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Poststructuralist Critical Rhetorical Analysis as a Problem Analysis Tool: A Case Study of Information Impact in Denton’s Hydraulic Fracturing Debate

Description: Energy and the natural environment are central concerns among stakeholders across the globe. Decisions on this scale often require interaction among a myriad of institutions and individuals who navigate a complex variety of challenges. In Denton, Texas in 2014, voters were asked to make such a decision when tasked with a referendum to determine whether the city would continue to allow hydraulic fracturing activity within its borders. For social scientists, this situation requires further analysis in an effort to better understand how and why individuals make the decisions they do. One possible approach for exploring this process is a method of poststructuralist critical rhetorical analysis, which is concerned with how individuals’ identities change through interaction with institutions. This study reflects upon the texts themselves through a poststructuralist critical rhetorical analysis of images employed by those in favor of and those against Denton’s ban on hydraulic fracturing in an attempt to identify images that alter the grid of intelligibility for the audience. The paper includes deliberation about the relative merits, subsequent disadvantages, and possible questions for further study as they relate to the theoretical implications of critical rhetorical analysis as information science. Ultimately, the study identifies poststructuralist critical rhetorical analysis as a method for solving information science problems in a way that considers closely the way identity is shaped through engagement with institutions.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Sykes, Jason
Partner: UNT Libraries

3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

Description: The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: La Pointe, Paul; Parney, Robert; Eiben, Thorsten; Dunleavy, Mike; Whitney, John & Eubanks, Darrel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

Description: The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Pointe, La; Paul; Parney, Robert; Eiben, Thorsten; Dunleavy, Mike & Whitney, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

Description: The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: La Pointe, Paul R. & Hermanson, Jan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

Description: The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan & Eiben, Thorsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TEM Study of Fracturing in Spherical and Plate-like LiFePO4Particles

Description: An investigation of fracturing in LiFePO{sub 4} particles as a function of the particle morphology and history is presented. Two types of samples, one subjected to electrochemical cycling and another to chemical delithiation are compared. We observe the formation of micro fractures parallel to low indexed lattice planes in both samples. The fracture surfaces are predominantly parallel to (100) planes in the chemically delithiated powder and (100) and (010) planes in the electrochemically cycled powder. A consideration of the threshold stresses for dislocation glide shows that particle geometry plays an important role in the observed behavior.
Date: December 20, 2007
Creator: Gabrisch, H.; Wilcox, J. & Doeff, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture Pattern of the Zuni Uplift: Final Report

Description: Abstract: The objectives of this study have been to determine the nature of the major fracture pattern of the Zuni uplift; to analyze this pattern for evidence of the mode of origin of the uplift; and to compare the fracturing in the ore areas with that elsewhere on the uplift to see whether diagnostic features exist hat might make it possible to indicate other favorable areas.
Date: June 1953
Creator: Gilkey, Arthur K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.

Description: The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the Safety & Environmental Performance of Hydraulic Fracturing

Description: This website describes the activities of the Natural Gas Subcommittee of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board in determining the potential role of natural gas in clean energy. It includes information about their goals; reports, hearings, and external resources; public comments; and related documentation.
Date: 2011-11~
Creator: United States. Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Natural Gas Subcommittee.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of effects of hydraulic fracturing using reservoir and well flow simulation

Description: This paper presents a method to predict and evaluate effects of hydraulic fracturing jobs by using reservoir and well flow numerical simulation. The concept of the method i5 that steam production rate at the operating well head pressure is predicted with different fracture conditions which would be attained by the hydraulic fracturing jobs. Then, the effects of the hydraulic fracturing is evaluated by comparing the predicted steam production rate and that before the hydraulic fracturing. This course of analysis will suggest how large fracture should be created by the fracturing job to attain large enough increase in steam production at the operating condition and the best scheme of the hydraulic fracturing job.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Hanano, Mineyuki & Kondo, Tayuki
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of geomechanical proceses during injection in amultilayered reservoir-caprock system and implications on sitecharacterization

Description: In this paper we present results of a numerical simulationof the potential for fault reactivation and hydraulic fracturingassociated with CO2 injection in a multilayered reservoir-caprock system,and discuss its implications on site characterization. The numericalsimulation is performed using the coupled processes simulator TOUGH-FLAC(Rutqvist et al. 2002, Rutqvist and Tsang, 2003), and is an extension ofearlier numerical studies of a single caprock system (Rutqvist and Tsang,2002). In this study, CO2 is injected for 30 years in a 200 meter thickpermeable saline water formation located at 1600 meters depth (Figure 1).The injection formation is overlaid by several layers of caprocks, whichare intersected by a permeable fault zone allowing upward migration ofthe CO2 within the multilayered system (see Table 1 for materialproperties). The potential for fault slip or fracturing are calculated,based on the time-dependent evolution and local distribution of fluidpressure and the three-dimensional stress field, including importantporo-elastic stresses.The numerical results are discussed with respect tothe site-characterization strategy that would be recommended forevaluation of maximum sustainable injection pressure at an industrial CO2injection site.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens & Tsang, Chin-Fu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Denton Fracking Referendum Project

Description: Collection of harvested webpages that relate to the a November 4, 2014 proposition calling for the prohibition of hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking", within the city limits of Denton, Texas. This referendum was passed by voters and was the first permanent ban on fracking in the state of Texas. These webpages document news and viewpoints related to the fracking ban from late 2014.
Date: 2014
Creator: University of North Texas. Libraries.
Partner: UNT Libraries Digital Projects Unit

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

Description: This project attempts to demonstrate the effectivensss of exploiting thin-layered, low energy deposits at the distal margin of a propagating turbinite complex through u se of hydraulically fractgured horizontal of high-angle wells. TGhe combinaton of a horizontal or high-angle weoo and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore.
Date: February 5, 1998
Creator: Laue, Mike L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

Description: This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low energy deposits at the distal end of a protruding turbidite complex through use of hydraulically fractured horizontal of high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the well bore.
Date: May 29, 1998
Creator: Laue, Mike L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

Description: This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a propagating turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angled well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thininterbedded layers and the well bore.
Date: May 8, 1997
Creator: Laue, Mike L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

Description: Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. W.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Howard, C. L. & Roberts, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

Description: The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs ...
Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Laue, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF): Recent advances

Description: The objectives of this project are: (1)Investigate fluid rheological behavior, dynamic fluid leak-off behavior, and proppant transport characteristics of various fracturing fluids used for stimulating oil and gas bearing formations. (2) Develop new information for characterizing the behavior of fracturing fluids under conditions more representative of the behavior in actual fractures. (3) Continue utilizing the advanced capabilities of the high pressure simulator (HPS) to perform near-term research and development activities and not to construct a large-scale simulator that was proposed originally. This paper describes equipment enhancements, data acquisition and instrumentation upgrades, R&D test results, and future research planned for the Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Shah, S.N. & Fagan, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expertise Revisited: Reflecting on the Intersection of Science and Democracy in the Case of Fracking

Description: This dissertation aims to explain the conditions under which expertise can undermine democratic decision making. I argue that the root of the conflict between expertise and democracy lies in what I call insufficiently “representative” expertise – that is forms of scientific research that are not relevant to the policy questions at hand and that fail to make visible their hidden values dimensions. I claim that the scholarly literature on the problem of expertise fails to recognize and address the issue correctly, because it does not open the black box of scientific methodologies. I maintain that only by making sense of the methodological choices of experts in the context of policy making can we determine the relevance of research and reveal the hidden socio-political values and consequences. Using the case of natural gas fracking, I demonstrate how expert contributions – even though epistemically sound – can muddle democratic policy processes. I present four case studies from controversies about fracking to show how to contextualize scientific methodologies in the pertinent political process. I argue that the common problem across all case studies is the failure of expertise to sufficiently represent stakeholders’ problems and concerns. In this context, “representation” has three criteria: (1) the operational research questions on which the qualified experts work are relevant to stakeholders’ problems and concerns; (2) the non-epistemic values and consequences of epistemic choices of experts are compatible with social and political values and priorities; and (3) hidden values attached to facts are fully transparent and openly debated. In the conclusion, I propose a normative version of this representation theory that can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of expertise for democratic policy making. Instead of the value-free science ideal, I propose a new ideal to legitimately allow non-epistemic values in scientific reasoning without compromising the soundness of ...
Date: December 2015
Creator: Ahmadi, Mahdi
Partner: UNT Libraries

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

Description: The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.
Date: September 13, 2007
Creator: Moore, Jeffrey R. & Glaser, Steven D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES FOR OPTIMIZED MEOR IN SHALLOW HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

Description: The objective of this research project is to demonstrate an economically viable and sustainable method of producing shallow heavy oil reserves in western Missouri and southeastern Kansas, using an integrated approach including surface geochemical surveys, conventional MEOR treatments, horizontal fracturing in vertical wells, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and reservoir simulation to optimize the recovery process. The objective also includes transferring the knowledge gained from the project to other local landowners, to demonstrate how they may identify and develop their own heavy oil resources with minimal capital investment. Tasks completed in the first six-month period include soil sampling, geochemical analysis, construction of ERT arrays, collection of background ERT surveys, and analysis of core samples to develop a geomechanical model for designing the hydraulic fracturing treatment. Five wells were to be drilled in phase I. However, weather and funding delays resulted in drilling shifting to the second phase of the project. Work performed to date demonstrates that surface geochemical methods can be used to differentiate between productive and non-productive areas of the Warner Sand and that ERT can be used to successfully image through the Warner Sand.
Date: September 5, 2003
Creator: Dunn-Norman, Shari
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

Description: Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

Description: Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown ...
Date: December 31, 2009
Creator: Sharma, Mukul & Friehauf, Kyle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department