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Projected Effects of Proposed Chloride-Control Projects on Shallow Ground Water--Preliminary Results for the Wichita River Basin, Texas

Description: From purpose and scope: The purpose of this report is to present preliminary results of the study by the Geological Survey on the following: (1) The existing ground-water conditions in the shallow fresh-water system in the vicinity of the proposed Truscott Brine Lake (figure 1) and (2) the projection of the post-construction effects of the proposed Truscott Brine Lake on the fresh-water aquifer, especially in relation to changes in hydraulic head but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.
Date: 1983
Creator: Garza, Sergio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Problem in Estimating Self-Supplied Industrial Water Use by Indirect Methods -- The California Example

Description: From introduction: The intent of this study was to develop a method of estimating overall self-supplied industrial water requirements using coefficients of water use for production and employment from five major-use industrial categories. Those categories included food and kindred products, lumber, pulp and paper, chemical and allied products, and petroleum industries.
Date: 1983
Creator: Burt, R. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.

Description: Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Khalil, Imane & Webb, Stephen Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The InfThe Influence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplantonluence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplanton

Description: The influence of subsample size on counting precision and estimates of taxa richness is documented for a freshwater zooplankton biomonitoring program. Subsample variability was related to subsample size. The mean and median coefficient of variation for cladocera and copepoda were below 30% at counts of 50-100 individuals. Jaccard's similarity coefficient stabilized at counts of 100-150 individuals as did the total number of zooplankton taxa identified. These data suggest that counting more organisms in subsamples or more than one subsample per sample may do relatively little to better characterize samples.
Date: August 15, 2005
Creator: Bowers, James A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Mechanism of Desalination by Reverse Osmosis

Description: Report describing the various parameters operative in fabricating desalination membranes for the Reverse Osmosis Process and the mechanism of separation. The bulk of the membrane contains huge quantities of capillary water which permits the movement of water through the body of the membranes at extremely rapid rates, there being essentially no pressure drop in this portion of the membrane.
Date: 1963
Creator: Aerojet-General Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geophysical remote sensing of water reservoirs suitable for desalinization.

Description: In many parts of the United States, as well as other regions of the world, competing demands for fresh water or water suitable for desalination are outstripping sustainable supplies. In these areas, new water supplies are necessary to sustain economic development and agricultural uses, as well as support expanding populations, particularly in the Southwestern United States. Increasing the supply of water will more than likely come through desalinization of water reservoirs that are not suitable for present use. Surface-deployed seismic and electromagnetic (EM) methods have the potential for addressing these critical issues within large volumes of an aquifer at a lower cost than drilling and sampling. However, for detailed analysis of the water quality, some sampling utilizing boreholes would be required with geophysical methods being employed to extrapolate these sampled results to non-sampled regions of the aquifer. The research in this report addresses using seismic and EM methods in two complimentary ways to aid in the identification of water reservoirs that are suitable for desalinization. The first method uses the seismic data to constrain the earth structure so that detailed EM modeling can estimate the pore water conductivity, and hence the salinity. The second method utilizes the coupling of seismic and EM waves through the seismo-electric (conversion of seismic energy to electrical energy) and the electro-seismic (conversion of electrical energy to seismic energy) to estimate the salinity of the target aquifer. Analytic 1D solutions to coupled pressure and electric wave propagation demonstrate the types of waves one expects when using a seismic or electric source. A 2D seismo-electric/electro-seismic is developed to demonstrate the coupled seismic and EM system. For finite-difference modeling, the seismic and EM wave propagation algorithms are on different spatial and temporal scales. We present a method to solve multiple, finite-difference physics problems that has application beyond the ...
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Aldridge, David Franklin; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Bonal, Nedra & Engler, Bruce Phillip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorodibenzo-furan removal and destruction.

Description: This report provides a short summary of technologies used to destroy or separate dioxins/furans from environmental samples. It is meant as a resource for developing a technology employing magnetic particles as an engineering vehicle for large-scale, cost-effective destruction of dioxins/furans in fresh waters or sludges/soils.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Patel, S.; Kaminski, M. D. & Nunez, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fate of neptunium in an anaerobic, methanogenic microcosm.

Description: Neptunium is found predominantly as Np(IV) in reducing environments, but Np(V) in aerobic environments. However, currently it is not known how the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes affects Np redox speciation in the environment. In order to evaluate the effect of anaerobic microbial activity on the fate of Np in natural systems, Np(V) was added to a microcosminoculated with anaerobic sediments from a metal-contaminated fresh water lake. The consortium included metal-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms, and acetate was supplied as the only exogenous substrate. Addition of more than 10{sup {minus}5} M Np did not inhibit methane production. Total Np volubility in the active microcosm, as well as in sterilized control samples, decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude. A combination of analytical techniques, including VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy and XANES, identified Np(IV) as the oxidation state associated with the sediments. The similar results from the active microcosm and the abiotic controls suggest that microbian y produced Mn(II/HI) and Fe(II) may serve as electron donors for Np reduction.
Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Banaszak, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.
Date: November 1, 2004
Creator: Hanosh, Don L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

Description: Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.
Date: March 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Chemical, Physical, and Biological Investigation of the Total Suspended and Dissolved Substances in Lake Dallas with Emphasis on Sanitation

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the suspended organic matter and the total phosphorus in the waters of Lake Dallas and to evaluate these findings. Since organic matter floating in lakes is largely composed of minute plants, animals, and detritus derived from animals and plants, the fertilizing effect of phosphorus must be considered as an integral part of this problem.
Date: 1942
Creator: Eads, Ewin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Investigation of Algae and Common Tastes and Odors in Fresh Water

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to isolate and grow algae common to the southwest in unialgal culture; to either sustain or grow one of the principal bloom-causing organisms, with emphasis on Microcystis aeruginosa; to isolate and culture actinomycetes from the same waters from which the algae were obtained; and to inoculate these algae with actinomycetes and determine their effects through development and deterioration.
Date: 1956
Creator: Harmon, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Metabolic Flux Analysis of Shewanella spp. Reveals Evolutionary Robustness in Central Carbon Metabolism

Description: Shewanella spp. are a group of facultative anaerobic bacteria widely distributed in marine and fresh-water environments. In this study, we profiled the central metabolic fluxes of eight recently sequenced Shewanella species grown under the same condition in minimal med-ium with [3-13C] lactate. Although the tested Shewanella species had slightly different growth rates (0.23-0.29 h31) and produced different amounts of acetate and pyruvate during early exponential growth (pseudo-steady state), the relative intracellular metabolic flux distributions were remarkably similar. This result indicates that Shewanella species share similar regulation in regard to central carbon metabolic fluxes under steady growth conditions: the maintenance of metabolic robustness is not only evident in a single species under genetic perturbations (Fischer and Sauer, 2005; Nat Genet 37(6):636-640), but also observed through evolutionary related microbial species. This remarkable conservation of relative flux profiles through phylogenetic differences prompts us to introduce the concept of metabotype as an alternative scheme to classify microbial fluxomics. On the other hand, Shewanella spp. display flexibility in the relative flux profiles when switching their metabolism from consuming lactate to consuming pyruvate and acetate.
Date: August 19, 2009
Creator: Tang, Yinjie J.; Martin, Hector Garcia; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Llora, Xavier; Meadows, Adam et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNEP in 2001

Description: The UNEP annual report highlights the various UNEP activities for the year 2001. The report pays particular attention to the Johannesburg (South Africa) meeting on sustainable development.
Date: 2002
Creator: United Nations Environment Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries

UNEP 2000 Annual Report

Description: The UNEP annual report provides an overview of UNEP's activities for the year of 2000. The report also reflects on the possible challenges that the new millennium "the Environment Millennium" may bring.
Date: 2001
Creator: United Nations Environment Programme
Partner: UNT Libraries

Freshwater Flow Charts - 1995

Description: This report covers the following: (1) Explanation of Charts Showing Freshwater Flow in 1995; (2) Estimated U.S. Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (3) Estimated California Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); (4) Estimated New Mexico Freshwater Flow in 1995 (chart); and (5) Web locations and credits.
Date: November 21, 2003
Creator: Kaiper, G V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.
Date: November 17, 2006
Creator: Knox, A & Michael Paller, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Reliable Water for the 21st Century (Paper#69880)

Description: It is well recognized that half the countries in the world will face significant fresh water shortages in the next 20 years, due largely to growing populations and increased agricultural and industrial demands. These shortages will significantly limit economic growth, decrease the quality of life and human health for billions of people, and could potentially lead to violence and conflict over securing scarce supplies of water. These concerns are not limited to the water-poor countries, of course, as many parts of China and the US face similar problems. Such problems can be exacerbated by fluctuating imbalances between need and supply, poor management practices, and pollution. The future is one that will require significant scientific and technological advances in conservation, preservation, and movement of fresh water, as well as in the development of new or alternative supplies. As an example, these issues are discussed in terms of California, and a case study related to the scientific issues associated with a groundwater banking project in Southern California is provided.
Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Tompson, A F B; Hudson, G B & Maxwell, R M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department