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Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Quarterly technical report No. 10, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: This report presents research to develop an entirely new, fundamentally different class of fuel cell using a solid electrolyte that transports carbon ions. This fuel cell would use solid carbon dissolved in molten metal as a fuel reservoir and anode; expensive gaseous or liquid fuel would not be required. A high temperature fuel cell based on a carbon ion membrane/electrolyte would operate in a way like yttria-doped zirconia solid oxide fuel cells; however, the fuel cell would transport the C ion from a fuel source to O{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Such fuel cells, operating above 1000 C, would produce an exhaust gas that could be fed directly into existing boilers, and could thus act as ``topping cycles`` to existing power plant steam cycles.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Cocks, F.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCFC product development test. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: This is the fourth annual report covering progress made under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC21-92MC29237, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test. The project is for the design, construction, and testing of a 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant in the City of Santa Clara, California, and the period covered in this fourth annual report is October, 1995 to September, 1996. The report is divided into sections which describe the progress in various program activities. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule. Section 3 presents a summary by Task of the progress achieved in this fourth year of the program.
Date: January 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptation of a commercially available 200 kW natural gas fuel cell power plant for operation on a hydrogen rich gas stream

Description: International Fuel Cells (IFC) has designed a hydrogen fueled fuel cell power plant based on a modification of its standard natural gas fueled PC25{trademark} C fuel cell power plant. The natural gas fueled PC25 C is a 200 kW, fuel cell power plant that is commercially available. The program to accomplish the fuel change involved deleting the natural gas processing elements, designing a new fuel pretreatment subsystem, modifying the water and thermal management subsystem, developing a hydrogen burner to combust unconsumed hydrogen, and modifying the control system. Additionally, the required modifications to the manufacturing and assembly procedures necessary to allow the hydrogen fueled power plant to be manufactured in conjunction with the on-going production of the standard PC25 C power plants were identified. This work establishes the design and manufacturing plan for the 200 kW hydrogen fueled PC25 power plant.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Maston, V.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Quarterly technical report No. 9, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: This report presents research to develop an entirely new, fundamentally different class of fuel cell using a solid electrolyte that transports carbon ions. This fuel cell would use solid carbon dissolved in molten metal as a fuel reservoir and anode; expensive gaseous or liquid fuel would not be required. Thermodynamic factors favor a carbon-ion fuel cell over other fuel cell designs: a combination of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy makes the reaction of solid carbon and oxygen very efficient, and the entropy change allows this efficiency to slightly increase at high temperatures. The high temperature exhaust of the fuel cell would make it useful as a ``topping cycle``, to be followed by conventional steam turbine systems.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Cocks, F.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERC commercialization activities

Description: The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Maru, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

Description: This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at the Sheraton Edison Hotel, Edison, New Jersey. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plant under a contract with the Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. A DFC{reg_sign}300 fuel cell, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT was selected for the project. The fuel cell successfully operated from June 2003 to May 2004. This report discusses the performance of the plant during this period.
Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Gabrielle, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

Description: This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Trocciola, John C.; Pompa, Thomas N. & Boyd, Linda S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The primary objective of this project is to establish, by 1998, the commercial readiness of MW-class molten carbonate fuel cell power plants for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Tasks include system design and analysis, manufacturing, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.
Date: May 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint DoD/DOE Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

Description: Congress agreed to provide funding to DOD for a competitive, cost- shared, near-term, Climate Change Fuel Cell program. Objectives are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the efficient use of fossil fuels, accelerate fuel cell commercialization for US manufacturers, and satisfy DOD goals for the environment, readiness, and economy, through activities which would stimulate end-user applications. Fuel cell power plants with combined capacity between 100 and 3,000 kW are covered.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Hooie, D.T. & Manilla, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. molten carbonate fuel-cell development and commercialization effort

Description: The authors discuss the status of molten carbonate fuel-cell (MCFC) development in the US, including the role of the US Department of Energy (DOE) in commercializing MCFC power-plant products for use by gas utility and electric power industries. The authors describe major fundamental stack research issues, as well as MCFC power-plant network and system issues, that need to be resolved before MCFC technology can be commercialized. A significant initiative in MCFC research is the spatial configuration of MCFC stacks into networks in a fuel-cell power plant.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L. Jr. & Mayfield, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification test of a 25kW class SOFC cogeneration system

Description: Osaka Gas and Tokyo Gas have high expectations for natural-gas-fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) cogeneration systems. SOFC offers many advantages for on-site cogeneration systems, such as high electrical efficiency, high quality by-product heat and low emissions. They are now executing a joint development program with Westinghouse Electric Corporation (hereinafter called as WELCO). This program is aimed to verify a 25kW class SOFC cogeneration system. This system, which was modified by replacing previous zirconia porous support tube cells (PST cells) with newly designed air electrode supported cells (AES cells), commenced operation on March 21, 1995. The system has been successfully operated for 13,100 hours as of February 7, 1997. This paper presents the performance evaluation of the new AES cells and the results of system operation at WELCO.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Yokoyama, H.; Miyahara, A. & Veyo, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

Description: The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C. & Sudhoff, F.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost

Description: Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Allen, J. & Doyon, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

Description: The 2MW plant is the world`s first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on an electric utility system. It is located at 1255 Space Park Drive in the City of Santa Clara, CA. The balance of plant pretesting effort will continue through Sept. 1995, when the stack installation effort will be initiated.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Leo, A.J. & O`Shea, T.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}} fuel cells progress toward commercialization

Description: The overall goal of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) stacks. More specifically, MCFC`s Manifolded Heat Exchange (IMHEX{sup {reg_sign}}) plate design created by the Institute of Technology. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal, M-C Power assembled a formidable team of industry leaders. This group, refered to as the (IHMEX{sup {reg_sign}}) Team, has developed a strategy to move decisively through the stages of Technology Development and Product Design and Improvement through commercialization. This paper is to review the status of the overall commercialization program and activities. It will also provide an overview of the market entry product. Furthermore, we will evaluate the opportunities and benefits this product brings to a competitive power industry.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Scroppo, J.A.; Laurens, R.M. & Petraglia, V.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tubular solid oxide fuel cell commercialization program

Description: Developing clean, efficient, and cost effective technologies for future power generation is essential to meeting the world`s energy needs, while helping to clean up pollution and conserve valuable natural resources. Westinghouse is pioneering the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology as one of the promising technologies that will lead the world into a new generation of power production. The Westinghouse SOFC consists of tubular cells that can utilize fuels such as natural gas, coal derived fuel gas, biomass gas, and distillate fuels. Besides fuel flexibility, tubular SOFCs promise very high efficiencies, low cost, low plant maintenance, and ease of operation, and they have already demonstrated essentially no acid rain pollutants.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Forbes, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

Description: ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.
Date: September 16, 2004
Creator: Walneuski, Mike
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

Description: In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hooie, D. T. & Williams, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A solid oxide fuel cell power system: 1992--1993 field operation

Description: Westinghouse has deployed fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems in order to obtain useful customer feedback. Recently, Westinghouse has deployed 20 kW class natural gas fueled SOFC generator modules integrated into two 25 kW SOFC systems, the first with The UTILITIES, a Japanese consortium. The UTILITIES 25 kW SOFC system is the focus of this paper. The unit was shipped to the Rokko Island Test Center for Advanced Energy Systems (near Kobe, Japan) operated by Kansai Electric Power Co.; testing was initiated February 1992. Module A operated for 2601 hours at an ave output 16.6 kW dc; final shutdown was induced by current stability problems with dissipator (restart not possible because of damaged cells). Module B operated for 1579 hours at ave output 17.8 kWdc. The unit was damaged by operation at excessively high fuel utilization > 91%. It was rebuilt and returned to Rokko Island. This module B2 operated for 1843 hours on PNG; shutdown was cuased by air supply failure. After a new blower and motor were installed July 1993, the system was restarted August 5, 1993 and operated continuously until November 10, 1993, when an automatic shutdown was induced as part of a MITI licensing inspection. After restart, the unit passed 6000 hours of operation on desulfurized PNG on January 25, 1994. Westinghouse`s future plans are outlined.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Veyo, S. E.; Kusunoki, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Kaneko, S. & Yokoyama, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

Description: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.
Date: May 6, 2005
Creator: Berry, JB
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Installation of 200 kW UTC PC-25 Natural Gas Fuel Cell At City of Anaheim Police Station

Description: The City of Anaheim Public Utilities Department (Anaheim) has been providing electric service to Anaheim residents and businesses for over a century. As a city in a high-growth region, identifying sources of reliable energy to meet demand is a constant requirement. Additionally, as more power generation is needed, locating generating stations locally is a difficult proposition and must consider environmental and community impacts. Anaheim believes benefits can be achieved by implementing new distributed generation technologies to supplement central plants, helping keep pace with growing demand for power. If the power is clean, then it can be delivered with minimal environmental impact. Anaheim started investigating fuel cell technology in 2000 and decided a field demonstration of a fuel cell power plant would help determine how the technology can best serve Anaheim. As a result, Anaheim completed the project under this grant as a way to gain installation and operating experience about fuel cells and fuel cell capabilities. Anaheim also hopes to help others learn more about fuel cells by providing information about this project to the public. Currently, Anaheim has hosted a number of requested tours at the project site, and information about the project can be found on Anaheim Public Utilities RD&D Project website. The Anaheim project was completed in four phases including: research and investigation, purchase, design, and construction. The initial investigative phase started in 2000 and the construction of the project was completed in February 2005. Since acceptance and startup of the fuel cell, the system has operated continuously at an availability of 98.4%. The unit provides an average of about 4,725 kilowatthours a day to the Utilities' generation resources. Anaheim is tracking the operation of the fuel cell system over the five-year life expectancy of the fuel stack and will use the information to determine how fuel ...
Date: September 15, 2006
Creator: Predisik, Dina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DoD Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

Description: A grant was awarded to PPL EnergyPlus, LLC for two (2) 250kW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells at Pepperidge Farm, Inc. on 9/30/03. Pepperidge Farm subsequently signed a contract for one 250kW fuel cell. A request was made and granted to apply the award for the second fuel cell to the Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers (see attached email). This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at Pepperidge Farm, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut and a fuel cell power plant located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Towers, New York, New York. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plants under a contract with Pepperidge Farm and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. Two DFC 300 fuel cells, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT were selected for the project. The fuel cell located at Pepperidge Farm successfully operated from January 16, 2006 to January 15, 2007. The fuel cell located at Sheraton New York Hotel & Tower successfully operated from May 19, 2005 to May 18, 2006.This report discusses the performance of these plants during these periods.
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Gabrielle, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department