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An Assessment and Comparison of Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

Description: Fuel cells offer the potential of a clean, efficient power source for buses, cars, and other transportation applications. When the fuel cell is run on methanol, refueling would be as rapid as with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines, providing a virtually unlimited range while still maintaining the smooth and quiet acceleration that is typical for electric vehicles.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Krumpelt, Mike & Christianson, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

Description: The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify patents related to hydrogen and fuel cells that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents’ current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs that are related to hydrogen and fuel cells.
Date: September 28, 2012
Creator: Weakley, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report - Novel Approach to Non-Precious Metal Catalysts

Description: This project was directed at reducing the dependence of PEM fuel cells catalysts on precious metals. The primary motivation was to reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack as well as the overall system cost without loss of performance or durability. Platinum is currently the catalyst of choice for both the anode & the cathode. However, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) which takes place on the cathode is an inherently slower reaction compared to the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) which takes place on the anode. Therefore, more platinum is needed on the cathode than on the anode to achieve suitable fuel cell performance. As a result, developing a replacement for platinum on the cathode side will have a larger impact on overall stack cost. Thus, the specific objectives of the project, as stated in the solicitation, were to produce non-precious metal (NPM) cathode catalysts which reduce dependence on precious metals (especially Pt), perform as well as conventional precious metal catalysts currently in use in MEAs, cost 50% less compared to a target of 0.2 g Pt/peak kW, & demonstrate durability of greater than 2000 hours with less than 10% power degradation. During the term of the project, DOE refined its targets for NPM catalyst activity to encompass volumetric current density. The DOE Multi-Year RD&D Plan (2005) volumetric current density targets for 2010 & 2015 are greater than 130 A/cm3 & 300 A/cm3 at 800 mV (IR-free) respectively. The initial approach to achieve these targets was to use vacuum deposition techniques to deposit transition metal, carbon and nitrogen moieties onto 3M’s nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalyst support. While this approach yielded compounds with similar physicochemical characteristics as catalysts reported by others as active for ORR, the activity of these vacuum deposited catalysts was not satisfactory. In order to enhance catalytic ...
Date: November 17, 2007
Creator: Atanasoski, Radoslav
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 6 Report Promoting a Southeast Hydrogen Consortium

Description: The purpose of this project task was to establish a technical consortium to promote the deployment of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. The goal was to partner with fuel cell manufacturers, hydrogen fuel infrastructure providers, electric utilities, energy service companies, research institutions, and user groups to improve education and awareness of hydrogen technologies in an area that is lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of vehicle and infrastructure demonstrations and deployments. This report documents that effort.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P. & J., Sullivan Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercialization of fuel-cells

Description: This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Polyoxometalate Containing Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

Description: Current proton exchange membrane (PEM) technologies are inadequate to address the projected needs for fuel cell performance above 80 ºC. Continuing research into traditional ion carriers in novel membrane materials offers the promise of marginal improvement, representing only an evolutionary increase in performance. This conclusion is supported by the role of water in conduction. Thus, the key to better PEMs is not to eliminate water, but to change the role of water by developing ion carriers that will bind water more tightly than traditional sulfur or phosphorus based carriers resulting in materials that will conduct at higher temperatures. This change entails having a carrier structure that interacts more intimately with water and by increasing the ion carrier anionic charge to result in more tightly held inner shell protonated waters of hydration. Both of these factors synergistically act to maintain a critical water concentration at the carrier necessary for conduction. In this work, polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were selected to serve as these different proton carriers.
Date: March 1, 2009
Creator: Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A & Trowbridge, Tammy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

Description: LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.
Date: June 29, 2009
Creator: Ludwiszewski, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel cell systems program for stationary power, 1996

Description: The mission of the fuel cell systems program of the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, in partnership with its customers and stakeholders, is to foster the creation of a new domestic fuel cell industry. This industry should be capable of commercialization of new, improved fuel cell power generation systems and thereby provide significant economic and environmental benefits. This program is aligned with the Department of Energy`s core mission (business line) of energy resources. The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. This document describes the fuel cell activities of the DOE Office of Fossil Energy.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

Description: This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: George, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Fuel Cells R & D Review. Final Report, Purchase Order No. 062014

Description: The aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD & D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD & D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.
Date: September 1994
Creator: Michael, Philip D. & Maguire, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reformers for the Production of Hydrogen from Methanol and Alternative Fuels for Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles

Description: The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R & D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, Michael & Myles, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facile, scalable synthesis of edge-halogenated graphene nanoplatelets as efficient metal-free eletrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

Description: Article on facile, scalable synthesis of edge-halogenated graphene nanoplatelets as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Jeon, In-Yup; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Min; Seo, Jeong-Min; Jung, Sun-Min; Kim, Min-Jung et al.
Partner: UNT College of Engineering

Simulating Nonuniform Properties in Polymer-Electrolyte FuelCells

Description: In this transaction, results from mathematical, pseudo 2-D simulations are shown for four different thickness distributions of both the membrane and cathode catalyst layer. The results and subsequent analysis clearly demonstrate that the position along the gas channel is more important than the local thickness variations, especially for the membrane.
Date: July 1, 2006
Creator: Weber, A.Z. & Newman, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Executive Summary

Description: This project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), drawing on the experience and expertise of both research organizations. The goal of this study was to assess selected hydrogen technologies for potential application to transportation and power generation. Specifically, this study evaluated scenarios for deploying hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. One study objective was to identify the most promising near-term and long-term hydrogen vehicle technologies based on performance, efficiency, and emissions profiles and compare them to traditional vehicle technologies. Hydrogen vehicle propulsion may take many forms, ranging from hydrogen or hythane fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) to fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid systems. This study attempted to developed performance and emissions profiles for each type (assuming a light duty truck platform) so that effective deployment strategies can be developed. A second study objective was to perform similar cost, efficiency, and emissions analysis related to hydrogen infrastructure deployment in the Southeast. There will be many alternative approaches for the deployment of hydrogen fueling infrastructure, ranging from distributed hydrogen production to centralized production, with a similar range of delivery options. This study attempted to assess the costs and potential emissions associated with each scenario. A third objective was to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen fuel cell technologies for stationary power generation and to identify the advantages and limits of different technologies. Specific attention was given to evaluating different fuel cell membrane types. A final objective was to promote the use and deployment of hydrogen technologies in the Southeast. This effort was to include establishing partnerships with industry as well promoting educational and outreach efforts to public service providers. To accomplish these goals and objectives a work plan was developed comprising 6 primary tasks: • Task 1 ...
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P. & Sullivan, Andrew J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

Description: PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.
Date: June 16, 2012
Creator: Ronnebro, Ewa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endurance testing With Li/Na electrolyte

Description: Test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17, 000 hr with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hr at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system- defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J. & Sishtla, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptation of a commercially available 200 kW natural gas fuel cell power plant for operation on a hydrogen rich gas stream

Description: International Fuel Cells (IFC) has designed a hydrogen fueled fuel cell power plant based on a modification of its standard natural gas fueled PC25{trademark} C fuel cell power plant. The natural gas fueled PC25 C is a 200 kW, fuel cell power plant that is commercially available. The program to accomplish the fuel change involved deleting the natural gas processing elements, designing a new fuel pretreatment subsystem, modifying the water and thermal management subsystem, developing a hydrogen burner to combust unconsumed hydrogen, and modifying the control system. Additionally, the required modifications to the manufacturing and assembly procedures necessary to allow the hydrogen fueled power plant to be manufactured in conjunction with the on-going production of the standard PC25 C power plants were identified. This work establishes the design and manufacturing plan for the 200 kW hydrogen fueled PC25 power plant.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Maston, V.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department