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Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

Description: From Summary: "An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric."
Date: February 26, 1947
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S. & Harries, Myron L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High thermal efficiency in airplane service

Description: Described here is a method by which high average fuel economy has been achieved in aircraft engines. Details are given of the design of certain foreign engines that employ an unusual type of fuel-air ratio control in which the change in power produced by a mixture change is due almost entirely to the change in the power producing ability of the unit weight of the mixture. The safety and performance features of this type of control are explained.
Date: December 1920
Creator: Sparrow, S. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooling in cruising flight with low fuel-air ratios

Description: Report presenting testing of a Pratt & Whitney R-1830-43 engine mounted in a B-24D nacelle in the full-scale wind tunnel in order to investigation the potential improvements of fuel economy. Suggestions for improving the cruising power and cruising range by operating at specified fuel-air ratios are provided.
Date: June 1942
Creator: Silverstein, Abe & Wilson, Herbert A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation between fuel economy and crank angle for the maximum rate of pressure rise

Description: Report discussing an investigation to determine whether the crank angle for maximum rate of pressure rise can be used to indicate maximum-economy spark advance. Information about spark-advance tests at constant inlet-air pressure and fuel-air-ratio test results are provided.
Date: May 21, 1945
Creator: Cook, Harvey A. & Brightwell, Virginia L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

Description: One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.
Date: September 18, 2006
Creator: Wenzel, Tom & Ross, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vehicle Fuel Economy: Reforming Fuel Economy Standards Could Help Reduce Oil Consumption by Cars and Light Trucks, and Other Options Could Complement These Standards

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns over national security, environmental stresses, and high fuel prices have raised interest in reducing oil consumption. Through the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) requires cars and light trucks to meet certain fuel economy standards. As requested, GAO discusses (1) how CAFE standards are designed to reduce fuel consumption, (2) strengths and weaknesses of the CAFE program and NHTSA's capabilities, and (3) market-based policies that could complement or replace CAFE. To do this work, GAO reviewed recent studies and interviewed leading experts and agency officials."
Date: August 2, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy: Preliminary Observations on Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Concerns over national security, environmental stresses, and economic pressures from increased fuel prices have led to the nation's interest in reducing oil consumption. Efforts to reduce oil consumption will need to include the transportation sector. For example, several Members of Congress have introduced bills proposing changes to the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) program. This program includes mile per gallon standards for light trucks and cars that manufacturers must meet for vehicles sold in this country. This testimony is based on ongoing work for this committee. This testimony describes (1) recent and proposed changes to CAFE standards; (2) observations about the recent changes, the existing CAFE program, and NHTSA's (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) capabilities to further restructure CAFE standards; and (3) initial observations about how the CAFE program fits in the context of other approaches to reduce oil consumption. To address these issues, we reviewed program legislation, rule makings, and operational documents. Also, we interviewed officials from NHTSA, the Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, the auto industry, labor unions, and the insurance industry. Finally, we contacted several recognized experts in fuel economy and safety. Our report will be issued in July 2007."
Date: March 6, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile Fuel Economy: Potential Effects of Increasing the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

Description: A letter report issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program standards, focusing on: (1) the impact of increasing CAFE standards on oil consumption, the environment, and automobile safety in the United States; and (2) other issues that affect the CAFE discussion."
Date: August 15, 2000
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

Description: The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities ...
Date: June 11, 2007
Creator: Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H. & Wenzel, Tom P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

Description: In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A. & Sindler, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

Description: The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Karner, Donald & Francfort, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

Description: This report analyzes the relationship between vehicle weight, size (wheelbase, track width, and their product, footprint), and safety, for individual vehicle makes and models. Vehicle weight and footprint are correlated with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of about 0.62. The relationship is stronger for cars (0.69) than for light trucks (0.42); light trucks include minivans, fullsize vans, truck-based SUVs, crossover SUVs, and pickup trucks. The correlation between wheelbase and track width, the components of footprint, is about 0.61 for all light vehicles, 0.62 for cars and 0.48 for light trucks. However, the footprint data used in this analysis does not vary for different versions of the same vehicle model, as curb weight does; the analysis could be improved with more precise data on footprint for different versions of the same vehicle model. Although US fatality risk to drivers (driver fatalities per million registered vehicles) decreases as vehicle footprint increases, there is very little correlation either for all light vehicles (0.01), or cars (0.07) or trucks (0.11). The correlation between footprint and fatality risks cars impose on drivers of other vehicles is also very low (0.01); for trucks the correlation is higher (0.30), with risk to others increasing as truck footprint increases. Fatality risks reported here do not account for differences in annual miles driven, driver age or gender, or crash location by vehicle type or model. It is difficult to account for these factors using data on national fatal crashes because the number of vehicles registered to, for instance, young males in urban areas is not readily available by vehicle type or model. State data on all police-reported crashes can be used to estimate casualty risks that account for miles driven, driver age and gender, and crash location. The number of vehicles involved in a crash can act as a ...
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Wenzel, Thomas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

Description: I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.
Date: October 27, 2009
Creator: Wenzel, Thomas P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

Description: Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Greene, D.L. & DeCicco, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vehicle Fuel Economy: NHTSA and EPA's Partnership for Setting Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Improved Analysis and Should Be Maintained

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In May 2009, the U.S. administration announced plans to increase the Department of Transportation's (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards and establish the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles. NHTSA redesigned CAFE standards for light trucks for model years 2008 through 2011, and some experts raised questions about the rigor of the computer modeling NHTSA used to develop these standards. GAO was asked to review (1) the design of NHTSA and EPA's proposed standards; (2) how they are collaborating to set these standards; (3) improvements compared to a previous rulemaking, if any, NHTSA made to the modeling; and (4) the extent to which NHTSA analyzed the effects of past light truck standards and the accuracy of data used to set them. GAO reviewed relevant rulemaking and modeling documents, and interviewed agency officials and other experts."
Date: February 25, 2010
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why Cafe Worked

Description: The frequently controversial Federal Automotive Fuel Economy Standards (a.k.a. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards) have in fact been a notable success. This paper attempts to explain why the CAFE standards have been such a successful energy policy. It begins by demonstrating that economic theory does not relegate technology standards to permanent second best status. As a public policy aimed at correcting an externality, regulations can be the key part of a first best public policy response. To be sure, practical problems will arise in implementing either an effluent tax or a regulatory standard. Next, it is argued that in the oligopotistic automotive market a combination of satisfying behavior on the part of consumers and risk aversion on the part of producers makes it very likely that fuel economy standards will be more effective than even a motor fuel tax. This does not mean that gasoline or vehicle use taxes are not important or useful policy tools. Indeed, they are essential if policies are to be economically efficient. It means that taxes will be most effective and efficient if used in conjunction with fuel economy standards.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Greene, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of the fuel economy potential associated with M85-fueled vehicles

Description: A gasoline-fueled 1988 Chevrolet Corsica was converted to operate on M85 to demonstrate that the characteristics of methanol fuels can be exploited to emphasize vehicle fuel economy rather than vehicle performance. The results of the tests performed indicated fuel economy improvements of up to 21% at steady highway speeds, and almost 20% on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s federal test procedure city and highway cycles.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Hodgson, J. W. & Huff, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Analysis of the Phase 3 Emissions Data Collected in the EPAct/V2/E89 Program: January 7, 2010 - July 6, 2012

Description: Phase 3 of the EPAct/V2/E-89 Program investigated the effects of 27 program fuels and 15 program vehicles on exhaust emissions and fuel economy. All vehicles were tested over the California Unified Driving Cycle (LA-92) at 75 degrees F. The program fuels differed on T50, T90, ethanol, Reid vapor pressure, and aromatics. The vehicles tested were new, low-mileage 2008 model year Tier 2 vehicles. A total of 956 test runs were made. Comprehensive statistical modeling and analyses were conducted on methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fuel economy, non-methane hydrocarbons, non-methane organic gases, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, and total hydrocarbons. In general, model fits determined that emissions and fuel economy were complicated by functions of the five fuel parameters. An extensive evaluation of alternative model fits produced a number of competing model fits. Many of these alternative fits produce similar estimates of mean emissions for the 27 program fuels but should be carefully evaluated for use with emerging fuels with combinations of fuel parameters not included here. The program includes detailed databases on each of the 27 program fuels on each of the 15 vehicles and on each of the vehicles on each of the program fuels.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Gunst, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

Description: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Date: April 1, 2013
Creator: Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L. & Rose, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Route Type Determination Analysis

Description: According to the 2009 National Household Travel Survey 44.4 percent of all miles travelled by Americans in 2009 (including airplanes, trains, boats, golf carts, subways, bikes, etc.) were travelled in cars. If vans, SUV's and pickup trucks are included, that level increases to 86 percent. We do a lot of travelling on the road in personal vehicles - it's important to be able to understand how we get there and how to rate the fuel economy of our trips. An essential part of this is knowing how to decide if a trip is a city or highway trip.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Stone, Brett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of a nitrogen based carburizing atmosphere. Second quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1979

Description: This second quarterly report details the energy consumption of two heat treating furnaces while employing different atmospheres. Idle energy consumption tests on a box type furnace with a fibrous insulation indicate 7 to 14% lower fuel consmption when pure nitrogen replaces endothermic as a furnace atmosphere. Production energy consumption tests on an integral quench furnace are inconclusive due to the limited data obtained thus far. As the program progresses, additional data will be available.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Peartree, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Eleventh quarterly progress report

Description: Progress in a program for optimizing automotive accessory systems to achieve greater vehicle fuel economy and improved accessory performance is reported. The major technical accomplishments during this reporting period were: all candidate advanced air conditioning concepts were evaluated; advanced air conditioning and hybrid accessory drive component trade-studies were completed; improved alternator, water pump and power steering system concepts were evaluated; the vehicle integrated accessory systems trade-study was completed; and the technical summary report for the Phase V Automotive Accessory Systems Optimization Program was initiated. (LCL)
Date: April 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department