decrease with increasing in the shear rate. It was found that the empirical Heschel-Buckley equation fits the measured shear stress of slurries at different shear rates quite well. The standard deviation of the shear stress of coal-water slurries measured with the Haake viscometer was found to be less than 10%. The apparent viscosities measured with the Brookfield Synchro-Lectric LVT viscometer were comparable with values obtained with the Haake Rotovisco RV12 viscometer for slurries having solids contents of 50 and 55 wt%. In studying the effect of conditioning time on the measured viscosity of coal-water slurries (at 60 wt% solids content), it was observed that the viscosity of a slurry increases when the conditioning time is increased from 0.25 to 0.75 hour and then decreases when the conditioning time is increased further. The initial increase in viscosity with conditioning time is probably related to the penetration of water into the pores of the coal, and the decrease in the viscosity at longer conditioning times over 0.75 hour may be due to the development of a hydration layer and the electrical double layer on coal surfaces.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Fuerstenau, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department