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Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

Description: The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B. & Pennline, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experience with atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of switchgrass

Description: Switchgrass was gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor rated at 800 kW (2.75 MMBtu/hr) thermal input and operating at atmospheric pressure. A combustible gas with higher heating value varying between 4.2--5.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (114--160 Btu/scf) was produced. Carbon conversion was approximately 85%. Difficulties in feeding high moisture switchgrass inhibited smooth reactor operation. Several feed systems for switchgrass were tried with varying degrees of success. The results of gasification trials using switchgrass as fuel are described.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Smeenk, J. & Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The TEES process cleans waste and produces energy

Description: A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350{degrees}C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can be fed as a solution or slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system >99% conversions of organic waste to medium-Btu fuel gas can be achieved.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Elliott, D.C. & Silva, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: When DOE funds were exhausted in March 1995, all Phase 2 activities were placed on hold. In February 1996 a detailed cost estimate was submitted to the DOE for completing the two remaining Phase 2 Multi Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) topping combustor test campaigns; in August 1996 release was received from FETC to proceed with the two campaigns to: (1) test the MASB at proposed demonstration plant full to minimum load operating conditions; (2) identify the lower oxygen limit of the MASB; (3) demonstrate natural gas to carbonizer fuel gas switching; and (4) demonstrate operation with ''low temperature'' compressor discharge air rather than high temperature ({approx}1600 F) vitiated air.
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: Robertson, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Mercury Testing Experimental System available in GTI's Hot Gas Cleanup laboratory was prepared for the project. As part of the shakedown testing, the system was checked for possible gas leaks and fixed. In addition, the mass flow controller was calibrated for diluent N{sub 2} stream. A major part of the shakedown testing was the calibration of the semi-continuous mercury analyzer and the verification of the permeation rate of the mercury permeation tube. It was found that the analyzer's mercury concentration measurements were much lower than expected from the permeation tube rate calculations. Vendors of the analyzer and the permeation tube are contacted to find out the reason for this discrepancy.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Jadhav, Raja A. & Meyer, Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface characterization of Pd/Al2O3 sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas

Description: The surface composition of a series of Pd/alumina sorbents has been characterized to better understand the factors influencing their ability to adsorb mercury from fuel gas. Both a temperature effect and a dispersion effect were found. Maximum adsorption of Hg occurred at the -lowest temperature tested, 204°C, and decreased with increasing temperatures. Maximum adsorption of Hg on a per-atom basis of Pd is observed at low loadings of Pd ( < 8.5% Pd) due to better dispersion of Pd at those loadings; a change in its partitioning occurs at higher loadings. The presence of H2S 'in the fuel gas acts to promote the adsorption of Hg through its association with Hg in the Pd lattice.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Stanko, D.C. & Pennline, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Stage Fixed-Bed Gasifier With Selectable Middle Gas Off-Take Point

Description: A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Strickland, Larry D. & Bissett, Larry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

Description: A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: George, Thomas J. & Smith, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

Description: This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.
Date: January 21, 2002
Creator: Smailer, Ralph M.; Dressel, Gregory L. & Hill, Jennifer Hsu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1996

Description: The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. Tests were conducted in the Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) to study gasification and combustion of Rose Bottoms solids using the spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and petroleum coke at temperature of 1,750 F. The Rose (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) bottoms was produced in the Kellogg`s Rose unit. A dry solid feed system developed previously was used to feed petroleum coke and Rose Bottoms. Studies were also done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to investigate partial oxidation and gasification of petroleum coke over temperature range of 1,800 F to 2,100 F. Results obtained in the BRU and TRTU on petroleum coke formed the basis to develop a flowsheet to process this material in a transport reactor. Results from these studies are presented in this report.
Date: October 18, 1996
Creator: Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y. & Agrawal, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indirectly heated fluidized bed biomass gasification using a latent heat ballast

Description: The objective of this study is to improve the heating value of gas produced during gasification of biomass fuels using an indirectly heated gasifier based on latent heat ballasting. The latent heat ballast consists of lithium fluoride salt encased in tubes suspended in the reactor. The lithium fluoride has a melting point that is near the desired gasification temperature. With the ballast a single reactor operating in a cyclic mode stores energy during a combustion phase and releases it during a pyrolysis phase. Tests were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor to evaluate the concept. The time to cool the reactor during the pyrolysis phase from 1,172 K (1,650 F) to 922 K (1,200 F) increased 102% by use of the ballast system. This extended pyrolysis time allowed 33% more biomass to be gasified during a cycle. Additionally, the total fuel fraction pyrolyzed to produce useful gas increased from 74--80%. Higher heating values of 14.2 to 16.6 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (382--445 Btu/scf) on a dry basis were obtained from the ballasted gasifier.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Pletka, R.; Brown, R. & Smeenk, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

Description: The goal is the development of simpler and economically superior processing of regenerable sorbents used for control of hydrogen sulfide in hot, high-pressure gas streams in advanced power generating systems. The improved processing will produce an elemental sulfur byproduct. Progress during the past quarter was limited by delays in identifying an appropriate analytical instrument for measuring the concentration of sulfur species (S{sub x}(g), H{sub 2}S, and SO{sub 2} in the regeneration product gas. The ability to carry out this analysis on a real-time basis is an important component of the overall project and we feel that a satisfactory gas analysis procedure should be available before forging ahead with other experimental activities. The primary accomplishment, therefore, was the completion and submission of the Task 3 Project Plan. This plan, which assumed a satisfactory solution to sulfur analysis problem, is included in this quarterly report.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Harrison, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

Description: The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFs) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task 1 research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Comparisons were made between laboratory analyses of these PSDF ashes and field data obtained from facility operation. In addition, selected laboratory techniques were reviewed to assess their reproducibility and the influence of non-ideal effects and differences between laboratory and filter conditions on the quantities measured. Further work on the HGCU data base is planned for the next quarter. Two Dupont PRD-66 candle filters, one McDermott candle filter, one Blasch candle filter, and one Specific Surfaces candle filter were received at SRI for testing. A test plan and cutting plan for these candles was developed. Acquisition of two of the Dupont PRD-66 candle filters will allow candle-to-candle variability to be examined.
Date: August 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of proton-conducting membranes for hydrogen separation

Description: The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can efficiently and economically separate hydrogen from gaseous mixtures (e.g., syngas, coal gas, etc.). Toward this end, materials with suitable electronic and protonic conductivities will be identified, and methods for fabricating thin, dense ceramic membranes from such materials will be developed. The chemical and mechanical stability of the membranes will be determined to estimate the expected lifetime of the membranes. Scoping-level evaluations will be performed to identify potential applications of proton membrane technology. Areas that will be evaluated include overall market scale, typical site operating scale, process integration opportunities and issues, and alternative-source economics. The literature on mixed electronic/protonic conductors was surveyed to identify suitable candidate materials. SrCe{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} and BaCe{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (where M is a fixed-valent dopant such as Ca, Y, Yb, In, Nd, or Gd) were selected for further investigation on the basis of their reported total conductivities and proton transference numbers.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Balachandran, U.; Guan, J. & Dorris, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 6.5 -- Gas separation and hot-gas cleanup. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this task is to develop and test superior gas separation membranes. Several methods will be tested to prepare new membrane materials, including physical vapor deposition via electron beam evaporation. Other ceramic filter materials used in hot-gas particulate filters will be obtained from selected suppliers for use as substrates to develop a thin-film membrane selective to hydrogen permeation. This thin-film membrane will be modified via an EERC proprietary process. The base filter materials will already have been characterized for hydrothermal and chemical stability and pore size. The selectivity of these membrane materials for separating undesired gases will be determined. Selectivity will be measured by mixing bottled gases in a manifold, feeding the gases to the membrane, and sampling the inlet, permeate, and raffinate streams for gas composition and volumetric flow rate. Specific questions to be answered include the following: What are the effects of ceramic membrane properties (i.e., surface area, pore size, and coating thickness) on permeability and selectivity of the desired gases? What are the effects of operating conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, and flow rate) on permeability and selectivity?
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Swanson, M.L.; Bieber, J.A.; Ness, R.O. Jr. & Hurley, J.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature gas stream cleanup test facility

Description: The high-temperature gas stream cleanup facility at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center will provide a versatile platform for testing novel hot gas cleanup filtration concepts. The facility will be available for joint ventures with CRADA partners.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Ontko, J. & Chiang, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

Description: The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Slimane, Rachid B.; Lau, Francis S. & Abbasian, Javad
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.
Date: July 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature electrochemical polishing of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process stream. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the exiting syn-gas, and sulfur, which is condensed from an inert sweep gas stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is made economically attractive by the lack of need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. To this extent the project presents a novel concept for improving utilization of coal for more efficient power generation. Past experiments using this concept dealt with identifying removal of 1--2% H{sub 2}S from gases containing only H{sub 2}S in N{sub 2}, simulated natural gas, and simulated coal gas. Data obtained from these experiments resulted in extended studies into electrode kinetics and electrode stability in molten melts. The most recent experiments evaluated the polishing application (removal Of H{sub 2}S below 10 ppm) using the Electrochemical Membrane Separator (EMS). H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies over 90% were achieved at these stringent conditions of low H{sub 2}S concentrations proving the technologies polishing capabilities. Other goals include optimization of cell materials capable of improving cell performance. Once cell materials are defined, cell experiments determining maximum removal capabilities and current efficiencies will be conducted. Also, a model theoretically describing the preferred reduction of H{sub 2}S, the transport of S{sup 2{minus}}, and the competing transport of CO{sub 2} will be investigated. The model should identify the maximum current efficiency for H{sub 2}S removal, depending on variables such as flow rate, temperature, current application, and the total cell potential.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Winnick, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995

Description: Research continued on hot gas desulfurization. Antek Instruments reported success in the use of a quartz capillary tube having a diameter of about 0.005 inches and a length of 6 inches to reduce the pressure of a 600{degrees}C gas stream from 15 atm to 1 atm. This capillary tube will be incorporated into the Antek R-6000 elemental sulfur analyzer; an order was placed for the modified instrument during the latter stages of the quarter. SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S analysis will be accomplished by modifying an existing Shimadzu GC-14A gas chromatograph. Repairs to both the electrobalance and the furnace temperature controller were accomplished and a manifold system capable of feeding N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O was constructed. A number of calibration and scoping tests were completed, and atmospheric pressure testing of the regeneration of FeS with O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} atmosphere is scheduled to get underway early in the next quarter. Key components of the reactor system, including the data acquisition computer, furnace and temperature controller, gas feed manifold, high pressure syringe pump, and back pressure regulators, were last used in a fixed-bed reactor study. Primary effort during the quarter was devoted to correcting problems with the data acquisition system and reassembling the components for the high pressure electrobalance. Scoping and calibration testing of this unit is scheduled to get underway early in the following quarter.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Harrison, D.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: There are four primary goals of contract DE-FG26-99FT40703: (1) We seek to better understand how and why two damage mechanisms--(1) inorganic precipitants, and (2) hydrocarbons and organic residues, occur at the reservoir/wellbore interface in gas storage wells. (2) We plan on testing potential prevention and remediation strategies related to these two damage mechanisms in the laboratory. (3) We expect to demonstrate in the field, cost-effective prevention and remediation strategies that laboratory testing deems viable. (4) We will investigate new technology for the gas storage industry that will provide operators with a cost effective method to reduce non-darcy turbulent flow effects on flow rate. For the above damage mechanisms, our research efforts will demonstrate the diagnostic technique for determining the damage mechanisms associated with lost deliverability as well as demonstrate and evaluate the remedial techniques in the laboratory setting and in actual gas storage reservoirs. We plan on accomplishing the above goals by performing extensive lab analyses of rotary sidewall cores taken from at least two wells, testing potential remediation strategies in the lab, and demonstrating in the field the applicability of the proposed remediation treatments. The benefits from this work will be quantified from this study and extrapolated to the entire storage industry. The technology and project results will be transferred to the industry through DOE dissemination and through the industry service companies that work on gas storage wells. Achieving these goals will enable the underground gas storage industry to more cost-effectively mitigate declining deliverability in their storage fields. Work completed to date includes the following: (1) Solicited potential participants from the gas storage industry; (2) Selected one participant experiencing damage from inorganic precipitates; (3) Developed laboratory testing procedures; (4) Collected cores from National Fuel Gas Summit No.1527 Well; (5) Analyzed cores from National Fuel Gas Summit No.1527 Well; (6) ...
Date: February 1, 2003
Creator: Frantz, J.H. & Brown, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department